Guide to the Shanghai Collection,
1924-1950 (bulk 1939-1948)
RG 243

Nokhem Kantorowicz, Solomon Rabinowitz, and Stanislav Pejša (revision in 2003)

YIVO Institute for Jewish Research

Center for Jewish History

15 West 16th Street

New York, NY 10011

Phone: (212) 246-6080

Fax: (212) 292-1892

Email: archives@yivo.cjh.org

URL: http://www.yivoinstitute.org

© 2003 YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. All rights reserved.
Center for Jewish History, Publisher.
Machine-readable finding aid created by Faige Lederman as Word document Shanghai Collection 1926-1948 in August 2003. Electronic finding aid converted to EAD 2002 by Stanislav Pejša in October 2003. Description is in English.

Descriptive Summary

Creator: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research
Title: Shanghai Collection
Dates:1924-1950
Dates:bulk 1939-1948
Abstract: The collection relates to the life of Jewish refugees, mostly of German and Austrian origin, in Shanghai primarily between the years 1939-1948. It covers many aspects of their experience, including political and cultural events, relief and charity activities, and self-help. The collection originated from the YIVO exhibition that was organized and displayed in 1947 in Shanghai and later in New York. The collection consists of manuscripts, minutes of meetings, correspondence, newspaper clippings, and printed materials.
Languages: The collection is primarily in German, English, and Russian. Some documents are in French, Yiddish, Japanese, Chinese, Polish, and Lithuanian. Some items are annotated in Yiddish.
Quantity: 5.5 linear feet and a map drawer
Accession number: RG 243
Repository: YIVO Archives
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Historical Note

Shanghai had a small number of Jewish inhabitants in the 19th century. These are said to have been mainly of Sephardic origin, from Baghdad and Egypt. After 1917 a number of Russian Jews made their way to the Far East, mainly to Tientsin (Tianjin), Harbin, and Shanghai. In 1932 the Ashkenazi Jewish Communal Association was established under the leadership of Rabbi Meyer Ashkenazi to represent the interests of Russian and later also Polish and Lithuanian Jews in Shanghai. Between 1904-1939 there were three synagogues in Shanghai.

After Kristallnacht of November 9, 1938 the "open city" of Shanghai became a relatively promising and hopeful destination for German and Austrian Jews. Because of the specific international status of the port of Shanghai the refugees did not need either a visa or passport to enter, just a boarding pass for a ship or a train across Siberia. Once in Shanghai German and Austrian refugees founded the Jewish Community of Central European Jews in 1939. In December 1946 the Community had a membership of 11,586 persons, a synagogue, two rabbis, 7 cantors, a school and Hebrew classes for adults.

Life in Shanghai certainly was not easy, but the refugees were able to continue their lives under relatively free conditions. The period of limited freedom ended after the Japanese administration issued "the Proclamation concerning Restrictions of Residence and Business of the Stateless Refugees" of February 18, 1943. The proclamation forced the refugees who arrived in Shanghai after 1939, i.e. mostly from Germany and Austria, into a ghetto. The law generally did not affect those Russian Jews who in their majority had come to Shanghai after the Bolshevik coup in 1917. This created some tension within the Shanghai Jewish population. Several Polish refugees tried to avoid confinement in the ghetto on the grounds that they were Polish citizens and not stateless refugees, but the Japanese administration disregarded their claims. Joseph Almintz, Berish Abramowitch, Alexander Alperson, Hirsh Proshker, and Theodore Finkelstein were put to death for their opposition.

According to the Bulletin of the Shanghai Ashkenazic Collaborating Relief Association (SACRA) No. 3 of April 30, 1943, there were 13,511 registered "stateless" émigrés from Germany and Austria, 1,234 from Poland, 212 from Czechoslovakia refugees, 167 from other countries, and 218 were not identified at that time.

After creation of the ghetto the Japanese administration initiated the Shanghai Ashkenazic Collaborating Relief Association (SACRA). SACRA was theoretically headed by the Russian Jews who were exempt from residence in the Ghetto, but was controlled de facto by the Japanese officials, namely Ghoya and the Director General of Japanese Bureau of Stateless Refugee Affairs Tsutomu Kubota.

However, the refugees tried to go on with their lives even in the difficult conditions of the ghetto. Various religious and cultural organizations attempted to ease the situation of the refugees. The ghetto was officially abolished in August 1945.

Life in liberated Shanghai was marked by the preparations for re-emigration and resettlement. By the end of March 1946 the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) registered 15, 511 displaced persons in Shanghai out of which 87% were Jews. Some refugees opted for Palestine and Israel, some returned to the countries of their origin and others decided to leave for the Americas, mostly the United States.

Cultural, Political, and Religious Life in Shanghai

There were several different educational institutions, a German radio program, press, bookstores and circulating libraries, theatre performances and concerts. An article in the English supplement of Undzer Lebn from May 19, 1944 lists 9 bookstores and private circulating libraries, all owned by German Jews: Das Gute Buch, Everyman's Library, Fahrender, Buecherwagen, Hermes, Lion Bookshop, Minerva Library, Nathan's Library, and Wright and Vogel. In addition to that, several organizations maintained their own libraries.

The oldest Jewish newspapers were Mevasser Yisrael (Israel's Messenger) in English (1904-1941) in Shanghai and Evreiskoe slovo, a monthly, in Russian, in Harbin (January-February 1918). The list of Jewish periodicals in Shanghai compiled by Usher Rozenbes for YIVO lists 46 periodicals, out of which 16 were published before 1937. The list is in folder 52. Among the most prominent newspapers in Shanghai were a weekly Undzer Lebn (Our Life), published in Russian and Yiddish since May 1941 and with an English supplement in 1942-1945; bi-weekly and later monthly Mevasser Yisrael published in English by the Zionist organization; bi-weekly and later daily Die Gelbe Post (The Yellow Post) in German; the weekly The Jewish Voice (earlier Jüdisches Nachrichtenblatt, which was earlier Gemeindeblatt für die Jüdisches Kultus-Gemeinde) published in German from (1939) 1940-1946; and the Shanghai Jewish Chronicle a weekly issued from May 5, 1939 to October 1945 when it turned into the daily Shanghai Echo.

The Shanghai rabbinate was founded in 1939. The rabbis and other religious representatives of refugees were organized in two associations, the Ihud Rabanim and the Kolel Kovno-Vilna with a combined membership of 80. There were six Jewish cemeteries in Shanghai overseen either by Chevra Kadisha or another burial society. The Shanghai Hebrew Relief Society and Shelter House, originally founded in 1916 by both Ashenazic and Sephardic Jews to support the poor, played an important role within the Shanghai refugee community. In 1943 Shelter House accommodated 47 people. The society also supported a kitchen that provided free meals for 300 people and meals at reduced prices for 100.

The origins of Zionist organization in Shanghai can be traced back to the Sephardic community that founded the first Zionist organization there in 1904. In 1939 the General Zionist Organization "Theodor Herzl" was founded. It had 1,686 members in 1941. Several other Zionist organizations were founded, but after the declaration of the Ghetto they all united into the Zionist Organization Shanghai (ZOS) in September 1943. After the war ended the movement split and several new organizations were established, as for instance The Women's International Zionist Organization (WIZO), Poale Zion and others. The Jewish Labour Bund of Shanghai was founded in 1941 by Polish and Russian émigrés. Under the difficult conditions of the ghetto regime political activities often had to be disguised as cultural or religious events, since the Japanese authorities tried to suppress them.

YIVO Curatorial Activity and the exhibition in Shanghai in 1947

In the beginning of 1946, the Yiddish Scientific Institute (YIVO) in New York appealed to the refugees in Shanghai to gather materials for the YIVO Archives. A committee of Friends of YIVO, representing all sectors of Jewish life, was formed in Shanghai. In an appeal to the Jews of Shanghai, the committee stated:

""The Friends of YIVO appeal to you, Jews of Shanghai, Ashkenazic, Sephardic, and recent arrivals, to help us in our momentous task. Help us to compile the history of The Jews in Shanghai by gathering materials and documents, photographs and other objects reflecting our life in the Far East, our cultural, economic, religious and social achievements in Shanghai. Please bear in mind that every newspaper and photograph, the least note, seemingly trivial, is important to us. Bring it to us.""

The Committee of Friends of YIVO displayed the items at an exhibition in Shanghai in October 1947, later in New York, together with documents and artifacts collected by the YIVO staff, and various later donations it has become the Shanghai Collection at YIVO.

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Scope and Content Note

The Shanghai collection documents the everyday life of Jewish refugees in Shanghai between 1939-1948. The newspaper clippings, personal correspondence (Series IV, V), and organizational records (Series I, II) provide insights in the actual lives of refugees. Together with posters and concert programs, as well as various forms, applications and identification documents, they evoke the experiences of the Shanghai refugee community during the war and afterwards. Most of the documents that relate to the political life in Shanghai originate in the post-war period. In addition, many artifacts, such as the arm-band of the Shanghai Vigilance Corps or badges the refugees had to wear when leaving the ghetto, are also part of the collection.

The memoirs of the educator and later principal of the Shanghai private business school, Wilhelm Deman, "The Lost Decade" in Series V, contribute to better comprehension of the experience in the refugee community in Shanghai as well. The manuscript of Manfred Rosenfeld provides researchers with a history of the Jewish population in Shanghai.

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Arrangement

The collection is divided into seven series arranged by topic.

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Access and Use

Access Restrictions

Open to researchers.

Use Restrictions

There may be some restrictions on the use of the collection. For more information, contact

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Related Material

See also the collections of HIAS-HICEM - Subgroup Far East RG 245.4.15, Leo Gershevitch Collection RG 273, and Microfilm reel MKM 15.56A of the HIAS - Shanghai Office.

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Separated Material

Photographs in the Shanghai Collection were removed and are part of the YIVO Territorial Photographic Collection RG 120.

Two film reels were removed to the Film Collection where they were registered as Films 218 and 219. They were reformatted to VHS-format.

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Other Finding Aids

There is a catalogue to the exhibition "Jewish Life in Shanghai. September 1848 - January 1949."

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Provenance

At the suggestion of Usher Rozenbes, a cofounder and secretary of the Shanghai YIVO Committee, the Friends of YIVO arranged an exhibition "Eight Years: Jewish Refugees in Shanghai, 1939-1945" in October and November 1947. That is where the core of the collection originated from. Other items were collected by Yoni Fein and Yosl Mlotek (earlier working at YIVO) who were awarded Research Training Division fellowships (Aspiratur) to document the Jewish communities in the Far East. The first results of their collecting and curatorial activity arrived at the New York YIVO office in 1946. The exhibition in Shanghai was subsequently shipped to YIVO in New York and displayed and later stored there.

Later on other material was added. Among others "The history of the Jews in Shanghai" was donated by Usher Rozenbes.

Mrs. Barbash donated materials of Boris S. Barbash on May 5, 1954.

The notepad with texts for broadcasting in Yiddish on the Radio station XMHA was the gift of David Marcus.

In October 1990 Henry C. Bacharach, a former administrator in a refugee camp in Shanghai, donated several documents, including his personal papers.

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Microfilm

This collection has been microfilmed and is available on five Microfilm reels MK 501.1 to MK 501.5.

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Preferred Citation

Published citations should take the following form:

Identification of item, date (if known); YIVO Archives, Shanghai Collection, RG 243, folder number.

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Processing Information

This collection was originally processed by Nokhem Kantorowicz in 1948. The microfilm was prepared by Solomon Rabinowitz with the assistance of a grant from the S.H. and Helen Scheuer Family foundation in 1991. The finding aid was revised by Stanislav Pejša in 2003. While this finding aid tries to recreate the logical and intellectual content of the collection, the microfilm follows the physical arrangement of folders in the collection. The container list provides both pieces of information.

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Container List

 

Series I: Shanghai Ghetto, 1943-1945

The series is in German, English, and Chinese.
Arrangement:

Arranged alphabetically by folder title.

Scope and Content:

This series documents the Jewish communities in Shanghai after the declaration of the ghetto, the organization of self-help, housing issues, security and policing of the community. Among the organizations that played a significant role in this respect were the Shanghai Ashkenazi Jewish Collaborating Relief Association (SACRA) and Kitchen-Fund that administered services in the camps. Kitchen-Fund was established in August 1942 at the initiative of the American Joint Jewish Distribution Committee, the Kehilla and HIAS, besides the aforementioned institutions, it also administered a kindergarten and an orphanage.

The series also includes press clippings on the declaration of a restricted area for the Jewish refugees, February 18, 1943, and its revocation in August 17, 1945.

The minutes of the Housing Committee of SACRA are particularly illustrative of the daily issues of the Shanghai Jewish immigrant population. It also contains several city plans of the Shanghai ghetto.

FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
222/162Caricature by Friedrich Melchior "Ghoya der König der Juden"n.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
232/164Caricatures by Friedrich Melchior of Ghoya arranged like a comic strip1945
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
17Individual declarations by refugees in Shanghai to the effect that declarants are not subject to the Proclamation of 1943 by Japanese occupying forces and do not have to move to the ghetto. Most of the declarations have photos. 200 p. [Arranged in 2 folders:]
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
17/I1/953Individual declarations by refugees in Shanghai, pp. 1-911943
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
17/II1/1069Individual declarations by refugees in Shanghai, pp. 92-2001943
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
212/155Jewish Police Auxiliary and Civilian Anti-Aircraft Defense Announcements1943, 1945
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
18Kitchen-Fund. Lists of 189 employees in the ghetto administration. The lists are followed by identification cards. [Arranged in 7 folders:]
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
18/VI2/54Administration Employeesn.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
18/VII 2/68Camp-Guards - Employeesn.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
18/IV 2/35Clerical Employeesn.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
18/V 2/39Clerical Employeesn.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
18/I 2/1Employeesn.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
18/II2/12Employeesn.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
18/III2/19Medical and Hospital Personneln.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
111/626Proclamation by Japanese authorities establishing the ghetto. Newspaper clippings in English and German from February 18, 1943. Maps delineating ghetto boundaries, also nullification of proclamation, August 18, 1945. An envelope containing metal identity tags1943, 1945
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
12 1/649Shanghai Ashkenazi Collaborating Relief Organization (SACRA). Contains a typescript, incomplete. In English, pp. 16-29n.d., 1943, 1944
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
141/812Shanghai Ashkenazi Collaborating Relief Organization. Central Board. Minutes of 18 sessions, typewritten. In English, 79 p.1944 June 6-1945 July 16
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
15 1/893Shanghai Ashkenazi Collaborating Relief Organization. Finance Committee. Minutes of 15 sessions, typewritten. In English, 40 p.1944 Apr. 24-1944 Apr. 28
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
161/940Shanghai Ashkenazi Collaborating Relief Organization. Housing Committee minutes of 4 sessions, typewritten. In English, 13 p.1944 Apr. 24-1944 June 22
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
13 1/691Shanghai Ashkenazi Collaborating Relief Organization. Presidium and committees. Minutes of 40 sessions, typewritten. In English, 116 p. 1943 Feb. 28-1944 Mar. 22
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Series II: Communal Organizations and Activities, 1927-1948

This series is in German, Russian, English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Chinese.
Arrangement:

Arranged alphabetically by series title.

Scope and Content:

This series contains material on the social, political, educational, and religious situation of the Jewish refugees in Shanghai during and after the Second World War. Various financial and activities reports, documents pertaining to the activities of synagogues, Zionist organizations, professional associations, but also charity and relief bodies. There are various lists of donors, applications for food and other items in this series. The documents found here range from voting ballots and voting tickets, forms, invitations to cultural events, to personal documents.

The series also contains three address books of refugees in Shanghai. While book 1 is an index of names, books 2 and 3 contain addresses of 1,511 refugees, their occupation and place of origin.

Two films are also part of this series documenting a celebration or meeting in the former Shanghai ghetto.

Subseries 1: General, 1932-1948

This subseries is in German, Russian, English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Chinese.
Arrangement:

Arranged alphabetically by folder title.

Scope and Content:

The Shanghai Ashkenazi Jewish Communal Association and the Jewish Community of Central European Jews (Jüdische Gemeinde) tried to represent the refugees according to their region of origin. While the Jews from Russia, Poland, and Lithuania were organized in the Shanghai Ashkenazi Jewish Communal Association, refugees registered with the Jewish Community of Central European Jews came from Austria, Germany, and Czechoslovakia. Other associations brought together refugees from the same countries or with the same occupation, gender or age.

Two short films depicting a meeting or celebration, likely a Zionist one, are included in this subseries. The movies were shot after the war probably in 1945 or 1946 and the length of the movies is 3' 50'' and 2'30''. They were removed to the YIVO Film collection where they were registered as Film #218 and #219.

FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
34 2/869Association of Central European Physicians n.d., 1940, 1945
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
46 3/168B'nai B'rith Shanghai. Agenda for meeting and admission ticket for Purim play in 1941 1941, 1947
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
45 3/163Frauenbund Jüdischen Gemeinde in Shanghai (League of Jewish Women of the Jewish Community in Shanghai). Description of functions1947 Feb. 12
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
31 2/579 Jewish Chamber of Commercen.d., 1941-1947
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
39 2/1031 Jewish Clubs: Shanghai Jewish Club - announcements, reports; Jewish Educational Aid Society - admission tickets to ball in 1937; Jewish Recreation Club - by-laws, anniversary program 1948, admission tickets 1937-1948
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
10 1/599 Jewish Community of Central European Jews (Jüdische Gemeinde)1941-47
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
44 3/84 Jewish Youth Organization: Jewish Sports Clubs; Jewish Youth in Distress; Boy Scouts1942, 1945-1947
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
53 3/629Organization of Jewish Journalists from Central Europe. Program of a function194-?
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
9 1/542 Shanghai Ashkenazi Jewish Communal Organization 1932-1947
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
19 2/92Shanghai United Jewish Committee of Communal Representatives1942 Sept. 9
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
4 1/163Three address books of refugees in Shanghai. Handwritten. pp. 1-97; pp. 99-169; pp. 170-263. 1938-1942
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
65 4/163Various commercial announcements and circulars, wedding invitations, greeting cards, list of arrested refugeesn.d., 1937-1946
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
20 2/95 Various identity cards 1940-1943
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
24 2 films of a celebration in former Shanghai Ghetto (removed to the Film Collection) 1945 or 1946

Subseries 2: Cultural and Educational Activities, 1929-1947

This subseries is in German, English, Russian, Yiddish, Polish, Chinese, and French.
Arrangement:

Arranged alphabetically by folder title.

Scope and Content:

This subseries testifies to the effort of the Jewish refugees to maintain a regular cultural and educational life, even in the restricted conditions of Ghetto life available to émigrés and later of the ghetto. The subseries contains correspondence of the various Jewish educational institutions in Shanghai both religious and secular. Besides programs and invitations to concerts, recitations, and other entertainments, a notebook with text for the Yiddish broadcast of the Shanghai radio XMHA is part of the collection as well. The XMHA station was part of the NBC broadcasting network then.

In 1941 the Shanghai division of ORT (Obshchestvo Rasprostraneniia Truda sredi Evreev, Society for Spreading Work Among Jews) was established in Shanghai to teach the refugees trades and skills. It educated 876 students from September 1941 until July 1945. Another 164 students were registered in extension courses and 145 in an engineering course. The total number of students was 1185. From the end of the war until April 1947 another 1245 students enrolled.

FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
55 3/670 Jewish Artists in Shanghai. Membership cards, notices of exhibition. Certificate of incorporation1939-1943, 1947
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
58 3/888Orchestral and instrumental concerts. Programs, tickets, announcements, posters1939 - 1944
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
33 2/813 ORT - China. Correspondence, minutes, mini-posters, newspaper clippings, brochure of ORT service in China 1941-1947
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
54 3/633 Radio broadcasts in Yiddish, Shanghai, Radio station XMHA, 39 pp. and 7 pp. Clipping from a weekly The Word from November 11, 1941. In Yiddish1941 Nov. - Dec.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
51 3/533 Secular Jewish schools in Shanghai1929, 1930, 1941-1947
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
50 3/510Religious Schools and Yeshivasn.d., 1941
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
56 3/711Theater performances, concerts, recitals. Programs, announcements, posters. In English, German, Yiddish1939-1943
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
57 3/760 Theater performances, concerts, recitals. Programs, tickets of admission 1937, 1939-1947
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
59 3/974Various entertainments and celebrations. Programs, announcements. In English, German, Polish, Russiann.d., 1939-1940, 1946

Subseries 3: Political Activities, 1930-1947

This subseries is in German, English, Russian, Yiddish, Chinese, and Japanese.
Arrangement:

Arranged alphabetically by folder title.

Scope and Content:

This subseries includes material on political activities of the Shanghai community. The Japanese authorities tried to suppress all openly political activities of the refugees, so they often had to be disguised as cultural or religious events; thus this series also includes tickets to concerts, balls, amd religious events. Most of the documents originate in the post-war period. The elections for the 22nd Zionist Congress on October 27, 1946 particularly stimulated political activities of the refugees in Shanghai.

FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
30 2/565Jewish Labor Bund. Reports and announcements1941, 1945-1946
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
29Zionist organizations in Shanghai [Arranged in 9 folders:]
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
29/V 2/411 Brith-Noar-Zioni (Zionist Youth)1943, 1945-1946
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
29/IX 2/553Coordinated Committee for United Zionist Action. Posters1945
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
29/IV 2/399 Habonim, Labor Zionist Youth1947
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
29/VIII 2/514Jewish National Fund. Programs, announcements, receipt book1946-1947
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
29/III 2/392Kadimah announcements1930, 1939, 1941
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
29/VI 2/433Poale Zion (Labor Zionists)1936, 1946-1947
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
29/I 2/334Women's International Zionist Organization (WIZO) of Shanghai. Formal Report on activities. Photograph of executive committee1945
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
29/VII 2/466 Zionist Organization of Shanghai. Correspondence, announcements, brochures 1940, 1943-1946
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
29/II 2/344Zionist Revisionists 1934, 1936, 1945-1947

Subseries 4: Relief Activities, 1931-1944

This subseries is in German, English, Russian, Polish, and Chinese.
Arrangement:

Arranged alphabetically by folder title.

Scope and Content:

The Shanghai Hebrew Relief Society and Shelter House played an important role in the Shanghai refugee community. This organization was originally founded in 1916 by both Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jews in order to support the poor. Other relief organizations that addressed refugees from specific cultures are to be found in this series, as well. In 1941 the Russian émigrés founded the Committee for Assistance of Jewish Refugees from Eastern Europe – EASTJEWCOM. The Committee centralized the relief activities for refugees for the benefit of mostly refugees from Poland and Lithuania.

For the refugees from Central Europe was essential activity of the International Committee for Granting Relief to European refugees; known also as I.C., International Committee for Organization of European Immigrants in China; or simply Komor Committee, named after one of its leaders Paul Komor.

The postcards sent by the Judenrat in Warsaw to the HICEM office in Shanghai via Siberia requesting gift food packages for specified individuals are also included in this subseries.

The material in the folder American Jewish Welfare Organization reflects the post-war activities in Shanghai organized by various relief organizations, such as the American Jewish Welfare Organization or the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.

FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
38 2/1011Agencies: International Committee for Granting Relief to European Refugees; Committee for the Assistance of European Jewish Refugees in Shanghai; Relief Society for German and Austrian Jews1938-1944
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
634/84American Jewish Welfare Organization in Shanghai after World War II. Vaad Haatzala, American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, Jewish Welfare Board1945-1946
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
37 2/970 Committee for Assistance to Jewish Refugees from Eastern Europe. Includes a yellow badge of the Shanghai Ghetto1941-1943
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
64 4/162HICEM - Shanghai Office. Postcards sent by Judenrat of Warsaw ghetto with requests for assistance1941 June, 1941 Aug.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
36 2/938 Loans. Pamphlets and announcementsn.d., 1933-1935, 1941
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
42 3/3 Relief activities in Shanghai. Distribution lists, lists of contributors and donors of various forms of relief and self-help, also contains letters to the Japanese authorities from the Jüdische Gemeinde about organizing the work force of the refugees.1941-1943
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
43 3/45Relief and charitable activities in Shanghai. Benefit undertakings, fund-raising events for various charitable causes. Admission tickets. Programs1939-1946
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
35 2/879 Shanghai Hebrew Relief Society. Committee membership lists, 1926-1942, financial statements, speech on activities1931-1943
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
40 2/1096 Shanghai Organization of Jewish Refugees from Poland 1943
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
41 3/1 Union of Jewish War Invalids. Shanghai1941

Subseries 5: Religious Activities, 1927-1947

This subseries is in German, Russian, and English.
Arrangement:

Arranged alphabetically by folder title.

Scope and Content:

The Shanghai rabbinate was founded in 1939. Its members were J. Winter, W. Teichner (died in April 1942), G. Kantorowski, E. Silberstein (died in August 1946), Zeitin who was the representative of the rabbinate in the Bet-Din and K. Sober. The rabbis and other religious representatives of refugees were organized in two associations, the Ihud Rabanim and the Kolel Kovno-Vilna with a combined membership of 80 people.

The Association of Jewish Cantors was founded in 1939. At its peak it had 15 members; because of post-war emigration from Shanghai its membership decreased to 5 in 1947. The subseries also contains note about musical life of the refugees in shanghai and the organization's minutes, correspondence, and programs.

FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
27 2/266Agudas Israel1944
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
32 Association of Jewish Cantors [Arranged in 5 folders:]
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
32/II 2/632Correspondence1941
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
32/III 2/686Correspondence1942
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
32/IV 2/726Correspondence, membership card from 1940 and blank letterhead1940, 1943, 1945-1946
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
32/V 2/753 Minutes of meetings and essay on musical life in Shanghai in the years 1939 - 1945n.d., 1941 Mar. 23-1942 Mar. 9; 1944 July 13-1946
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
32/I 2/595 Programs of concerts, memoranda1940-1946
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
28 Chevra Kadisha [Arranged in 2 folders:]
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
28/I 2/274Chevra Kadisha, other burial societies and list of 74 deceased refugees n.d., 1937, 1940-1948
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
28/II 2/307Chevra Kadisha and other burial societies 1941-1944
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
25 2/172 Shanghai Rabbinate1942, 1945, 1947
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
26 2/191 Synagogues [Arranged in 5 folders:]
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
26/IV 2/218Admission tickets for High Holiday services, various synagogues. Also program of services 1941-1942
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
26/III 2/206Correspondence about liturgical matters1941
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
26/I 2/191 Ohel Moshe Synagogue. Souvenir program of a Siyum Hatorah1943
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
26/V 2/232 Ohel Moshe Synagogue. Correspondence and other materials1929-30, 1933, 1941-1944
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
26/II 2/195Ohel Rachel Synagogue. Financial Report; Erev Rosh Hodesh Special Prayer Service of Beth Aharon Synagogue1927, 1939
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Series III: Emigration to Shanghai, 1938-1948

This series is in German, English, and French.
Arrangement:

Alphabetical.

Scope and Content:

These materials document emigration both to Shanghai and from Shanghai to Israel. Some of the correspondence originates from the Emigration Department of the Viennese Jewish Community (Auswanderungsabteilung der Israelitischen Kultusgemeinde) and Jewish Agency in Jerusalem. Substantial parts are telegrams among Shanghai, Kobe, New York and Vilnius (Vilna) concerning the arrival of Yeshiva students and rabbis and visa for other mostly religious groups received by Ephraim (Frank) Newman. Other correspondence deals with repatriation and re-emigration of the refugees from Shanghai.

FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
473/174Emigration documents, correspondence of the Jüdische Gemeinde including: Israelitische Kultusgemeinde of Vienna; Jewish Agency in Jerusalem; miscellaneous letters to Siegmund Fischel (photocopies); HIAS correspondence and list of 892 émigrés from Shanghai to Israel on the ship "Wooster Victory"1938-1948
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
483/233Telegrams from and to Ephraim (Frank) Newman in Yokohama regarding emigration of yeshiva students and rabbis1940-1941
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
493/362Telegrams from and to Ephraim (Frank) Newman in Yokohama regarding emigration of yeshiva students and rabbis1941 Jan.-May
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Series IV: Newspapers, 1935-1948

This series is in German, English, Russian, and Yiddish.
Arrangement:

Topical.

Scope and Content:

This series contains newspaper clippings originally bound in three scrapbooks as well as several issues of Shanghai Jewish newspapers. The three scrapbooks contained 1784 clippings revealing information about all major issues of everyday life in Shanghai including health care, nutrition, employment opportunities, emigration, and regular day-to-day advice for refugees in Shanghai. The clippings mostly originate from the Shanghai Jewish Chronicle, 8-Uhr Blatt, and Gelbe Post, all published in German.

Scrapbooks 1 and 2 contain mostly articles, the third scrapbook is comprised of mostly notices of the I.C. (International Committee for Granting Relief to European Refugees) and other short announcements.

Other folders contain copies of individual Jewish periodicals published in Shanghai.

FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
664/204An anti-Jewish article issued by the Central News Agency1943 Feb. 15

A. Scrapbooks

FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
67/I 4/222 Articles1941 Jan. 23 - 1941 Sept. 28
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
67/II 4/466 Articles1940 July 5- 1941 Jan. 21
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
67/III 4/699Articles 1940 Sept. 11- 1942 May 10

B. Newspapers

FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
68/V 5/94 Jewish Chronicle 1942 Feb. 20, 1942 May 9, 1943 May 9
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
68/I 4/893 Neue Zeit 1946 Oct. 26, 1946 Oct. 27
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
68/VIII 5/141 Our Life. English Supplement, Russian Supplement1942 Nov. 24, 1943 Feb. 26, 1944 June 9, Nov. 10, 1944 Nov. 11
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
68/II 4/918Our Voice 1946 Oct. 28
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
68/VII 5/137Our World 1946 July 26
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
68/IX 5/155Rodina (The Fatherland). In Russian1941 Mar. 20
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
68/III 5/1 Shanghai Echo. In German1946 Oct. 20, 1946 Oct. 24, 1948 Oct. 17
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
68/IV 5/11 Shanghai Herald 1946 Apr.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
68/VI 5/132Shanghai Journal 1946
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
68/X 5/172Miscellaneous clippings - Loose. In English, German, Russian, Yiddish1935, 1939-1946
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
523/568Various. List of 46 periodicals published between 1904-1947 in Shanghai giving details of their publication compiled by Usher Rozenbes. In Yiddish. Chaverim-News. In German and English, mimeographed. July 1941, 4 pp.. In veg. In Yiddish, November 1941, 32 pp. An anthology of essays. Davar. In German and English, typed. 2 issues, July, August 1943. Leaflets, correspondence1941-1947
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Series V: Papers of Individuals, Personal Narratives and Memoirs, 1924-1950

This series is in German, English, Russian, French, and Chinese.
Arrangement:

Alphabetical by the last name of author.

Scope and Content:

Curt Heinz Bacharach was an administrator of one of the buildings in the Shanghai ghetto. The series contains original documents that pertain to the housing policy and conditions in Shanghai during the years 1944-1946. Documents issued by SACRA, the Kitchen Fund, and the Central Control Board for Refugee Relief Affairs are included in this folder. Besides this material several personal items of Carl Heinz Bacharach can be found here and several publications that were published after the war and relate to the Shanghai ghetto.

Boris S. Barbash, son of a philanthropist and early Zionist Samuel Barbash of Odessa, arrived in Shanghai in 1917 and opened a business called B.S. Barbash and Co. Between 1937 and 1939 Boris S. Barbash represented HICEM in Shanghai. He was active as a communal worker and his correspondence reflects his efforts relating to the welfare of refugees and displaced Jews in China. Boris S. Barbash died on February 9 1945, at the age of 72 years old.

The Boris S. Barbash folder contains correspondence dated 1929 regarding his pre-war donation of books to the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. However, most importantly the contents of the folder documents Boris S. Barabach's everyday effort to ease the situation of the German and Austrian refugees. The folder also includes correspondence with major relief organizations which acknowledged financial contributions and effort of Boris S. Barbash.

The memoirs of Wilhelm Deman depict the educational and cultural scene of the Jewish community in Shanghai. Wilhelm Deman was a teacher at the Shanghai Jewish Youth Association School where he taught English, Science and Business in years 1939-1942. During that time he was also director of the Junior Club and the Shanghai Jewish Youth Association Vocational Training Center, an independent afternoon school. In January 1943 Wilhelm Deman founded Gregg Business College, for some time the only commercial school in Shanghai, which he led until 1948. The text of his memoirs is interlaced with copies of original documents.

The series also contains papers of Berchtold Glanz who was an attorney and who gave Chinese language courses to the refugees. The materials include a letter of thanks from his students, papers relating to legal matters, and other personal items, including his temporary identification card in Shanghai and Certificate of the Association of Central-European Attorneys-at-law in Shanghai.

Another folder contains personal and travel documents of Shlomo Feivel Perkal, including his residence permit, cards of the first Japanese registration of Jews, a foodstuff allotment book issued by the European Stateless Refugees' Residents Union, and clippings from the magazine The Far Eastern Engineer about Jewish emigration.

Three folders contain a history of the Jewish population in Shanghai in 1938-1945 written by Manfred Rosenfeld. Manfred Rosenfeld was a former editor of a German daily newspaper in Breslau (Wroclaw), in Germany before the Second world war.

A. Bacharach, Curt Heinz

FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
80 5/717 Personal papers and documents of Curt Heinz Bacharach 1939-1950

B. Barbash, Boris S.

FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
60 3/991 Correspondence and documents of Boris S. Barbash, 151 pp.1924-1945

C. Deman, Wilhelm

FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
69 5/208 "Ein verlorenes Jahrzehnt" by Wilhelm Deman, Chicago, August 1979, typescript, pp. 1-18. n.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
70 5/247 "Ein verlorenes Jahrzehnt" by Wilhelm Deman, pp. 19-54 n.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
71 5/300"Ein verlorenes Jahrzehnt" by Wilhelm Deman, pp. 55-97n.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
72 5/360"Ein verlorenes Jahrzehnt" by Wilhelm Deman, pp. 98-123n.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
73 5/418 "Ein verlorenes Jahrzehnt" by Wilhelm Deman, pp. 124-144n.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
74 5/475"Ein verlorenes Jahrzehnt" by Wilhelm Deman, pp. 145-162 n.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
75 5/513 "Ein verlorenes Jahrzehnt" by Wilhelm Deman, pp. 163-189 n.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
76 5/571"Ein verlorenes Jahrzehnt" by Wilhelm Deman, pp. 190-213n.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
77 5/629"Ein verlorenes Jahrzehnt" by Wilhelm Deman, pp. 214-223 n.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
78 5/660 "Ein verlorenes Jahrzehnt" by Wilhelm Deman, pp. 224-239 n.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
79 5/698"Ein verlorenes Jahrzehnt" by Wilhelm Deman, pp. 240-244 and some additional material n.d.

D. Glanz, Berchtold

FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
61 4/1 Correspondence and documents of Bethold Glanz1939-1947

E. Perkal, Shlomo Feivel

FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
62 4/46 Documents of Shlomo Feivel Perkal in Shanghai. Residence permit, ration card, cards of the first registration of Jews by the Japanese. Also includes Perkal's notes1942-1947

F. Rosenfeld, Manfred

FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
3 1/155 "Brief Informations [sic] Regarding to the Shanghai Ashkenazi Community." Typescript. 7 pp.n.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
1 1/1A history of the Jews in Shanghai by Manfred Rosenfeld. Typescript, incomplete, untitled. In German. pp. 1-24, 29-67. Contains some handwritten notes. Typescript copy of pp. 2-19 onlyn.d.
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
2 1/131A history of the Jews in Shanghai by Manfred Rosenfeld. Typescript, incomplete, untitled. In German. Contains some handwritten notes. 21 pp.n.d.
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Series VI: Curatorial Activity of Jewish Scientific Institute (YIVO), 1945-1948

This series is in English, Yiddish, German, Chinese, and Japanese.
Arrangement:

Alphabetical.

Scope and Content:

This series contains materials that do not directly result from the activiteis of refugees in Shanghai, but are results of research and curatorial activities of YIVO. In addition to the questionnaires prepared by the YIVO researchers in order to document the activity and history of thirty six Shanghai Jewish organizations, the series also includes material that relates to the exhibition "Eight Years: Jewish Refugees in Shanghai" organized by the Friends of YIVO in Shanghai in October 1947.

FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
51/397Completed questionnaires prepared by YIVO in New York concerning the history and activities of Jewish organizations in the Far East. 36 questionnaires, each 3 pages long1948
FolderReel/FrameTitleDate
61/509YIVO exhibition in Shanghai, 1947. Correspondence, clippings from Shanghai newspapers. In English, German, Chinese, Japanese.1946-1948 Oct.
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Series VII: Posters, Broadsides, and Other Oversized Material, 1934-1947

This series is in English, German, and Russian.
Arrangement:

Topical.

Scope and Content:

The posters and broadsides are mostly related to the exhibition "Eight Years: Jewish Refugees in Shanghai." The broadsides show various statistical data, i.e. school attendance, growing population, activities of various Jewish associations in Shanghai and their membership.

The series also contains several blank certificates and a drawing of the physical layout of the original exhibition in Shanghai. Posters announce various cultural events, including theatrical performances. The political posters address voters on the occasion of elections to the 22nd Zionist Congress on October 27, 1946.

There are also enlarged newspaper clippings and articles documenting the life in Shanghai Ghetto taken from the Shanghai Jewish press. A collage of original documents and forms pasted and mounted on a cardboard background is also part of this series.

A. Shanghai Community

Folder TitleDate
7/ICultural and Political Events 1945
Folder TitleDate
7/IIEducational Posters and Certificates 194?
Folder TitleDate
7/IIIMaps of Shanghai and enlarged newspaper clippings and articlesn.d., 1940-1947

B. Exhibition posters and broadsides prepared by YIVO curators

Folder TitleDate
8/IPosters and a collage of original documents pasted and mounted on a cardboard1947
Folder TitleDate
8/IIStatistical Broadsides1934, 1947
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