Guide to the Records of the Nachman Zonabend Collection
1939-1944
RG 241

Processed by Marek Web

YIVO Institute for Jewish Research

Center for Jewish History

15 West 16th Street

New York, NY 10011

Phone: (212) 246-6080

Fax: (212) 292-1892

Email: archives@yivo.cjh.org

URL: http://www.yivoinstitute.org

© January 2004. YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. All rights reserved.
Center for Jewish History, Publisher.
Machine-readable finding aid created by Faige Lederman as MS Word file. November 2003. Electronic finding aid converted to EAD 2002 by Dianne Ritchey Oummia. January 2004. Description is in English.
January 2006. Entities removed from EAD finding aid.

Descriptive Summary

Creator:Nachman Zonabend
Title: Nachman Zonabend Collection
Dates:1939-1944
Abstract: The collection documents life inside the Lódz Jewish ghetto during the Nazi occupation of Poland. It consists predominantly of the records of the Eldest of the Jews in the Lódz ghetto, Chaim Mordechai Rumkowski, and of his administration. Included are original correspondence, announcements, circulars, charts, publications, reports, essays, albums and photographs.
Languages: The collection is in Polish, German, and Yiddish.
Quantity: 8.55 linear feet
Accession number: RG 241
Repository: YIVO Archives
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Historical Note

FOR THE RECORD: HOW THE LÓDZ GHETTO DOCUMENTS WERE RESCUED (by Nachman Zonabend)

The following is the story of the rescue of documents which now comprise the Zonabend Collection in the YIVO Archives.

I was among the group of inmates whom the Germans had left in the ghetto after the last deportation in August, 1944. We were to pack and ship the goods and equipment left behind by those Jews who had been deported. One day, during a moment when the Nazi guards were not paying attention, I slipped unnoticed into the deserted print shop of the ghetto administration and came out with a complete set of Rumkowski’s announcements. Next, I went into the offices of the Secretariat, at 1 Dworska Street, which handled Rumkowski’s correspondence. The papers that I found there, which had once been so meticulously sorted and filed, were in complete disarray. I stuffed them in large glass jars and later buried the jars in a remote spot. I also had another hiding place where I kept photographs, drawings and paintings made by ghetto artists.

One rainy Sunday in October, 1944, as we were marching under escort to the bath, we passed the former post office building, 4 Kościelny Square. I broke away from the group and ran inside. As a former employee of the ghetto post office, I knew the place well. Making my way through the silent corridors and empty rooms, I reached the back door and entered the adjoining house where the ghetto archives were located. Several suitcases bulging with documents stood on the floor covered with scattered papers. Evidently these materials were of special value and were meant to be taken to a safe place.

Not one minute could be wasted. I dragged the heavy valises down the stairs and into a deserted courtyard. In the middle of the courtyard I saw a well which turned out to be completely dry. With great difficulty, I brought the valises over to the well and dropped them in. The ground was strewn with quilt covers and pillows; their former owners were probably either dying in slave labor camps or had already been immolated in the crematoria at Auschwitz (Oświęcim). I gathered the covers and pillows and stuffed them inside the well, hoping that this would keep the documents dry and protect from harm.

In January, 1945, after the liberation of Lódz by the Red Army, I went back to Kościelny Square. Plunderers were already at work in the former ghetto, looking for treasures abandoned by the Jews. Despite the threat they posed, I pulled the suitcases out of the well and carried them to my apartment. Later on, I dug up the glass jars. I was relieved when everything was finally secure. An important record of the history of the Lódz ghetto had been saved.

On many occasions I have been asked to explain why I took all these risks to secure these documents, whose contents I did not even know, in a place as desolate as the ghetto was then, and at a time when the rest of us inmates were looking for places to hide themselves rather than a batch of seemingly worthless papers. Furthermore, what motivated me in the first moments of freedom to return to the abandoned streets of the former ghetto, now overrun with dangerous looters, in order to bring these moldy papers to safety?

From my first days in the ghetto I was close to a small circle of people who strove to document for posterity all that was happening around us. As the ghetto mailman, whose special task it was to deliver relief payments to welfare recipients, I used to come to the homes of poverty-stricken families. I will never be able to describe the destitution, starvation, sickness, despair, injustice and loneliness which I saw there. Fortunately, there were others who have done it, such as the photographers Mendel Grossman and Henryk Rozencwajg-Ross, who preserved images of the ghetto on film. I was a close friend of both men and was intimately familiar with their work as well as that of their colleagues, Rubiczek and Borkowski. I knew about the daily chronicle which was being meticulously compiled by scholars working in the Department of Statistics. I was involved with artists, writers and poets whose common goals was to preserve the evidence of the horrendous crime we were all witnessing, and I often participated in their discussions and meetings. Shortly before the liquidation of the ghetto I was able to hide some of their photographs and art works. I also made a mental note of the location of other materials to which I had no access at the time.

This, then, is my answer to the questions about my motives, which in those days were indeed anything but practical. This, too, should be the end of the story: as it happens there is an epilogue.

Soon after Lódz was liberated, a Jewish Historical Commission was organized there by people whom I trusted. I decided to turn some of the rescued documents over to this institution. At the same time I was approached by the poets and former partisans Abraham Sutzkever and Shmerke Katcherginski, who suggested that I give the remaining materials to the YIVO Institute in New York. We even worked out a plan for safely transporting the collection abroad, but, for various reasons, we had to postpone its realization.

In 1947 I left Poland and settled in Sweden. I was able to take the Lódz ghetto documents with me. Then I transferred the collection to YIVO, where it was received with full appreciation of its priceless value and historical importance. My donation was later described in the News of the YIVO of June, 1948, in an article entitled “A Great Jewish Community in the Fateful Years: The Lodz Ghetto in the Light of the Zonabend Collection.”

The news about the transfer of the collection to YIVO provoked a livid response in certain Jewish circles in Poland. On December 1, 1948, an article was published in the Warsaw Yiddish daily, Dos naye lebn, the organ of the Central Committee of the Polish Jews, under the headline, “How YIVO Hailed Gestapo Agent as Martyr.” The article, which was signed by A. Klugman, was then reprinted in the New York Yiddish daily Morgnfrayhayt and in Yiddish newspapers in Canada and France. The article cited a long list of crimes committed by me in the ghetto, including working for the Sonderkommando, organizing orgies and generally living well while others starved. As for the documents, the author maintained that I found out where ghetto archivists had hidden them, and that I had simply stolen them after the war. I challenged the author several times to present supportive evidence for these allegations or to explain the reason for writing such an ignominious piece. Mr. Klugman chose not to respond at all.

I am proud of saving the Lódz ghetto documents, and it gives me great satisfaction to see how widely this collection has been used as a record of the life and destruction of the Jewish community of Lódz.

LÓDZ GHETTO: CHRONOLOGY

The Lódz ghetto was established on February 8, 1940, by order of the Chief of Police in Lódz, Schutzstaffeln (SS)–Brigadeführer Johannes Schäffer. From a historical perspective, this order was the first practical step taken by the Nazis towards the total physical annihilation of the Lódz Jewish community.

The history of the Jews in Lódz under Nazi rule can be divided into five time periods, which are summarized here in chronological order.

September 8, 1939 to May 1, 1940

This period begins with the German army’s entry into Lódz and concludes with the sealing of the ghetto. Prior to the outbreak of the war, there were about 250,000 Jews in Lódz - the second largest Jewish community in Poland after Warsaw. As conditions deteriorated rapidly, the Lódz Kehilla (Jewish community board), much reduced in size by the flight of its leading members, convened on September 12 and elected Abram Lejzor Plywacki as its chairman and Chaim Mordechai Rumkowski as his deputy. A week later, on September 18, the Nazis issued the first ordinance specifically concerning the Jews, banning all services in the city synagogues during the High Holy Days.

On September 21 Reinhard Heydrich, the chief of the Reich Security Main Office (Reichsicherheithauptamt – SHA) issued two orders to the Einsatzgruppen (mobile units charged with establishing a police regime in the occupied territories) regarding the Jews: that they were to be purged from the annexed territory of Western Poland and temporarily confined to special Jewish districts – the ghettos; and that councils of Jewish elders were to be established in the communities to carry out the orders of the occupation authorities regarding the Jews.

These orders set the pace in Lódz for stripping the Jews of their rights and property and separating them physically from the gentile population. On October 13, the Stadtkomissar (City Occupation Commissioner) Leister, appointed Rumkowski as the Eldest of the Jews of Lódz, ordering him to disband the Kehilla and select an Ältestenrat (Council of Elders). Subsequently through May 12, 1940, a succession of forty-eight ordinances against Jews were issued by the following officials: the City Commissioner, who was later replaced by the Mayor (Oberbürgermeister) of Litzmannstadt (Lódz was incorporated into the Reich on November 7, 1939, and its name changed to Litzmannstadt), the President of the District Administration (Regierungspräsident) in Kalisz, the Chief of Police in Lódz (Polizeipräsident) and various departments in the Lódz German muncipality. This legislation included: blocking Jewish bank accounts, a ban on travel, wearing the yellow patch displaying the JUDE sign in Jewish stores, forced labor, a ban on all pre-war Jewish organizations and institutions, the confiscation of Jewish property, a ban on the use of municipal transportation, the establishment of the ghetto and the forced resettlement of the entire Jewish population therein and, finally, a ban on contact with gentiles.

At the same time, terrorizing the Jews became a fact of daily life. Roundups on the streets and apprehension of people for forced labor did not stop even after Rumkowski reached an agreement with the Germans and organized a special department which delivered daily contingents of laborers. Physical abuse soon evolved into murder, when on October 18, the SS raided the café Astoria frequented by Jews, arrested over one hundred persons and subsequently killed most of them. On November 11, the Nazis destroyed all the synagogues in Lódz except for some which were located in the Jewish quarter. In November, the first Ältestenrat came to a tragic end when the Gestapo arrested and murdered twenty two of its thirty members. Assaults on Jews became particularly vicious during the time of resettlement to the ghetto (February – April, 1940). Dissatisfied with the slow progress of this operation, the Nazis intensified roundups and arrests. Thus, for instance, a murderous action known as “Bloody Thursday” (March 7, 1940) resulted in the killing of several hundred Jews on the streets and the execution of another 160 in the Zgierz forests near Lódz. Those Jews who still remained in the city were ordered to vacate their apartments and were given five minutes to do so.

Yet another plan regarding the Jews was being carried out by Nazis which paralleled the preparations for the ghetto. In November, 1939, Heinrich Himmler issued a directive that the Jews of the Wartheland, now incorporated into the Reich, should be promptly deported to the General Government. Accordingly, an agreement was concluded on November 7 between the chief of the police in the Wartheland, SS-Obergruppenführer Wilhelm Koppe, and his counterpart in the General Government, Friedrich Krüger, for the deportation of 200,000 Poles and 100,000 Jews. Up to 30,000 Jews were to be deported from Lódz alone, and they were to leave the city between November 15, 1939, and February 28, 1940. The matter of deportation was obviously debated at length by the Nazi leadership, and in the end resettlement was altogether stopped by order of Hermann Göring on March 23, 1940. It seems that besides the difficulties in transporting the mass of deportees and organizing transit centers for them, the Nazis had already arrived at a different blueprint for the solution of the Jewish question. Local ghettos were to serve as points of concentration for the Jewish population until the method of their total annihilation was decided.

The organization of the ghetto in Lódz was first mentioned in a memorandum of December 10, 1939, by Friedrich Ubelhör, the chief of the police in the Kalisz regency (which initially also included Lódz). He revealed there that “...our ultimate goal is to bum out this pest altogether.” Eventually, the order to establish the ghetto was pronounced by the local authorities in Lódz, who ultimately became the principal overseers of the ghetto.

The sequence of steps that led to the final closing of the ghetto was as follows:

On January 19, 1940, the chief of police in Lódz, Schäffer, issued a warning to non-Jews not to enter the Jewish quarter because it had become a nest of infectious diseases (a common practice of the Nazis in all occupied territories). On February 8 the establishment of the ghetto was ordered. On March 1 the Eldest of the Jews, Chaim Rumkowski, issued his Announcement No. 1: the Jews who live in the “Jewish quarter” are to remain there or face reprisals for leaving illegally. In Announcement No. 4 (March, 1940) he further informed “the Jewish population of Lodsch” that he had been instructed by the authorities to “regulate the transfer of Jews to the new quarter.” In April the ghetto area was enclosed with a wire fence, and on April 19 Rumkowski was ordered by the police to have the Ordnungsdienst (the Jewish police) guard the fence inside the ghetto. On April 30 Schaffer ordered the closing of the ghetto. On May 1, the ghetto was sealed off from the outside world.

May 1, 1940 to January 5, 1942

This period is characterized by the consolidation of Rumkowski’s power over the ghetto and the development of the internal ghetto administration. It is also marked by an accelerated impoverishment of the ghetto population, organized confiscation of personal property and widespread starvation. Rumkowski’s tasks and prerogatives as the Eldest of the ghetto were outlined in a letter from the Oberbürgermeister (signed by City Commissioner Schiffer) of April 30, 1940. Rumkowski was to organize and maintain “orderly community life” with respect to economy, provisioning, labor, health and welfare; to submit to the German administration weekly statistics of all ghetto inhabitants; to list and secure all Jewish assets for the purpose of confiscation except for vitally needed clothes, food and dwellings. In return, he was authorized to organize his own police, to confiscate and distribute all food and to enforce work without pay. All ghetto contacts with the German authorities were to be maintained exclusively by Rumkowski or his deputy.

The ghetto which Rumkowski took over was confined to an area of 4.3 square kilometers (in February, 1941, after the Germans cut off several blocks of the ghetto, the diminished area equalled 3.8 square kilometers). The ghetto was located in the poorest neighborhood of prewar Lódz, the Baluty and the Old Town (Stare Miasto), where basic accommodations were generally lacking and sanitary conditions were dismal. In this enclosed and tightly guarded place there lived 160,423 Jews according to a census taken on June 6, 1940. In the overcrowded dwellings there were an average of 3.5 persons per room. Most of the ghetto inhabitants lost all or most of their property when they left their city homes in panic. The economy was nonexistent. The community welfare system, heavily burdened even before the creation of the ghetto, was in shambles.

Rumkowski entered the ghetto with an ideology of survival, which entailed making the ghetto productive and thus useful to the Nazis, especially to the German war industry. On April 5, 1940, he submitted to the Oberbürgermeister a plan to organize industries in the ghetto which would serve economic needs of the Nazis. Later he would allude in his speeches to this plan as giving the Nazis a virtual gold mine - meaning thousands of cheap Jewish laborers. The first tailoring shop with 300 workers opened on April 20, and on May 13 Rumkowski reported to the Oberbürgermeister that 14,850 tailors and seamstresses registered for work, and he asked for production orders. From these beginnings, an industrial complex developed in the ghetto with 117 enterprises and 73,782 workers by the end of 1943.

Meanwhile, a ruthless campaign to confiscate work tools and raw materials was conducted in order to open other workshops and force people to work in ghetto industries rather than on their own. In time, private enterprise in the ghetto was completely eradicated, and Rumkowski became the sole employer for the entire ghetto population.

At the same time confiscations of other personal property such as clothes, valuables (gold, silver, jewelry, currency) and housewares continued. Thinly veiled “purchasing agencies” set up in August, 1940, for various kinds of goods, and the population was repeatedly ordered to exchange their last property items for virtually worthless ghetto currency. In addition, a ban was in effect after June 3, 1940 forbidding the trafficking of food and valuables to and from the ghetto with the exception of old clothes. On December 17 Rumkowski ordered that all owners of furs and coats sell them or face reprisals. Rumkowski would appeal and again to those who had left valuable property in the city to inform him “in confidence” about its whereabouts because it was in his power to recover it.

The confiscation of Jewish goods was conducted in accordance with Nazi policy as expressed Göring’s order of September 17, 1940, which deprived Jews of their property. To justify confiscations, Rumkowski came up with the slogan that no one in the ghetto should have the privilege of owning private property.

The earliest consequence of this deprivation and impoverishment in the ghetto was unremitting hunger, which was to pervade the lives of ghetto inhabitants throughout its existence. The Nazis set the level of provisioning in the ghetto at 30 pfennigs per person per day, which was lower than the per capita norms in prisons (40-50 pfennigs). In addition, a principle was established by the German ghetto administration that the ghetto Jews would have to pay for provisions with their productivity and by selling off their property to Rumkowski’s “purchasing agencies.” No other means of obtaining food, such as smuggling (very wide-spread in the ghettos within the General Government) existed in Lódz, and thus the ghetto was forced to depend entirely on handouts from the German administration. Also Rumkowski, being the sole distributor of provisions within the ghetto, conducted a provisioning policy of his own, rewarding some with better rations and punishing others. In time, a provisioning pyramid was created in the ghetto, where the few at the top had enough to eat while the overwhelming mass of ghetto inmates starved.

The system of food rationing (except for bread) was introduced in the ghetto on June 2, 1940 and from this day ration cards regulated life in the ghetto. In 1940 the population tried to resist. Hunger demonstrations and disturbances marked the first year of the ghetto. Demonstrators took to the streets on August 10 and 11 and again during the first week of October. The last known disturbances occurred on January 11 and 12, 1941. They were put down by the Ordnungsdienst and German police.

Trying to stabilize the situation in the ghetto, Rumkowski appealed to the German administration, and on September 19 received a loan on 2,000,000 Reichsmarks. He used the 1oan for relief payments to over 70,000 destitute ghetto inmates. At the same time he was moving towards the total rationing of provisions. This was announced on December 15, 1940, with rationing of bread as well. On December 27 Rumkowski announced the takeover of all private food stores, restaurants and home kitchens and assigned the distribution of food to his own stores. By 1941 the rationing system was firmly in place, and provisioning was fully regulated.

Notwithstanding the rapid deterioration of living conditions in the ghetto, communal, and social institutions and organizations were still active in the years 1940 and 1941. The school system was fully operative; child care was provided by a network of children’s homes, orphanages, summer camps and a free meals program; religion and religious institutions enjoyed a temporary reprieve from Nazi persecutions; there were important social programs for ghetto youth such as the hakhsharas and kibbutzim in Marysin; theatre performances, literary and musical events arranged in the Culture House and in halls and kitchens maintained by various political groups.

For a while the Nazis seemed content with this situation and interfered little in the ghetto’s internal affairs. Reckless killing did not stop altogether, to be sure, and many took place at the ghetto fence where the Schupo (Schutzpolizei - Protective Police) guards shot at anyone who came too close. An especially ignominious incident involved a Polish Volksdeutsch nicknamed “Red-haired Janek,” who, angered over a black market deal which fell through, shot and killed thirty-five Jews over a period of three weeks in July, 1940. In 1941, an insane asylum in the ghetto was liquidated, and over one hundred of its patients were killed. A sedative, Scopolamin, was administered to them before execution.

The general situation of the ghetto changed radically in the fall of 1941, when a mass of almost 20,000 Jews from Bohemia, Moravia, Austria, Germany and Luxembourg (including the district of Leslau-Leszno in the Wartheland) - generally called “Western Jews” – was deported and resettled in the ghetto. In order to accomodate them, Rumkowski ordered the closing of ghetto schools and the conversion of school buildings into reception centers. The schools were never to open again. For the deportees the reality of the Lódz ghetto was a shattering experience from which most never recovered. They felt foreign among the Lódz Jews, they could not adapt to the horrid living conditions and could not comprehend the purpose of this resettlement. Many of them readily went to their final deportation in 1942 to the death camp in Chelmno, convinced that nothing worse than their life in the ghetto could happen to them.

January 5 to September 12, 1942

On December 7, 1941, the first Nazi death camp located in Chelmno, some seventy kilometers from Lódz, began its experimental run. Several Jewish communities from the neighboring towns were annihilated there between December 7 and January 14, 1942 – altogether some 6,400 people. The killing vans in which the victims were suffocated by means of exhaust fumes replaced the execution squads of the Einsatzgruppen as both more efficient and less “disturbing.” Even when supplanted by the gas chambers of other death factories, the vans remained in use until July, 1944. Over 250,000 Jews from Wartheland were annihilated in Chelmno. Of this number over 70,000 came from the Lódz ghetto.

Deportations to and from the Lódz ghetto in 1942 were in step with the Nazi policy of disposing of all unproductive groups including children and old people. The Lódz ghetto was to become a labor camp where nothing mattered but work. Those few survivors of the destroyed communities who were deported to the Lódz ghetto in 1942 had been spared because they were skilled workers.

The first hint of an impending deportation came in a speech by Rumkowski on December 20, 1941, when he announced that a contingent of 10,000 persons had been requested by the Germans for deportation. He further stated that this contingent would be filled with criminal elements, welfare recipients who did not participate in the public works program and black marketeers. On December 30, an announcement was issued that until further notice all ghetto residents were strictly forbidden to shelter strangers or relatives not registered as members of the household. Finally, on January 5 the Resettlement Commission nominated by Rumkowski began compiling lists of deportees.

The first transport left Lódz for Chelmno on January 16, 1942. From this day the ghetto was obliged to deliver a contingent of 1,000 persons daily until the quota set by the Nazis was filled. The deportations were halted on January 29 after 10,103 people had left the ghetto.

This proved to be no more than a short respite. The process resumed with an even greater intensity on February 22 and continued until April 2. During this phase of deportations, 34,073 lives were extinguished.

Finally, on May 4 the deportation of the “Western” Jews was announced, notwithstanding the fact that they had come to the ghetto only six months previously. Excluded from this deportation were the former recipients of German or Austrian military awards earned during World War I and a number of professionals employed in the ghetto administration. By May 15 another 10,161 persons had been deported from the ghetto.

The total number of deportees between January and May was 54,990 persons, more than one-third of the ghetto population.

To force deportees to come to the transport point the Nazis used the weapon of hunger, curtailing deliveries of food to the ghetto and at the same time providing meals for those who came to the train. This tactic was repeated in all subsequent deportations.

In the middle of it all Rumkowski urged prospective deportees time and again to sell furniture and other property to his “purchasing agencies,” or to deposit their belongings until they returned. Nor did he forget to demand that the families of the deported surrender their ration cards.

In May groups of Jews from the liquidated ghettos in the Wartheland began to trickle into the Lódz ghetto. These survivors from Pabianice, Zdunska Wola (Zdunskaya Volya, Zdun’skaya Volya), Belchatów, Lask, Ozorków (Ozyurkov) and other towns brought with them stories of atrocities committed by the Nazis, which heightened the sense of despair and doom in Lódz. Some of the accounts are related in the Chronicle of the Lodz Ghetto. Altogether some 14,441 Jews were resettled in the ghetto between May and August of 1942.

The next wave of deportation from Lódz was directed against children, the aged and the infirm. This time though, the ghetto Jews had a hint of what was to happen, and an attempt was made to hide some of the children among the ghetto work force in the summer months of 1942. By July 20 there were about 13,000 children and adolescents employed in the workshops and factories. However, younger children and old people were left defenseless.

This deportation began on September 1 with the removal of the sick from five ghetto hospitals and two preventoriums. On this day 374 adult patients and 320 children were taken to their death.

On September 5 a general curfew (Gesperre in German, shpere in Yiddish) was announced “until further notice.” The residents of old age homes and orphanages were the first to be taken to the train. After that, the Ordnungsdienst had to make house searches in order to find children and take them away from their parents. The results of the first day’s searches were so meagre that the German ghetto administration and the Gestapo decided to take matters into their own hands, and the ghetto became the scene of a vicious manhunt. By September 12 it was all over. There were 600 dead in ghetto streets and homes. 15,859 victims had been taken to the transports.

On September 12 the curfew was lifted. Rumkowski announced the opening of all kitchens on September 13 and promised an improvement in the food situation.

September 13, 1942 to June 14, 1944

After the deportations of 1942 there were almost two years of relative stability in the Lódz ghetto. At a time when there were no more ghettos in the Wartheland and all the ghettos in the General Government were being liquidated one after another, the Lódz ghetto continued to exist as a giant labor camp. During 1942 and 1943 its usefulness to the Nazi war machine was beyond doubt, so much so that all attempts by Himmler and the SS to liquidate the ghetto were successfully frustrated by the manpower-starved Nazi armament authorities. Himmler’s plan to convert the ghetto into a concentration camp (which would bring it under the control of the SS) and to transfer its much diminished population to the Lublin district, where they would become part of the slave labor complex under Odillo Globocnik, was never realized.

The situation inside the ghetto was different from previous years. By 1943 there were 87,000 Jews in the ghetto, and eighty-five percent of this total number were working in the ghetto plants or offices. Many communal services were discontinued. There were no schools, orphanages or summer camps. Relief activities were discontinued. The Rabbinate and all religious institutions were liquidated. The Sabbath and all religious holidays were abolished. There were few children and almost no old people in the ghetto.

Nazi supervision of the ghetto was now even more evident than ever. Many of Rumkowski’s prerogatives were gradually taken from him. The most important instrument of his power, the distribution of food, was personally taken over by Hans Biebow, the chief of the German ghetto administration, in October, 1943. The administration offices were reduced or altogether liquidated, and their employees transferred to ghetto plants. The Sonderkommando - a special unit of the Ordnungsdienst which was in charge of expropriations, operations against the black market and political espionage - now gained strength because of their close ties to the Germans. Further, Rumkowski now had to share much of his power with the managers of labor workshops and plants, whose role in the ghetto increased immensely.

June 15, 1944 to January 19, 1945

On June 10, Himmler ordered the Nazi chief of the Wartheland, Arthur Greiser, to begin liquidation of the ghetto without further delay. In view of the Allies’ continuing military offensives and victories, the usefulness of this labor force became debatable, and thus the fate of the ghetto was sealed. On June 15, the Gestapo chief in Lódz, Bradfisch, informed Rumkowski that workers were needed inside Germany to repair the damages inflicted by the Allied bombings. He demanded a weekly contingent of 3,000 persons. The next day Rumkowski announced the new deportations and appealed for voluntary sign-ups. The Inter-Divisional Commission, which included top ghetto officials, was to draft the deportation lists. The deportees were allowed to take along 15 kg. of luggage and were to receive food rations for three days.

The first transport in this wave of deportations left the ghetto on June 23. By July 15, 7,196 people were deported. The destination was, as before, Chelmno.

On July 15, the deportations were suddenly halted. At that time the Red Army was already advancing through ethnic Polish territories in an offensive which eventually brought it to the banks of the Vistula. The Nazis had decided to liquidate the death camp in Chelmno and obliterate its traces, so that it would not fall into the hands of the Soviet forces, which reached the outskirts of Warsaw in the last week of July.

After two weeks the deportations from the ghetto were resumed. This much time had been needed to re-direct the transport traffic to Oświęcim (Auschwitz), where the remaining mass of Jews from Lódz were to perish during the month of August. The Soviet offensive was halted some 130 kilometers east of Lódz and was not resumed until January, 1945.

On August 2 Rumkowski made public, in Announcement No. 417, that “on the instructions of the Mayor of Litzmannstadt” the ghetto would be evacuated to an undisclosed location. “The plant crews will go together as units, and the families of workers will join them.” Five thousand ghetto residents were to show up daily at the processing centers.

During this last month of the Lódz ghetto, Rumkowski wrote a total of twenty-six announcements and warnings in order to ensure an orderly deportation. As his appeals for voluntary submission fell on increasingly deaf ears, he resorted to threats of reprisal, should the Germans “take the course of the deportation into their own hands.” Indeed, after a week of almost futile efforts to get the ghetto Jews to come to the trains, several German police units entered the ghetto on August 8 and began to drag people to the railroad station. On August 9 all plants in the ghetto were ordered closed. That same day the western part of the ghetto was closed off, and all residents were ordered to move to the eastern part. Such a reduction of the ghetto area was an especially effective method to speed the deportation, because residents lost their homes and food rations. They were thus an easy target for police once they entered the smaller ghetto. By August 24, after two further reductions, the area of the ghetto had been diminished to four streets and eighty-three houses.

By the end of August over 68,500 Jews from the Lódz ghetto had been sent to their deaths in Auschwitz. Rumkowski and his family boarded the train on August 28. The Lódz ghetto, the last concentration of Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe, ceased to exist. When the Soviet and Polish army units entered Lódz on January 19, 1945, they found only 877 Jews, who had been left in the former ghetto by the Nazis to carry out clean-up operations.

THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE LÓDZ GHETTO

Most of the documents in this collection were created in the offices of the Jewish administration of the Lódz ghetto. It is therefore necessary to outline the origins and development of this administration and its relations with the German occupation rulers.

As mentioned in the preceding essay, official Jewish representations under Nazi rule had their origin in Heydrich’s order of September 21, 1939, which stipulated the creation of ghettos and nominating councils of Jewish elders wherever Jewish communities existed. In Lódz an Ältestenrat, or Council of Elders, was established on October 14, 1939, but it never gained full authority over the Jewish community. Real power was quickly seized by the chairman of the council, Chaim Mordechai Rumkowski. In fact, Rumkowski’s official title, the Eldest of the Jews, later became synonymous with the name of the ghetto administration, while the Ältestenrat (also called, more accurately, Beirat) existed as an advisory group only.

Exactly why the Nazis decided on such a configuartion remains unanswered; the view generally held is that Rumkowski wanted the position and was able to impress the Nazis with his energy and willingness to carry out his unenviable duties. His avowed program was to make the ghetto useful to the Nazis by turning the Jewish population into a labor force for the German military machine. His autocratic regime over the ghetto was matched by his total submissiveness to the German authorities.

The administration of the Lódz ghetto developed into a highly hierarchical structure with Rumkowski alone at the top, holding the reigns of power. Beneath him was a maze of departments and offices with thousands of employees. This situation was symbolized by Rumkowski’s penchant for frequently using the possessive forms “my” and “mine” with orders in all matters concerning the Lódz Jews, and to strive to meet the enormous needs of the ghetto despite highly insufficient means supplied by Nazis. Very soon after its founding, all private commercial enterprise, as well as independent cultural, educational, social and religious institutions, ceased to exist within the ghetto, and private property was declared illegal. Thus, the administration became the sole provider of everything from food to jobs to education.

The very first department that Rumkowski was compelled to create was the Arbeitseinsatz (Labor Assignments). This department was established on October 15, 1939, in order to procure a daily contingent of 600 forced laborers from among the Lódz Jews as demanded by the German occupation authorities. By taking the initiative in settling the problem of forced labor, Rumkowski sought to prevent a recurrence of brutal daily roundups of Jews in the streets.

In these early days of Nazi occupation it became immediately evident that the organizational resources of the pre-war Kehilla of Lódz were insufficient for dealing with the desperate situation of the Lódz Jews. The new administration was forced to establish a network of offices which would fill the void that had been created by barring Jews from most municipal services such as public order, fire prevention, mail service, provisioning, relief, housing and education. On October 15, 1939, the Relief Department was established in response to the rapidly deteriorating economic situation of the Jewish population. Subsequently other departments were organized: Provisioning on October 16, Health Care on October 20, and Schools on October 26. In November the Finance Department was created for the purpose of procuring financial resources for this administration, mainly through the collection of taxes and rents. The Cemetery Department and the Rabbinate (or Rabbinical Council) of the old Kehilla continued to exist without interruption.

A number of new administrative units were created between February and the end of April, 1940, i.e., during the establishment of the ghetto. The Housing Department (sometimes called the Resettlement Department) was given the task of finding quarters for the Jews driven out of their apartments, deprived of their possessions and herded into the ghetto. The Jewish police, whose official name was the Ordnungsdienst (literally, ‘Order Service’), was initially assembled to assist in resettlement to the ghetto. It was officially recognized as a permanent task force on March 1, 1940. The Brigade of Fire Fighters and Chimney Sweeps began its work on April 15. The Economic Department (in Polish, Wydział Gospodarczy), which was organized in February, was primarily responsible for maintenance and sanitation services in the ghetto. Following the discontinuation of mail services by the general post, in February the Ghetto Post Office assumed the responsibility for mail traffic within the Jewish quarter. Finally, the Agricultural Department was established to use plots of land in the suburban Marysin area to grow potatoes and other vegetables.

In the beginning, all these departments did not function independently but as components of the Office of the Chairman (in Polish: Sekretariat Prezydialny). The decentralization of this office and the creation of separate administrative units was decided on April 30, 1940, when the ghetto was declared officially closed off.

The spread of the ghetto administrative network continued at a quick pace throughout the year 1940. In the second half of that year the ghetto administration was composed of seventy-three departments and offices which were grouped in seven administrative branches: general administration, provisioning, finances and economy, requisitions, ghetto industry, health care, and education and welfare. In February, 1941, the administration personnel numbered 5,500 employees. In July, 1941, there were already 7,316 office workers, and by August, 1942, this number had grown to 12,880. Rumkowski was obviously telling the truth when, trying to stop the flood of job applications, he publicly announced “...In order to alleviate the misery of several hundred applicants, I have made every effort to find job positions which in fact are not needed. I have filled positions requiring only one person with three workers ” (Announcement No. 66 of 6/20/1940, folder 194).

Among the records of the Lódz ghetto administration there are several documents which list or chart the administrative network at various times. These are:

Comparison of the two earlier items with the third illustrates the tortuous change which the ghetto experienced within these three years. In 1940 and 1941, the network of departments covered a wide variety of communal services, and the administration supported schools, children’s homes, summer camps, day camps, hospitals, clinics, old age homes, etc. Tens of thousands of ghetto inhabitants were regularly receiving welfare support. The system of government included its own police, court, rabbinical authority, post office, ghetto currency, telephone system, transportation, etc. Indeed, on the surface it looked as if the ghetto had total autonomy over its own affairs.

This picture changed rapidly in the second half of 1942, the year of murderous deportations actions. With the ghetto population reduced by almost half its initial size of over 160,000, departments such as Education, Health Care, the Rabbinate and Welfare disappeared. At the time the industrial complex in the ghetto grew to enormous proportions, with 117 enterprises in which over eighty-five percent of the population were employed.

The final year of the ghetto’s existence passed without major administrative changes. Symbolically, the very last office which was created in the ghetto was the Interdepartmental Commission, which began its work on June 16, 1944. Its task was to compile lists of people who were to be deported during the final months of the Lódz ghetto.

Internal autonomy never really existed in the Lódz ghetto. On the contrary, the ghetto was relentlessly watched by various Nazi agencies, and the Jewish administration was obliged to report to these agencies on ghetto affairs at frequent intervals. In fact, an entire branch of the administration was created out of a need to collect data and prepare reports. This branch, commonly known as Population Records, was started when a census of the ghetto population was ordered by the Nazis after the sealing of the ghetto. It included the departments of Address Registration, Statistics, Civil Registry and the Rabbinical Bureau. Of special importance was Department of Statistics which had the task of assembling the data for these reports. In time a photographic laboratory was added to the department, and a ghetto archives was organized.

Nazi control over the ghetto was exercised in the first place by the Gestapo. The Gestapo, together with the police units of Schupo (Protective Police) and Kripo (Criminal Police), was in charge of maintaining the total isolation of the ghetto and implementing the annihilation of the Jewish population. Civil and economic supervision of the ghetto was in the hands of the Oberbürgermeister (Mayor) of the German municipality, who established a special department to deal with ghetto affairs. This department, first called the Ernährungs-und Wirtschaftsstelle-Getto, was renamed in October, 1940, as the Gettoverwaltung (Ghetto Administration). The Gettoverwaltung controlled the flow of supplies into the ghetto and procured raw materials for the ghetto factories. In exchange, it received all the goods confiscated from ghetto inmates and collected the profits from ghetto industry. The head of this department was Hans Biebow, a merchant from Bremen who played a central role in developing the ghetto’s industrial complex and in refining the system of its total exploitation.

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Scope and Content Note

This collection was donated to the YIVO Institute by Nachman Zonabend of Stockholm, Sweden, in 1948. The donation was acknowledged and described in News of the YIVO, No. 27, June, 1948. The collection bears the name of its donor in recognition of his role in rescuing these documents and his generosity in transferring them to the YIVO Archives. The Nachman Zonabend Collection is registered in the YIVO Archives as Record Group No. 241.

The documents were initially sorted and described in 1950. This arrangement was not satisfactory in several respects, the first and foremost being that the documents were assembled in series by subject rather than by their provenance. Since the origin of almost all the items is clearly indicated, it was feasible to restructure the collection accordingly. The new arrangement was completed and an inventory compiled by Marek Web in May 1987. The re-arrangement of the collection involved, among other things, changing the old folder numbers. Since these numbers were quoted previously in numerous publications (most notably Geto Lodz by Isaiah Trunk), a conversion table reconciling the old and the new folder numbers has been compiled and is kept in the YIVO Archives.

The collection consists of correspondence, printed and mimeographed announcements and circulars, calendars, newspapers, statistical charts, maps, reports, essays, albums, photographs and personal documents relating to the organization, life and destruction of the ghetto in Lódz under Nazi rule, 1939-1944. It occupies eight linear feet of shelving.

Most of the documents are typed. A number of announcements and official publications are printed. Handwritten items include notes and essays written by the staff of the ghetto archives and programs of cultural events. Albums and charts are ornamented with elaborate graphics and photo-montages. The photographs are early-generation prints made (with some exceptions) from master negatives. On the whole, the documents have survived in good condition, except for some posters which were printed on inferior paper. Many items, such as official histories of ghetto departments and labor divisions, were typed on high grade paper, which withstood well the ravages of an adverse environment. Very often packing paper was used for typing. A number of documents (e.g. the calendars) were printed on the reverse side of Biebow’s private stationery from his enterprises in Bremen.

The languages of the documents are Polish, German and Yiddish. Many announcements are bilingual, i.e., Polish and Yiddish or German and Yiddish. On the whole, use of Yiddish in official correspondence was very limited. From 1942 German became the dominant language of ghetto documents.

The collection consists of fragmentary records of the Eldest of the Jews in Lódz, by which name the Jewish ghetto administration was known. There are over 2,000 individual documents and photographs filed in 1120 folders. The remaining part of this record group is located in the Lódz State Archives (until 1967 it was in the possession of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw). In the YIVO collection, degrees of completeness vary substantially from one series to another. Many series representing major departments consist here of a few documents only.

Despite its fragmentary nature, this is an important repository of documentation about the destruction of a major Jewish community during the Holocaust. The annihilation of European Jewry, engineered and executed by the Nazis, is eloquently exemplified in these records of the life and death of the Lódz ghetto.

To the extent that it was possible, the records were organized according to the office of their origin. The collection is comprised of fifteen series which for the most part mirror the organizational pattern of the ghetto administration.

Series 1 to 5 contain the files of Chaim Mordechai Rumkowski. Included are his correspondence with the German agencies, his announcements to the ghetto population and inter-office circulars issued by Rumkowski or by his closest associates.

Records of the departments of the ghetto central administration comprise Series 6 to 8. Thirteen departments are represented in these series. These materials are very fragmentary. Nevertheless, many individual documents and files are of special importance.

Series 9 is made up of documents, mainly circulars, pertaining to the Provisioning Departments.

Series 10 and 11 include discrete records of all other branches of the ghetto administration. The following departments are represented: Labor Assignments, labor divisions and workshops; Agriculture; Welfare; Health and Sanitation; and Schools.

Series 12 and 13 consist of iconographic materials.

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Arrangement

This collection is divided into seven subject groups, each of which is further divided into series. There are fifteen series, arranged as follows:

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Access and Use

Access Restrictions

Open to researchers.

Use Restrictions

There may be some restrictions on the use of the collection. For more information, contact:
Chief Archivist, YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, Center for Jewish History, 15 West 16th Street, New York, NY 10011
email: archives@yivo.cjh.org

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Provenance

The collection was donated to the YIVO Institute in 1948 by Mr. Nachman Zonabend of Stockholm, Sweden. Mr. Zonabend, a former inmate of the ghetto in Lódz, Poland, assembled and secured these documents prior to the liberation of Lódz from Nazi rule between October, 1944 and January, 1945.

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Preferred Citation

Published citations should take the following form:

Identification of item, date (if known); Nachman Zonabend Collection; RG 241; folder number; YIVO Institute for Jewish Research.

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Preface by Dr. Lucjan Dobroszycki

The history of the life and destruction of the wartime Jewish community of Lódz – the second largest in Europe after Warsaw – can be reconstructed with unusual precision and in terrifying detail.

On the basis of contemporaneous documents that survived the war records concerning issues such as habitation, employment, daily food supply, mortality rates, and deportations into and out of the Jewish quarter to concentration or extermination camps – it is possible today to trace not only the history of the ghetto as a whole, but also the lives of its individual inhabitants.

The records of the Lódz ghetto can be numbered in the millions of pages. They constitute an extraordinary resource, and it would be difficult to find anything comparable in the vast documentation of the destruction of European Jewry. The abundance of materials on the wartime Jewish community of Lódz was the product of both the intricate ghetto bureaucracy and of the conscious and systematic efforts of a group of Jewish archivists and chroniclers working within the archives of the Jewish ghetto administration. Equally important is the fact that, unlike Warsaw, Lódz – including the site of its ghetto – survived the war physically intact.

By far the largest collection of the Lódz ghetto documents outside Poland may be found in the archives of the YIVO Institute in New York. They are kept as a distinct collection, named in honor of Nachman Zonabend, who, as one of the mere 877 Jews left in the ghetto after the last deportation, undertook to safeguard materials collected and compiled by the staff of the archives of the Jewish administration. Shortly after liberation he decided, out of a combination of prescience and instinct, that the ghetto materials he had rescued belonged both to the surviving Jews of Poland and to world Jewry, and that they should be made easily accessible to scholars everywhere. With this in mind, he divided the material into two parts. One was to be turned over to the newly created Central Jewish Historical Commission (later known as the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw), founded by the prominent Jewish historian Philip Friedman. The other part was divided between YIVO, Yad Vashem in Jerusalem and Beit Lohamei Hagetaot near Haifa. The wisdom of Zonabend’s decision to disseminate these materials in the Free World became especially apparent during the 1967-1969 anti-Jewish campaign in Poland, when all the documents from the Lódz ghetto were removed by order of the authorities from the archives of the Jewish Historical Institute. Transferred to the Lódz Municipal Archives, to this day they remain separated from the largest center for Jewish historical studies in Poland and are no longer easily accessible to scholars.

This inventory of the Nachman Zonabend Collection, compiled by Marek Web, the Head Archivist of YIVO, is the first annotated list of documents from the Lódz ghetto ever published. Although it contains only YIVO’s holdings, the inventory will undoubtedly be of great assistance to researchers around the world working on one or another aspect of the vanished Jewish community of Lódz.

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Container List

The following section contains a detailed listing of the materials in the collection.

 

A: THE ELDEST OF THE JEWS, CHAIM MORDECHAI RUMKOWSKI, 1939-1944

Arrangement:

Divided into five series:

Series I: Organization of the Ghetto, n.d., 1940-1943

Series is in Polish and German.
8 folders
Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Series I holds information pertaining to the organization of the Lódz ghetto. This small series holds such items as diagrams of ghetto administration and industry and of labor divisions. It also has documents on the resettlement and transportation of ghetto inhabitants. A street-car plan of the ghetto is also present here.

Folder TitleDate
1Appeal by Rumkowski to house janitors to guard the houses in the ghetto area during resettlement of the Jewish population to the ghetto. Also a list of persons who were approved as house janitors.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
2Letters from Rumkowski to the owners of horses and horsedrawn wagons requisitioning these for the purposes of ghetto transport.1940 29 Feb., 1941 14 Apr., 1941 15 Apr.
Folder TitleDate
3Letter from Rumkowski to his deputy Jakobson about supervising the office during his absence (caused by indisposition).6 June 1940
Folder TitleDate
4List of ghetto administration departments and labor divisions organized in seven functional branches: administration, provisioning, finances and ghetto economy, purchasing [i.e. confiscations], labor divisions and workshops, health and education, welfare.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
5“Graphic Representation of the Organization of the Eldest of the Jews in Litzmannstadt,” A diagram showing all branches of ghetto Administration and industry. Prepared by the Department of Statistics.1941 Sept.
Folder TitleDate
6“Graphic Representation of the Organization of the Labor Divisions and Internal Administration of the Ghetto,” Diagram prepared by the Department of Statistics.1943 Aug.
Folder TitleDate
7A sheet of Rumkowski’s stationery.[n.d.]
Folder TitleDate
8Plan of the street-car lines in the ghetto.n.d.

Series II: Correspondence with the German Administration, n.d., 1939-1940

This series is in Polish and German.
0.66 linear foot
Arrangement:

Series II is divided into 6 subseries:

Scope and Content:

Series II contains the bulk of the correspondence with various German agencies covering the period from September 1939 to June 1940. A number of documents in this group are of a later date, a few as late as July 1944. This series is of paramount importance for subjects such as Nazi attitudes towards Jews, anti-Jewish legislation at the outset of Nazi occupation, appointment of Jewish representatives, and plans for the concentration of Jews in ghettos. The correspondence with chiefs of the German municipality of Lódz – the City Commissioner and the Oberbürgermeister (Mayor) – includes all ordinances and instructions regarding the Jewish population, the Council of Elders, and Rumkowski’s personal position in the Jewish community during the first year of Nazi rule. It also sheds light on the beginnings of ghetto industry, a subject raised by Rumkowski in his letters to the Oberbürgermeister from April and May, 1940, in which he outlined his plan for its organization.

Of the various Oberbürgermeister departments, the Department of Health was more actively involved in ghetto affairs. The file of correspondence between the department and Rumkowski pertains to matters such as the dismissal of Jewish personnel from Polish hospitals, establishing hospitals for Jews only, disinfecting the ghetto area, daily reporting of infectious diseases, etc.

The correspondence and other documents of the Gettoverwaltung, 1940-1944, are almost all signed by Hans Biebow, Nazi administrator of the Lódz ghetto. In view of the fact that the Gettoverwaltung was the direct supervisor of the ghetto on a daily basis, this group of thirty-seven documents remains but a small fraction of the total correspondence between Biebow and Rumkowski discrete items aptly illustrate Nazi exploitation of the ghetto. Especially telling in this respect are Biebow’s announcements to the ghetto population following the Gesperre deportation in 1942 (folder 112, 113), where he threatens the workers with reprisals if they do not return to their factories. In an earlier document Biebow expresses disappointment because of the slow pace of confiscating furs in the ghetto (folder 103). Also included are Biebow’s announcements from 1943-1944 about food distribution; this was a prerogative previously accorded to Rumkowski, of which he was deprived by Biebow in October, 1943. It should be noted here that the archives of the Gettoverwaltung are presently in the custody of the State Archives in Lódz.

Examples of correspondence with the Gestapo and the Police, 1940-1942, are indicative of the measure of control these agencies exercised over the ghetto. The relocation of Jewish children found in Polish homes to the ghetto, the return of tortured Jewish prisoners to the ghetto for hospitalization as well as the bodies of those murdered for burial, the giving of orders to the Ordnungsdienst about guarding the ghetto fence, the authorization to erect a barracks for people with infectious diseases, or permission to open food stores in the ghetto – these diverse matters were all under the jurisdiction of the Gestapo. “The Gestapo in Lodz actually had authority over all matters concerning the ghetto administration,” concludes Isaiah Trunk in his Judenrat (p. 271).

Among other institutions which corresponded with Rumkowski, mention should be made of the Haupttreuhandstelle-Ost (Main Trustee Office - East), which was in charge of confiscating Jewish property in the occupied territories. The letters from the Haupttreuhandstelle-Ost concern the sequestering of industrial enterprises in Lódz which belonged to Jews. There are also Rumkowski’s requests to Haupttreuhandstelle-Ost to leave certain useful properties in the ghetto or to turn over to the ghetto administration certain Jewish assets which remained outside the ghetto. In one characteristic response the Haupttreuhandstelle-Ost rejects such a request because “the Jews have vast amounts of money.” (folder 144)

Subseries 1: The Police, SS and Gestapo, 1940 Jan. 12-1940 Aug. 14

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 1 is comprised mainly of correspondence between various policing organizations, including the Gestapo, Kripo, Ordnungsdienst and Rumkowski. Much of it is between the Chief of Police and Rumkowski. Most of the documents are orders given to Rumkowski, but a few are inquiries by Rumkowski as to how to deal with a situation. There is also information on the treatment of ghetto inhabitants who were arrested.

Folder TitleDate
 Gestapo to Rumkowski. Authorization to erect barracks for infectious diseases and to obtain necessary construction materials.1940 Jan. 15
9Gestapo to Rumkowski. Authorization to erect barracks for infectious diseases and to obtain necessary construction materials.1940 Jan. 15
Folder TitleDate
 SS Office for the Resettlement of the Balts to Rumkowski. Permission is granted to contact the new owners of the apartments previously occupied by Jews in order to reclaim certain property such as “disposable children’s wear,” documents, souvenirs, identity cards and one full set of underwear and clothing.1940 Feb. 2, 1940 Feb. 13
10SS Office for the Resettlement of the Balts to Rumkowski. Permission is granted to contact the new owners of the apartments previously occupied by Jews in order to reclaim certain property such as “disposable children’s wear,” documents, souvenirs, identity cards and one full set of underwear and clothing.1940 Feb. 2, 1940 Feb. 13
Folder TitleDate
 Chief of Police to Rumkowski. A payment of 150 RM is ordered for each Jew arrested on February 29 for violation of the Police decree of February 8 [about establishment of the Lódz ghetto], and Rumkowski is responsible for exacting this payment from the relatives of those arrested. In addition these relatives must provide food for those detained.1940 Mar. 2
11Chief of Police to Rumkowski. A payment of 150 RM is ordered for each Jew arrested on February 29 for violation of the Police decree of February 8 [about establishment of the Lódz ghetto], and Rumkowski is responsible for exacting this payment from the relatives of those arrested. In addition these relatives must provide food for those detained.1940 Mar. 2
Folder TitleDate
 Chief of Police to Rumkowski. Permission for Regina Plywacka to open three food stores in the Jewish quarter.1940 Mar. 2
12Chief of Police to Rumkowski. Permission for Regina Plywacka to open three food stores in the Jewish quarter.1940 Mar. 2
Folder TitleDate
 Chief of Police to Rumkowski. About fines for certain individuals in the ghetto.1940 Mar. 26-1940 Mar. 27
13Chief of Police to Rumkowski. About fines for certain individuals in the ghetto.1940 Mar. 26-1940 Mar. 27
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to the Criminal Police (Kripo). About addresses of certain ghetto inhabitants.1940 June 3, 1940 June 7
14Rumkowski to the Criminal Police (Kripo). About addresses of certain ghetto inhabitants.1940 June 3, 1940 June 7
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to the SS Office for the Resettlement of the Balts. Requests permission to transfer the X-ray equipment which belonged to Dr. Mandelbrat to the ghetto.1940 Apr. 13
15Rumkowski to the SS Office for the Resettlement of the Balts. Requests permission to transfer the X-ray equipment which belonged to Dr. Mandelbrat to the ghetto.1940 Apr. 13
Folder TitleDate
 Chief of Police to Rumkowski. Orders to make repairs at the cemetery and to take steps to prevent more damage.1940 Apr. 16
16Chief of Police to Rumkowski. Orders to make repairs at the cemetery and to take steps to prevent more damage.1940 Apr. 16
Folder TitleDate
 Gestapo to Rumkowski. Order to find room for two families resettled by the Gestapo to the ghetto.1940 Apr. 13
17Gestapo to Rumkowski. Order to find room for two families resettled by the Gestapo to the ghetto.1940 Apr. 13
Folder TitleDate
 Chief of Police to Rumkowski. The payment of fines notwithstanding, those arrested cannot be released because they are to be prosecuted for other offenses.1940 Apr. 17
18Chief of Police to Rumkowski. The payment of fines notwithstanding, those arrested cannot be released because they are to be prosecuted for other offenses.1940 Apr. 17
Folder TitleDate
 Chief of Police to Rumkowski. The Jewish Ordnungsdienst is to take over the guarding of the ghetto fence and to assume responsibility for all damage to it.1940 Apr. 17
19Chief of Police to Rumkowski. The Jewish Ordnungsdienst is to take over the guarding of the ghetto fence and to assume responsibility for all damage to it.1940 Apr. 17
Folder TitleDate
 Chief of Police to Rumkowski. Order to hand over German uniforms which were made by Jewish tailors before the closing off of the ghetto to the police precinct in the ghetto.1940 May 10
20Chief of Police to Rumkowski. Order to hand over German uniforms which were made by Jewish tailors before the closing off of the ghetto to the police precinct in the ghetto.1940 May 10
Folder TitleDate
 Chief of Police to Rumkowski. Sending packages from the ghetto to the police prison in Radogoszcz is prohibited. It is permissible, however, to send disinfected underwear.1940 May 11, 1940 Aug. 3
21Chief of Police to Rumkowski. Sending packages from the ghetto to the police prison in Radogoszcz is prohibited. It is permissible, however, to send disinfected underwear.1940 May 11, 1940 Aug. 3
Folder TitleDate
 Chief of Police to Rumkowski. Advises that a fine which was levied on Rumkowski has been annulled.1940 May 21
22Chief of Police to Rumkowski. Advises that a fine which was levied on Rumkowski has been annulled.1940 May 21
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Kripo. Requests the return of physiotherapy ambulatory equipment which was confiscated on May 22.1940 May 13
23Rumkowski to Kripo. Requests the return of physiotherapy ambulatory equipment which was confiscated on May 22.1940 May 13
Folder TitleDate
 Chief of Police to Rumkowski. Personal effects of three deceased Jews may be picked up by their relatives from police storage.1940 May 23
24Chief of Police to Rumkowski. Personal effects of three deceased Jews may be picked up by their relatives from police storage.1940 May 23
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to the Chief of Police. Supports a request by Golda W., who wishes to return to her hometown Lutomiersk. Note from the Ordnungsdienst about the arrest of the woman by the German police.1940 May 29, 1940 August 29
25Rumkowski to the Chief of Police. Supports a request by Golda W., who wishes to return to her hometown Lutomiersk. Note from the Ordnungsdienst about the arrest of the woman by the German police.1940 May 29, 1940 August 29
Folder TitleDate
 Chief of Police to Rumkowski. Rumkowski is responsible for the safety and good condition of the industrial installations in the ghetto.1940 June 10
26Chief of Police to Rumkowski. Rumkowski is responsible for the safety and good condition of the industrial installations in the ghetto.1940 June 10
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to the Transit Camp Radogoszcz. Requests permission to bury the prisoner Kalman Sz. who was transferred from Radogoszcz to the ghetto hospital where he died.1940 June 13, 1940 June 29
27Rumkowski to the Transit Camp Radogoszcz. Requests permission to bury the prisoner Kalman Sz. who was transferred from Radogoszcz to the ghetto hospital where he died.1940 June 13, 1940 June 29
Folder TitleDate
 Chief of Police to Rumkowski. About collecting a fine of 50 RM from a ghetto inhabitant.1940 June 13
28Chief of Police to Rumkowski. About collecting a fine of 50 RM from a ghetto inhabitant.1940 June 13
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to the Radogoszcz Police Prison. Prisoner Hersz W., who was transferred to the hospital in the ghetto, has since recuperated. Request for further instructions.1940 July 1
29Rumkowski to the Radogoszcz Police Prison. Prisoner Hersz W., who was transferred to the hospital in the ghetto, has since recuperated. Request for further instructions.1940 July 1
Folder TitleDate
 Gestapo to Rumkowski. About the transfer to the ghetto of two Jewish children who were living with a Polish woman.1940 July 11
30Gestapo to Rumkowski. About the transfer to the ghetto of two Jewish children who were living with a Polish woman.1940 July 11
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to [German Police]. Complaint against a police guard at the ghetto gate who maltreats Jewish passers-by.1940 Aug. 14
31Rumkowski to [German Police]. Complaint against a police guard at the ghetto gate who maltreats Jewish passers-by.1940 Aug. 14
Folder TitleDate
 Protective Police (Schutzpolizei), Ghetto Detail (Gettowache) to Rumkowski. Permission for a group of twenty-two Jews to depart from the ghetto to Warsaw, Kraków (Cracow) and Kielce.1940 Sept. 22
32Protective Police (Schutzpolizei), Ghetto Detail (Gettowache) to Rumkowski. Permission for a group of twenty-two Jews to depart from the ghetto to Warsaw, Kraków (Cracow) and Kielce.1940 Sept. 22
Folder TitleDate
  Kripo to Rumkowski. Instructions to provide accommodations in the ghetto for one Mortiz Tadeusch, who was arrested on December 11, 1940, during a house search in the village of Krokocice.1941 Feb. 28
33 Kripo to Rumkowski. Instructions to provide accommodations in the ghetto for one Mortiz Tadeusch, who was arrested on December 11, 1940, during a house search in the village of Krokocice.1941 Feb. 28
Folder TitleDate
 Gestapo to Rumkowski. A Jewish child is being transferred to the ghetto.1942 Oct. 17
34Gestapo to Rumkowski. A Jewish child is being transferred to the ghetto.1942 Oct. 17

Subseries 2: Oberbürgermeister (Mayor) of the City of Lódz, 1940 Jan. 12-1940 July 17

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

This subseries holds mainly administrative announcements and orders from the Oberbürgermeister or his office to Rumkowski, or requests from Rumkowski to the Oberbürgermeister. Records here document Rumkowski’s acquisition of power over the Jewish Council of Lódz, the transfer of Jews to the ghetto and their subsequent incarceration there, and the organization of industry in the ghetto.

Folder TitleDate
 Permit issued by the Commissioner of the City of Lódz, Regierungspräsident Leister, to Chaim Mordechai Rumkowski authorizing him “to carry out all measures of the German Civil Administration of the City of Lodz with regard to all persons who belong to the Jewish race.” Rumkowski’s orders are to be obeyed by “every member of the Jewish race” unconditionally under threat of punishment. Copy authenticated by Rumkowski.1939 Oct. 13
35Permit issued by the Commissioner of the City of Lódz, Regierungspräsident Leister, to Chaim Mordechai Rumkowski authorizing him “to carry out all measures of the German Civil Administration of the City of Lodz with regard to all persons who belong to the Jewish race.” Rumkowski’s orders are to be obeyed by “every member of the Jewish race” unconditionally under threat of punishment. Copy authenticated by Rumkowski.1939 Oct. 13
Folder TitleDate
 Commissioner of the City of Lódz to Rumkowski. Order to dismiss all officials of the Jewish community and to appoint others who are to serve under him. Refusals to accept appointments will be punished by arrest.1939 Oct. 13-1939 Oct. 14
36Commissioner of the City of Lódz to Rumkowski. Order to dismiss all officials of the Jewish community and to appoint others who are to serve under him. Refusals to accept appointments will be punished by arrest.1939 Oct. 13-1939 Oct. 14
Folder TitleDate
 Commissioner of the City of Lódz to Rumkowski. Rumkowski is authorized to levy a tax to cover his expenditures and to keep as much money in his home as he may need to carry out his tasks.1939 Oct. 16
37Commissioner of the City of Lódz to Rumkowski. Rumkowski is authorized to levy a tax to cover his expenditures and to keep as much money in his home as he may need to carry out his tasks.1939 Oct. 16
Folder TitleDate
 Commissioner of the City of Lódz to Rumkowski. All Polish teachers and other Polish personnel employed in the Jewish schools are to be dismissed from their jobs. Commissioner of the City of Lódz to Rumkowski. Rumkowski is authorized to take over all Jewish elementary schools and to cover school expenses through a special tax.1939 Oct. 18
38-39Commissioner of the City of Lódz to Rumkowski. All Polish teachers and other Polish personnel employed in the Jewish schools are to be dismissed from their jobs. Commissioner of the City of Lódz to Rumkowski. Rumkowski is authorized to take over all Jewish elementary schools and to cover school expenses through a special tax.1939 Oct. 18
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister. Requests that his food storehouse in the city be transferred to the ghetto. Protests seizing of the supplies by the German administrator.1940 Apr. 30
40Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister. Requests that his food storehouse in the city be transferred to the ghetto. Protests seizing of the supplies by the German administrator.1940 Apr. 30
Folder TitleDate
 Oberbürgermeister to Rumkowski. Permission to demolish a building.1940 Feb. 19
41Oberbürgermeister to Rumkowski. Permission to demolish a building.1940 Feb. 19
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister. Request for permission to take over an empty building for a children’s home without having to pay 950 RM requested by the former tenant.1940 Mar. 27
42Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister. Request for permission to take over an empty building for a children’s home without having to pay 950 RM requested by the former tenant.1940 Mar. 27
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister. Request for a loan of sanitation equipment, as well as shovels and axes to carry out cleaning action in the ghetto.1940 Mar. 28, 1940 Mar. 29
43Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister. Request for a loan of sanitation equipment, as well as shovels and axes to carry out cleaning action in the ghetto.1940 Mar. 28, 1940 Mar. 29
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister. Submits plan to organize industry in the ghetto. Requests permission to collect rents and issue trade licenses. Asks for an “appropriate subsidy” to establish the ghetto budget.1940 Apr. 5
44Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister. Submits plan to organize industry in the ghetto. Requests permission to collect rents and issue trade licenses. Asks for an “appropriate subsidy” to establish the ghetto budget.1940 Apr. 5
Folder TitleDate
  Oberbürgermeister to Rumkowski. Authorization to demolish and repair houses in the ghetto.1940 Apr. 18
45 Oberbürgermeister to Rumkowski. Authorization to demolish and repair houses in the ghetto.1940 Apr. 18
Folder TitleDate
 City Commissioner to Rumkowski. States that authority over the transfer of Jews from the city to the ghetto rests solely with the Oberbürgermeister.1940 Apr. 30
46City Commissioner to Rumkowski. States that authority over the transfer of Jews from the city to the ghetto rests solely with the Oberbürgermeister.1940 Apr. 30
Folder TitleDate
  Oberbürgermeister to Rumkowski. Rumkowski is authorized to administer all real estate in the ghetto and collect rent; he is obliged to pay taxes to the German administration.1940 Apr. 24
47 Oberbürgermeister to Rumkowski. Rumkowski is authorized to administer all real estate in the ghetto and collect rent; he is obliged to pay taxes to the German administration.1940 Apr. 24
Folder TitleDate
 City Commissioner Schiffer enumerates Rumkowski’s tasks and prerogatives as the Eldest of the Ghetto. He is to ensure that the Jews do not leave the ghetto as of April 30; to organize and maintain “orderly community life” with respect to economy, provisioning, work, health and welfare; to submit weekly lists of all ghetto inhabitants; to list and secure for the purpose of confiscation all Jewish assets except for vitally needed clothes, food and dwellings. In return, Rumkowski is authorized to organize his own police to maintain order; to confiscate and distribute all food; to enforce work without pay. All ghetto contacts with the German authorities are to be maintained by Rumkowski or his deputy.1940 Apr. 30
48City Commissioner Schiffer enumerates Rumkowski’s tasks and prerogatives as the Eldest of the Ghetto. He is to ensure that the Jews do not leave the ghetto as of April 30; to organize and maintain “orderly community life” with respect to economy, provisioning, work, health and welfare; to submit weekly lists of all ghetto inhabitants; to list and secure for the purpose of confiscation all Jewish assets except for vitally needed clothes, food and dwellings. In return, Rumkowski is authorized to organize his own police to maintain order; to confiscate and distribute all food; to enforce work without pay. All ghetto contacts with the German authorities are to be maintained by Rumkowski or his deputy.1940 Apr. 30
Folder TitleDate
 City Commissioner Schiffer enumerates Rumkowski’s tasks and prerogatives as the Eldest of the Ghetto. The Oberbürgermeister is the sole authority over the ghetto.1940 Apr. 30
49City Commissioner Schiffer enumerates Rumkowski’s tasks and prerogatives as the Eldest of the Ghetto. The Oberbürgermeister is the sole authority over the ghetto.1940 Apr. 30
Folder TitleDate
 City Commissioner Schiffer enumerates Rumkowski’s tasks and prerogatives as the Eldest of the Ghetto. In order to avoid epidemics, ritual washing of corpses is prohibited. All dead must be buried within twenty-four hours.1940 May 4
50City Commissioner Schiffer enumerates Rumkowski’s tasks and prerogatives as the Eldest of the Ghetto. In order to avoid epidemics, ritual washing of corpses is prohibited. All dead must be buried within twenty-four hours.1940 May 4
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister. Informs that 14,850 tailors and seamstresses have been registered for work. Lists eighty-one articles (including uniforms for the Hitlerjugend, the army and the police) which could be manufactured in the ghetto. Asks for production orders.1940 May 13
51Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister. Informs that 14,850 tailors and seamstresses have been registered for work. Lists eighty-one articles (including uniforms for the Hitlerjugend, the army and the police) which could be manufactured in the ghetto. Asks for production orders.1940 May 13
Folder TitleDate
  Oberbürgermeister to Rumkowski, concerning an ice storehouse in the ghetto which belonged to a German.1940 May 14
52 Oberbürgermeister to Rumkowski, concerning an ice storehouse in the ghetto which belonged to a German.1940 May 14
Folder TitleDate
  Oberbürgermeister to Rumkowski, about the way stamps should be pasted on letters addressed to the Oberbürgermeister.1940 May 28
53 Oberbürgermeister to Rumkowski, about the way stamps should be pasted on letters addressed to the Oberbürgermeister.1940 May 28
Folder TitleDate
 Oberbürgermeister to Rumkowski, about rescinding a penalty which was levied by the police on Rumkowski.1940 May 30
54Oberbürgermeister to Rumkowski, about rescinding a penalty which was levied by the police on Rumkowski.1940 May 30
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister, asking for transfer to the ghetto of the registry books of the Jewish population in order to continue registration of births and deaths in the ghetto.1940 June 5
55Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister, asking for transfer to the ghetto of the registry books of the Jewish population in order to continue registration of births and deaths in the ghetto.1940 June 5
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to [Oberbürgermeister]. Complaint against two Germans, a civilian and a policeman, who offended him.1940 Aug. 14
56Rumkowski to [Oberbürgermeister]. Complaint against two Germans, a civilian and a policeman, who offended him.1940 Aug. 14

Subseries 3: Oberbürgermeister Health Department,  1940 Jan. 12-1940 July 17

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 3 is comprised of directives pertaining to the health situation in the ghetto as well as rules governing doctors’ and dentists’ practices. The majority of documents here are communications between the Oberbürgermeister Health Department and Rumkowski, although a few are from the State Hygiene Institute in Lódz and from Pharmaceutical organizations. Several documents focus on the reporting of disease cases and efforts to keep the ghetto free of disease; others deal with the deportation of physicians and other medical personnel.

Folder TitleDate
 Health Department to Rumkowski. Jewish patients will be accepted by the Poznanski hospital only.1940 Jan. 12
57Health Department to Rumkowski. Jewish patients will be accepted by the Poznanski hospital only.1940 Jan. 12
Folder TitleDate
 Health Department to Rumkowski. “In view of the enormously high disease rate” Jewish physicians who reside in Lódz are allowed to render medical assistance.1940 Feb. 5
58Health Department to Rumkowski. “In view of the enormously high disease rate” Jewish physicians who reside in Lódz are allowed to render medical assistance.1940 Feb. 5
Folder TitleDate
 Health Department to Rumkowski. Two nurses from the Jewish Hospital are to be isolated because they contracted spotted fever.1940 Feb. 6
59Health Department to Rumkowski. Two nurses from the Jewish Hospital are to be isolated because they contracted spotted fever.1940 Feb. 6
Folder TitleDate
 Health Department to Rumkowski. Jewish physicians are to be on duty on February 11, notwithstanding the curfew ordered for that day.1940 Feb. 9
60Health Department to Rumkowski. Jewish physicians are to be on duty on February 11, notwithstanding the curfew ordered for that day.1940 Feb. 9
Folder TitleDate
 Health Department to Rumkowski. Permission for nine Jewish dentists to take their dental instruments to the ghetto.1940 24 Jan., 1940 Feb. 16-1940 Feb. 19
61Health Department to Rumkowski. Permission for nine Jewish dentists to take their dental instruments to the ghetto.1940 24 Jan., 1940 Feb. 16-1940 Feb. 19
Folder TitleDate
 Health Department to Rumkowski. Requests for transfer of a dentist’s office and two medical laboratories are refused.1940 Feb. 17, 1940 Feb. 22
62Health Department to Rumkowski. Requests for transfer of a dentist’s office and two medical laboratories are refused.1940 Feb. 17, 1940 Feb. 22
Folder TitleDate
 Dr. Kiozenberg. Physicians may be employed at the hospital only with the consent of the Reich Chamber. Request for a list of hospital personnel.1940 Feb. 19
63Dr. Kiozenberg. Physicians may be employed at the hospital only with the consent of the Reich Chamber. Request for a list of hospital personnel.1940 Feb. 19
Folder TitleDate
 Health Department to Rumkowski. Order to distribute the attached circular among forty-one Jewish midwives in Lódz (names listed), forbidding them under severe penalties to exercise their profession among the gentile population as of January 30.1940 Feb. 27
64Health Department to Rumkowski. Order to distribute the attached circular among forty-one Jewish midwives in Lódz (names listed), forbidding them under severe penalties to exercise their profession among the gentile population as of January 30.1940 Feb. 27
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Health Department. Requests to stop deportation of Jewish physicians [to the Government General], to free those recently arrested and to allow them unrestricted movement in the city including use of horse-drawn carriages and street-cars.1940 Mar. 3
65Rumkowski to Health Department. Requests to stop deportation of Jewish physicians [to the Government General], to free those recently arrested and to allow them unrestricted movement in the city including use of horse-drawn carriages and street-cars.1940 Mar. 3
Folder TitleDate
 State Hygiene Institute in Lódz to Rumkowski. Request for serological and bacteriological tests to be carried out in the ghetto.1940 Apr. 14, 1940 May 3
66State Hygiene Institute in Lódz to Rumkowski. Request for serological and bacteriological tests to be carried out in the ghetto.1940 Apr. 14, 1940 May 3
Folder TitleDate
 Health Department to Rumkowski. In answer to his letter of March 3 [see No. 66], the request to stop deportation of Jewish physicians should be submitted to the Gestapo. Permission for Jewish physicians to use public transportation may be obtained from the Regierungspräsident’s office. Bedridden Jewish patients must be transferred to Jewish hospitals.1940 Mar. 6
67Health Department to Rumkowski. In answer to his letter of March 3 [see No. 66], the request to stop deportation of Jewish physicians should be submitted to the Gestapo. Permission for Jewish physicians to use public transportation may be obtained from the Regierungspräsident’s office. Bedridden Jewish patients must be transferred to Jewish hospitals.1940 Mar. 6
Folder TitleDate
 Pharmaceutical Council (Pharmazierat), Lódz office, to Rumkowski. Permission to open pharmacies in the ghetto.1940 Apr. 3, 1940 Apr. 8
68Pharmaceutical Council (Pharmazierat), Lódz office, to Rumkowski. Permission to open pharmacies in the ghetto.1940 Apr. 3, 1940 Apr. 8
Folder TitleDate
 Health Department to Rumkowski. Permission to use the baths on Hohensteiner Street [outside the ghetto].1940 Apr. 8
69Health Department to Rumkowski. Permission to use the baths on Hohensteiner Street [outside the ghetto].1940 Apr. 8
Folder TitleDate
 Health Department to Rumkowski. Rumkowski is responsible for “orderly execution of anti-epidemic measures in the Jewish quarter.” The disinfection equipment should be kept in working order.1940 Apr. 10
70Health Department to Rumkowski. Rumkowski is responsible for “orderly execution of anti-epidemic measures in the Jewish quarter.” The disinfection equipment should be kept in working order.1940 Apr. 10
Folder TitleDate
 Health Department to Rumkowski. The assembly camp at Rembrandtstrasse 10 is to be disinfected and its inmates deloused.1940 Apr. 11, 1940 Apr. 15
71Health Department to Rumkowski. The assembly camp at Rembrandtstrasse 10 is to be disinfected and its inmates deloused.1940 Apr. 11, 1940 Apr. 15
Folder TitleDate
 Health Department to Rumkowski. About inspection of the disinfection equipment in the ghetto by a German health official.1940 Apr. 15
72Health Department to Rumkowski. About inspection of the disinfection equipment in the ghetto by a German health official.1940 Apr. 15
Folder TitleDate
 Health Department to Rumkowski. About hospital buildings which were placed at Rumkowski’s disposal.1940 Apr. 23-1940 Apr. 27
73Health Department to Rumkowski. About hospital buildings which were placed at Rumkowski’s disposal.1940 Apr. 23-1940 Apr. 27
Folder TitleDate
 Health Department to Rumkowski. About the daily reporting of infectious disease cases.1940 Apr. 30
74Health Department to Rumkowski. About the daily reporting of infectious disease cases.1940 Apr. 30
Folder TitleDate
 Deutsche Apotekarschaft Litzmannstadt to Rumkowski. Rejects requests for certain drugs on the grounds that these are still available in the ghetto.1940 May 6, 1940 May 10
75Deutsche Apotekarschaft Litzmannstadt to Rumkowski. Rejects requests for certain drugs on the grounds that these are still available in the ghetto.1940 May 6, 1940 May 10
Folder TitleDate
 Health Department to Rumkowski. It is Rumkowski’s responsibility that physicians from the ghetto carry out Health Department orders. As a matter of principle there will be no direct contacts between the ghetto physicians and the department.1940 May 21
76Health Department to Rumkowski. It is Rumkowski’s responsibility that physicians from the ghetto carry out Health Department orders. As a matter of principle there will be no direct contacts between the ghetto physicians and the department.1940 May 21
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to the Health Department. Requests permission to postpone the opening of the prosectorium for two weeks.1940 May 28
77Rumkowski to the Health Department. Requests permission to postpone the opening of the prosectorium for two weeks.1940 May 28
Folder TitleDate
 Health Department to Rumkowski. About late payment for coal supplies.1940 June 6
78Health Department to Rumkowski. About late payment for coal supplies.1940 June 6
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to the Chief Prosecutor in Litzmannstadt. Appeal to reconsider the case of Dr. Rozowski, who was arrested and tried in the Sondergericht (Special Court).1940 June 7
79Rumkowski to the Chief Prosecutor in Litzmannstadt. Appeal to reconsider the case of Dr. Rozowski, who was arrested and tried in the Sondergericht (Special Court).1940 June 7
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to the Health Department. A list of disinfection equipment in the ghetto.1940 June 20
80Rumkowski to the Health Department. A list of disinfection equipment in the ghetto.1940 June 20
Folder TitleDate
 Health Department to Rumkowski. About the daily reporting of disease cases.1940 July 17
81Health Department to Rumkowski. About the daily reporting of disease cases.1940 July 17

Subseries 4: Oberbürgermeister Ghetto Administration (Ernährungs und Wirtschaftsamt; Ernährungs und Wirtschaftstelle Getto; Gettoverwaltung), n.d., 1940-1944

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

This subseries covers a variety of topics, but many deal with issues of supplies, payments and rationing, and concerning the ghetto workshops. Many of the documents located here are correspondence and announcements from Hans Biebow to Rumkowski, although there are a few which are from Rumkowski to Biebow, including information on payments, a response to a request, and a report.

Folder TitleDate
 Ghetto Administration to Rumkowski. Request for return of, or payment for, 666 bags, in which 50,000 kg. of flour were delivered to the ghetto.1940 Feb. 14
82Ghetto Administration to Rumkowski. Request for return of, or payment for, 666 bags, in which 50,000 kg. of flour were delivered to the ghetto.1940 Feb. 14
Folder TitleDate
 Ghetto Administration to Rumkowski. Concerning a penalty for a resident of the ghetto.1940 Mar. 7
83Ghetto Administration to Rumkowski. Concerning a penalty for a resident of the ghetto.1940 Mar. 7
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. Permission is denied to purchase 100,000 kg. of small fish.1940 Apr. 16
84Biebow to Rumkowski. Permission is denied to purchase 100,000 kg. of small fish.1940 Apr. 16
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. Instructions concerning payments by Rumkowski to the Ghetto Administration.1940 May 8-1940 May 25
85Biebow to Rumkowski. Instructions concerning payments by Rumkowski to the Ghetto Administration.1940 May 8-1940 May 25
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. About submitting requests for supplies on special forms.1940 May 15
86Biebow to Rumkowski. About submitting requests for supplies on special forms.1940 May 15
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. Demand to begin production of office furniture in the ghetto carpentry workshops.1940 May 20
87Biebow to Rumkowski. Demand to begin production of office furniture in the ghetto carpentry workshops.1940 May 20
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. There is an additional charge of 15% for all supplies ordered on credit.1940 May 20
88Biebow to Rumkowski. There is an additional charge of 15% for all supplies ordered on credit.1940 May 20
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. Permission to receive the newspapers Illustrierter Beobachter and Berliner Illustrierte.1940 May 20
89Biebow to Rumkowski. Permission to receive the newspapers Illustrierter Beobachter and Berliner Illustrierte.1940 May 20
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Biebow. About payments made in Czech crowns by individuals from the ghetto. Also about a deposit of 400 crowns in the Bank Lodscher Industrieller made by M. Zazujer in October, 1939, for which an equivalent in Reichmarks is requested.1940 May 22-1940 May 23
90Rumkowski to Biebow. About payments made in Czech crowns by individuals from the ghetto. Also about a deposit of 400 crowns in the Bank Lodscher Industrieller made by M. Zazujer in October, 1939, for which an equivalent in Reichmarks is requested.1940 May 22-1940 May 23
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. All vehicles in the ghetto must be reported.1940 May 23
91Biebow to Rumkowski. All vehicles in the ghetto must be reported.1940 May 23
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. Instructions concerning supplies for the ghetto.1940 May 23
92Biebow to Rumkowski. Instructions concerning supplies for the ghetto.1940 May 23
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. Instruction on how to write letters and replies to the Ghetto Administration.1940 May 20, 1940 May 23
93Biebow to Rumkowski. Instruction on how to write letters and replies to the Ghetto Administration.1940 May 20, 1940 May 23
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. Bags are “precious, irreplaceable goods for the German economy.” Unless empty bags are returned in perfect condition, any further delivery of merchandise to the ghetto will be “unthinkable.” 1940 May 24
94Biebow to Rumkowski. Bags are “precious, irreplaceable goods for the German economy.” Unless empty bags are returned in perfect condition, any further delivery of merchandise to the ghetto will be “unthinkable.” 1940 May 24
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. Rumkowski must deliver a large number of bottle corks in order to avoid delays in receiving supplies of fuel alcohol (Brennspiritus).1940 May 25
95Biebow to Rumkowski. Rumkowski must deliver a large number of bottle corks in order to avoid delays in receiving supplies of fuel alcohol (Brennspiritus).1940 May 25
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. Rumkowski must instruct his subordinates not to conduct their own correspondence with German firms.1940 May 15-1940 May 28
96Biebow to Rumkowski. Rumkowski must instruct his subordinates not to conduct their own correspondence with German firms.1940 May 15-1940 May 28
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. The penalty imposed on Rumkowski by the police on February 23 has been rescinded by the Chief of Police.1940 May 21, 1940 May 30
97Biebow to Rumkowski. The penalty imposed on Rumkowski by the police on February 23 has been rescinded by the Chief of Police.1940 May 21, 1940 May 30
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. It will not be possible to increase the allotment of five tons of wheat flour.1940 May 30
98Biebow to Rumkowski. It will not be possible to increase the allotment of five tons of wheat flour.1940 May 30
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. Instructions not to accept any deliveries in the ghetto if Biebow’s staff is not present.1940 May 30
99Biebow to Rumkowski. Instructions not to accept any deliveries in the ghetto if Biebow’s staff is not present.1940 May 30
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. Rumkowski is advised to apply to the police for firefighting equipment.1940 June 10
100Biebow to Rumkowski. Rumkowski is advised to apply to the police for firefighting equipment.1940 June 10
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. Concerning the whereabouts of certain individuals in the ghetto.1940 July 29
101Biebow to Rumkowski. Concerning the whereabouts of certain individuals in the ghetto.1940 July 29
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. About knitting needles.1940 Oct. 26
102Biebow to Rumkowski. About knitting needles.1940 Oct. 26
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. Demand to accelerate the enforced selling of furs in the ghetto if “more severe measures” are to be avoided.1940 Oct. 27
103Biebow to Rumkowski. Demand to accelerate the enforced selling of furs in the ghetto if “more severe measures” are to be avoided.1940 Oct. 27
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. Demand for payment for garments delivered to the ghetto.1940 Oct. 28
104Biebow to Rumkowski. Demand for payment for garments delivered to the ghetto.1940 Oct. 28
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. About manufacturing soles in the ghetto workshops.1940 Oct. 28
105Biebow to Rumkowski. About manufacturing soles in the ghetto workshops.1940 Oct. 28
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. Warning not to accept work orders from private persons including employees of the German ghetto administration.1940 Oct. 28, 1940 Nov. 9
106Biebow to Rumkowski. Warning not to accept work orders from private persons including employees of the German ghetto administration.1940 Oct. 28, 1940 Nov. 9
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. Rumkowski is billed 2.40 RM for a box of buttons.1940 Oct. 30
107Biebow to Rumkowski. Rumkowski is billed 2.40 RM for a box of buttons.1940 Oct. 30
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. About raw materials for the ghetto.1940 Oct. 30
108Biebow to Rumkowski. About raw materials for the ghetto.1940 Oct. 30
Folder TitleDate
 Biebow to Rumkowski. The resettlement of Jews from the provincial towns to the ghetto notwithstanding, the food supply allotment for the ghetto will not be increased.1941 Oct. 1
109Biebow to Rumkowski. The resettlement of Jews from the provincial towns to the ghetto notwithstanding, the food supply allotment for the ghetto will not be increased.1941 Oct. 1
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Biebow. About creating medals which will be awarded to those workers who excel in the shops.23 Jan. 1942-24 Jan. 1940
110Rumkowski to Biebow. About creating medals which will be awarded to those workers who excel in the shops.23 Jan. 1942-24 Jan. 1940
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Biebow. Responds to a request of a Polish woman to return to her the belongings which she left in her house. Informs that the house is situated outside the ghetto.1940 May 20
111Rumkowski to Biebow. Responds to a request of a Polish woman to return to her the belongings which she left in her house. Informs that the house is situated outside the ghetto.1940 May 20
Folder TitleDate
 Announcement by Biebow about the distribution of food rations during the deportation.1942 Sept. 9
112Announcement by Biebow about the distribution of food rations during the deportation.1942 Sept. 9
Folder TitleDate
 Announcement by Biebow to the ghetto population, about the reopening of all ghetto factories and workshops following the conclusion of the September deportation. All workers should report back to work on September 14 if they want to avoid “most unpleasant consequences.”1942 Sept. 14
113Announcement by Biebow to the ghetto population, about the reopening of all ghetto factories and workshops following the conclusion of the September deportation. All workers should report back to work on September 14 if they want to avoid “most unpleasant consequences.”1942 Sept. 14
Folder TitleDate
 Announcement by Biebow. Warns against thefts. Directs the Special Unit (Sonderkommando) to deal with the problem. 1942 Oct. 9
114Announcement by Biebow. Warns against thefts. Directs the Special Unit (Sonderkommando) to deal with the problem. 1942 Oct. 9
Folder TitleDate
 Announcement by Biebow. Orders all signs in ghetto workplaces to be exclusively in German.1942 Oct. 15
115Announcement by Biebow. Orders all signs in ghetto workplaces to be exclusively in German.1942 Oct. 15
Folder TitleDate
 Form letter from Ghetto Administration to German firms, advertising the ghetto workshops and soliciting orders.n.d.
116Form letter from Ghetto Administration to German firms, advertising the ghetto workshops and soliciting orders.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Announcement by Biebow, that he is personally taking over the distribution of rations because of existing corruption. Ten announcements about food distribution.1943 Oct., 1943 Dec. 17-1944 July 25
117Announcement by Biebow, that he is personally taking over the distribution of rations because of existing corruption. Ten announcements about food distribution.1943 Oct., 1943 Dec. 17-1944 July 25
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Biebow. Report on the use of petrol by the ghetto fire brigade.1944 July 2, 1944 July 5
118Rumkowski to Biebow. Report on the use of petrol by the ghetto fire brigade.1944 July 2, 1944 July 5
Folder TitleDate
 Blank of a delivery receipt for the Wehrmacht.n.d.
119Blank of a delivery receipt for the Wehrmacht.n.d.

Subseries 5: Other Oberbürgermeister Offices, 1940 Jan. 4-1940 July 18

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Several offices are represented in Subseries 5. Several folders contain documents from the Statistical, Resettlement, and Construction Departments and the Court, among other offices. Documents from the statistical office concern the assignment of workers and reports. Folders relating to the Resettlement Department feature documents on the assignment of apartments and the transfer of Jewish institutions and a soup-kitchen to the ghetto. Court records deal with a family that renounced their faith and a summons issued by the Court.

Folder TitleDate
 Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle (VoMi - Office for Repatriation of Ethnic Germans), Zgierz. Request that Rumkowski pay the wages of thirty-three Jews working for the VoMi in Zgierz. A list of these workers is enclosed. Letter from Rumkowski to the Lódz Commissioner protesting this demand and a reply ordering him to pay.1940 Jan. 14, 1940 Feb. 2
120Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle (VoMi - Office for Repatriation of Ethnic Germans), Zgierz. Request that Rumkowski pay the wages of thirty-three Jews working for the VoMi in Zgierz. A list of these workers is enclosed. Letter from Rumkowski to the Lódz Commissioner protesting this demand and a reply ordering him to pay.1940 Jan. 14, 1940 Feb. 2
Folder TitleDate
 Oberbürgermeister Resettlement Department. About assigning an apartment on 5 Sterling Street to the Kehilla.1940 Jan. 23
121Oberbürgermeister Resettlement Department. About assigning an apartment on 5 Sterling Street to the Kehilla.1940 Jan. 23
Folder TitleDate
 Office for Dental Health, Lódz. Demand that housing be provided in the ghetto for eight dentists and six dental technicians.1940 Jan. 24
122Office for Dental Health, Lódz. Demand that housing be provided in the ghetto for eight dentists and six dental technicians.1940 Jan. 24
Folder TitleDate
  Oberbürgermeister Statistical Department. Request for three additional clerks to be assigned to the statistical office in the ghetto.1940 Jan. 24
123 Oberbürgermeister Statistical Department. Request for three additional clerks to be assigned to the statistical office in the ghetto.1940 Jan. 24
Folder TitleDate
 Oberbürgermeister Construction Department. About certain buildings which are included in the ghetto area.1940 Feb. 15
124Oberbürgermeister Construction Department. About certain buildings which are included in the ghetto area.1940 Feb. 15
Folder TitleDate
 Oberbürgermeister Construction Department. About the wrecking of several buildings.1940 Feb. 19
125Oberbürgermeister Construction Department. About the wrecking of several buildings.1940 Feb. 19
Folder TitleDate
 The Court. About a family which renounced their Jewish faith.1940 Feb. 22
126The Court. About a family which renounced their Jewish faith.1940 Feb. 22
Folder TitleDate
  Oberbürgermeister Statistical Office. Request for reports on the dispensary of the society Linas Hacholim.1940 Feb. 26
127 Oberbürgermeister Statistical Office. Request for reports on the dispensary of the society Linas Hacholim.1940 Feb. 26
Folder TitleDate
 Oberbürgermeister Welfare Department. Request for the payment of 495.40 RM for the hospitalization of seven Jews.1940 Feb.
128Oberbürgermeister Welfare Department. Request for the payment of 495.40 RM for the hospitalization of seven Jews.1940 Feb.
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister Resettlement Dept. Requests that certain Jewish institutions be moved to the ghetto.1940 Mar. 4-1940 Mar. 20
129Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister Resettlement Dept. Requests that certain Jewish institutions be moved to the ghetto.1940 Mar. 4-1940 Mar. 20
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister Resettlement Dept. Request for the keys to several vacant buildings in the ghetto.1940 Mar. 30, 1940 Apr. 1
130Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister Resettlement Dept. Request for the keys to several vacant buildings in the ghetto.1940 Mar. 30, 1940 Apr. 1
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister Resettlement Dept. Letters regarding demolition work and waste removal in the ghetto. Permission is asked to open the ghetto fence at certain hours to remove waste from the ghetto.1940 Apr. 18-1940 July 20
131Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister Resettlement Dept. Letters regarding demolition work and waste removal in the ghetto. Permission is asked to open the ghetto fence at certain hours to remove waste from the ghetto.1940 Apr. 18-1940 July 20
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister Resettlement Dept. About shovels and axes borrowed from the department.29 Mar. 1940, 1 May 1940
132Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister Resettlement Dept. About shovels and axes borrowed from the department.29 Mar. 1940, 1 May 1940
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to the Court. A summons is being returned because the named individual could not be found in the ghetto.1940 June 20
133Rumkowski to the Court. A summons is being returned because the named individual could not be found in the ghetto.1940 June 20
Folder TitleDate
 Oberbürgermeister Finance Department. Concerns the claim of a Jewish woman from London to an estate in the Poznan district.1940 June 21
134Oberbürgermeister Finance Department. Concerns the claim of a Jewish woman from London to an estate in the Poznan district.1940 June 21
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister Statistical Office. Submits monthly report about hospitals in the ghetto.1940 June 28
135Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister Statistical Office. Submits monthly report about hospitals in the ghetto.1940 June 28
Folder TitleDate
 Municipal Registration Office. Concerns discharge papers from the Polish army for an invalid.1940 July 4-1940 July 15
136Municipal Registration Office. Concerns discharge papers from the Polish army for an invalid.1940 July 4-1940 July 15
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister Resettlement Department. Permission is asked for the transfer of a soup-kitchen to the ghetto.1940 Apr. 1
137Rumkowski to Oberbürgermeister Resettlement Department. Permission is asked for the transfer of a soup-kitchen to the ghetto.1940 Apr. 1

Subseries 6: Various German Agencies,  1939-1940

Arrangement:

Chronogical.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 6 holds documents from various German agencies, including German government agencies, banks, and the post office. The first folder in this subseries contains official German ordinances concerning the Lódz ghetto, documenting the loss of the rights and property of the Lódz Jews and their confinement to the ghetto. Prominent among the government agencies is the Haupttreuhandstelle Ost (Main Trustee Office for the East). Documents produced by the Haupttreuhandstelle Ost often focus on issues related to factories and workshops in the ghetto. Post office documents are from the agency to Rumkowski, and include provisions concerning the delivery of mail to the ghetto and the suspension of mail delivery due to unhygienic conditions in the ghetto.

Folder TitleDate
 Official German ordinances regarding the Jewish population of Lódz. A succession of forty-eight announcements stripping the Jews of their rights and property and confining them to the Jewish district (ghetto). Issued by: the City Commissioner (Komissar der Stadt Lodsch), the Mayor (Oberbürgermeister), President of the District Administration (Regierungspräsident) in Kalisz, Chief of Police in Lódz (Polizeipräsident), and various departments of the Oberbürgermeister. The ordinances impose restrictions in the following matters: blocking Jewish bank accounts; ban on travel outside the place of domicile; obligation to wear the yellow Star of David; establishment of the ghetto; forced resettlement of Lódz Jews to the ghetto; confiscation of Jewish property; ban on leaving the ghetto; closing off of the ghetto; ban on maintaining contact with non-Jews. The centerpiece of this legislation is the police decree of February 8, 1940 establishing the Lódz ghetto. German, typewritten copies from the Lodscher Zeitung, and Litzmannstadter Zeitung.1939 Nov. 11-1940 May 12
138Official German ordinances regarding the Jewish population of Lódz. A succession of forty-eight announcements stripping the Jews of their rights and property and confining them to the Jewish district (ghetto). Issued by: the City Commissioner (Komissar der Stadt Lodsch), the Mayor (Oberbürgermeister), President of the District Administration (Regierungspräsident) in Kalisz, Chief of Police in Lódz (Polizeipräsident), and various departments of the Oberbürgermeister. The ordinances impose restrictions in the following matters: blocking Jewish bank accounts; ban on travel outside the place of domicile; obligation to wear the yellow Star of David; establishment of the ghetto; forced resettlement of Lódz Jews to the ghetto; confiscation of Jewish property; ban on leaving the ghetto; closing off of the ghetto; ban on maintaining contact with non-Jews. The centerpiece of this legislation is the police decree of February 8, 1940 establishing the Lódz ghetto. German, typewritten copies from the Lodscher Zeitung, and Litzmannstadter Zeitung.1939 Nov. 11-1940 May 12
Folder TitleDate
 Chamber of Commerce. List of grocery items which Rumkowski may buy from certain German firms.1940 Feb. 6, 1940 Mar. 1
139Chamber of Commerce. List of grocery items which Rumkowski may buy from certain German firms.1940 Feb. 6, 1940 Mar. 1
Folder TitleDate
 ELAG (electric plant). Minutes of the meeting with Rumkowski about production of electric power for the ghetto.1940 Feb. 28
140ELAG (electric plant). Minutes of the meeting with Rumkowski about production of electric power for the ghetto.1940 Feb. 28
Folder TitleDate
 District Dairy Cooperative. An offer to sell 1000 liters of milk to the ghetto.1940 Mar. 2
141District Dairy Cooperative. An offer to sell 1000 liters of milk to the ghetto.1940 Mar. 2
Folder TitleDate
 Haupttreuhandstelle Ost - Main Trustee Office for the East. Within three days Rumkowski must submit a listing of all factories in the ghetto, inventories of equipment, raw materials and finished products.1940 Mar. 8
142Haupttreuhandstelle Ost - Main Trustee Office for the East. Within three days Rumkowski must submit a listing of all factories in the ghetto, inventories of equipment, raw materials and finished products.1940 Mar. 8
Folder TitleDate
 Reichsbank. Rumkowski is permitted to keep those promissory notes which were requisitioned in the ghetto, so that he can obtain payment from the endorsers.1940 Mar. 14
143Reichsbank. Rumkowski is permitted to keep those promissory notes which were requisitioned in the ghetto, so that he can obtain payment from the endorsers.1940 Mar. 14
Folder TitleDate
 Haupttreuhandstelle Ost. Rumkowski’s request that the claims of three Jewish firms from Lódz be turned over to him is rejected because “the Jews have vast amounts of money” anyway.1940 Mar. 23
144Haupttreuhandstelle Ost. Rumkowski’s request that the claims of three Jewish firms from Lódz be turned over to him is rejected because “the Jews have vast amounts of money” anyway.1940 Mar. 23
Folder TitleDate
 Haupttreuhandstelle Ost. In accordance with the police decree of Feb. 8, Rumkowski is to move his office to the ghetto.1940 Apr. 3
145Haupttreuhandstelle Ost. In accordance with the police decree of Feb. 8, Rumkowski is to move his office to the ghetto.1940 Apr. 3
Folder TitleDate
 Commerz-und-Privat Bank. Request to locate certain ghetto inhabitants.1940 Apr. 2
146Commerz-und-Privat Bank. Request to locate certain ghetto inhabitants.1940 Apr. 2
Folder TitleDate
  Bank Lodzer Industrieller. About withdrawals from blocked Jewish accounts.1940 Apr. 13
147 Bank Lodzer Industrieller. About withdrawals from blocked Jewish accounts.1940 Apr. 13
Folder TitleDate
  Haupttreuhandstelle Ost. Rumkowski is authorized to prevent arbitrary confiscations of machinery in the ghetto by unauthorized agencies.1940 Apr. 25
148 Haupttreuhandstelle Ost. Rumkowski is authorized to prevent arbitrary confiscations of machinery in the ghetto by unauthorized agencies.1940 Apr. 25
Folder TitleDate
  Haupttreuhandstelle Ost. Rejects the request that the paper bag factory of A. Frydman be left in the ghetto.1940 Apr. 26
149 Haupttreuhandstelle Ost. Rejects the request that the paper bag factory of A. Frydman be left in the ghetto.1940 Apr. 26
Folder TitleDate
 Post Office. Sending food parcels to the Government General is prohibited.1940 May 6
150Post Office. Sending food parcels to the Government General is prohibited.1940 May 6
Folder TitleDate
 Post Office. Copy of an “Agreement for the delivery of postal matter” between the Litzmannstadt Post Office and Rumkowski. All mail for the ghetto will be handed over to three Jewish mailmen in a special barrack on weekdays. Rumkowski is responsible for delivering the mail.1940 May 8
151Post Office. Copy of an “Agreement for the delivery of postal matter” between the Litzmannstadt Post Office and Rumkowski. All mail for the ghetto will be handed over to three Jewish mailmen in a special barrack on weekdays. Rumkowski is responsible for delivering the mail.1940 May 8
Folder TitleDate
 Reichsbank. Demand for turning over to the bank all “domestic assets” such as claims and securities.1940 May 9
152Reichsbank. Demand for turning over to the bank all “domestic assets” such as claims and securities.1940 May 9
Folder TitleDate
  Haupttreuhandstelle Ost. About requisitioning equipment from the ghetto workshops, which is to be turned over to German firms and individuals.1940 May 14-1940 May 17
153 Haupttreuhandstelle Ost. About requisitioning equipment from the ghetto workshops, which is to be turned over to German firms and individuals.1940 May 14-1940 May 17
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Haupttreuhandstelle Ost. Request for the release of a confiscated ambulatory for physiotherapy.1940 June 1
154Rumkowski to Haupttreuhandstelle Ost. Request for the release of a confiscated ambulatory for physiotherapy.1940 June 1
Folder TitleDate
  Haupttreuhandstelle Ost. Repeated demand that Rumkowski return the authorization letter for withdrawals of relief payments from the banks.1940 June 5
155 Haupttreuhandstelle Ost. Repeated demand that Rumkowski return the authorization letter for withdrawals of relief payments from the banks.1940 June 5
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Dresdner Bank. Request for a bank statement.1940 June 7
156Rumkowski to Dresdner Bank. Request for a bank statement.1940 June 7
Folder TitleDate
  Reichsbank. About a German debtor whom the bank mistook for a Jew.1940 June 8-1940 June 21
157 Reichsbank. About a German debtor whom the bank mistook for a Jew.1940 June 8-1940 June 21
Folder TitleDate
 Telephone Office. Inquiry about a telegram from Berlin which allegedly was not received by the addressee.1940 June 12, 1940 June 29
158Telephone Office. Inquiry about a telegram from Berlin which allegedly was not received by the addressee.1940 June 12, 1940 June 29
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski to Haupttreuhandstelle Ost. Request that the Kaplowicz paper factory remain in the ghetto.1940 June 4
159Rumkowski to Haupttreuhandstelle Ost. Request that the Kaplowicz paper factory remain in the ghetto.1940 June 4
Folder TitleDate
 Rumkowski in the Geyer firm. Request for certain tools.1940 June 27
160Rumkowski in the Geyer firm. Request for certain tools.1940 June 27
Folder TitleDate
 Post Office. Because of unhealthy sanitary conditions in the ghetto, mail service to the ghetto has been discontinued.1940 July 15
161Post Office. Because of unhealthy sanitary conditions in the ghetto, mail service to the ghetto has been discontinued.1940 July 15

Series III: Announcements Issued by Rumkowski, n.d., 1940-1944

This series is in German, Polish, and Yiddish.
2.07 linear feet
Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Rumkowski’s announcements (Series 3) served to communicate all orders, instructions, decisions and news items to the ghetto. Hence, they record all central and significant events and issues in the history of the ghetto. The ghetto inhabitants learned from these announcements about the distribution of food rations, registration for forced labor, opening and closing of the ghetto institutions, curfews, the confiscation of jewelry, coins, furs, furniture, etc., punitive actions by the Nazis, and deportations.

The frequency of these announcements varied over time. For instance, during deportations the frequency increased as Rumkowski tried frantically to convince the Jews to come voluntarily to the transports. At other times, weeks and months would pass without even one announcement being posted. The number of announcements decreased steadily after the Gesperre deportation, because the ghetto had, in fact, been reduced to a slave labor camp. The final burst of Rumkowski announcements came during the liquidation of the ghetto in July and August, 1944, when he repeatedly urged the last ghetto inhabitants to submit to deportation orders.

These announcements are useful in the study of a variety of topics on the Lódz ghetto. A substantial number of them pertain to the subject of provisioning. The first announcement about the distribution of basic food rations was issued on June 2, 1940 ( folder 187). Consecutive announcements appeared at intervals often to eighteen days. They gave detailed information about the quantity of food per person, method and place of distribution, its cost, and the availability of certain items to selected groups only. The announcements vividly illustrate how severe the problem of hunger was in the ghetto, as they list negligible quantities of rationed food which were supposed to last for unimaginably long periods of time. In this inventory the announcements on the subject of provisioning issued during the first several months of the food distribution system (June 1940-January 1941) are described in greater detail to illustrate the point better. Other related subjects mentioned in the announcements are the use of public kitchens, supplemental and dietary rations, and the distribution of daily bowls of soup. Finally, the announcements give evidence of food being used to break the resistance of the recalcitrant ghetto population by withholding rations from starving people during deportations.

Few documents better convey the oppressive atmosphere of ghetto life than these announcements. Rarely is there good news in them for the confused and frightened ghetto people. For the most part they sound like orders given to prison inmates, and more often than not they threaten punishment if the orders are not followed through. In content and in tone they are a sad testimony to the misery of the ghetto and to Rumkowski’s autocratic rule.

There are altogether 429 numbered and 50 unnumbered announcements. With few exceptions, the announcements are signed by Rumkowski. Most notable exceptions are from the period of the final deportations in July and August, 1944, when the announcements were also countersigned by Nazi officials (Gestapo, Oberbürgermeister, Biebow) and by some managers of ghetto workshops.

Folder TitleDate
162No. 1: Instruction to all Jews who live in the “Jewish Quarter” to remain there or face police reprisals.1940 Mar. 1
Folder TitleDate
163No. 2: Blank of a summons to register with Rumkowski for those who wish to set up food stores and obtain merchandise allotments.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
164No. 3: All identity cards and armbands are to be exchanged for new ones with Rumkowski’s signature. Those who have not done so by March 28 will be punished.1940 Mar. 16
Folder TitleDate
165No. 4: Rumkowski informs “The Jewish Population of Lodsch” that he has been instructed to “regulate the resettlement of the Jews to the new quarter [i.e. the ghetto].” Residences will be assigned exclusively by Rumkowski through his Resettlement Department.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
166No. 5: Candidates may apply for jobs in the Ordnungsdienst.
No. 6. All patients of the Poznanski Hospital whose discharge was determined by the physicians must leave within twenty-four hours, or their names will be submitted by Rumkowski to the authorities.
1940 Mar. 23
Folder TitleDate
167No. 7 (3/27/1940): Tenants of all houses which are not administered by landlords or their representatives are to form house committees.
Nos. 8 and 9 (3/27/1940): Orders to clean up all houses in the Jewish quarter.
No. 10 (3/31/1940): A pharmacy “for the Jewish population” has been opened.
1940 Mar. 26-1940 Mar. 31
Folder TitleDate
168No. 11 (n.d. [3/1940]): Owners of blocked bank accounts who cannot reach their banks are requested to register with the ghetto administration.
No. 12 (4/6/1940): The Registration Office (Meldebüro) has been established. A date will be announced for the “mass registration of all Jews in the ghetto.”
1940 Apr. 6
Folder TitleDate
169No. 13 (4/8/1940): It is forbidden to occupy, without Rumkowski’s permission, any apartment located in the area which has been added to the ghetto (erweiterte Getto). Violators will be expelled and most severely punished.
No. 14 (3/29/1940): Mail will now be delivered by Rumkowski’s office. Resettled ghetto residents are to verify the office of their new addresses.
1940 Mar. 29
Folder TitleDate
170Nos. 15, 16, 19, 20, 23 (4/22/1940): Rumkowski is authorized to withdraw “weekly amounts for the Jews” from the following five banks: Genossenschaftsbank, Dresdner Bank, Kommerz-und Privatbank, Bank Lodscher Industrieller, Deutsche Bank. Persons concerned are to register at the community.
No. 17 (4/17/1940): For the new telephone directory men are to take the additional name “Israel” and women the name “Sara” unless their names are specifically (ausdrücklich) Jewish.
No. 18 (4/1/1940): Free medical aid and drugs will be given only to those who are poor. Persons of limited means will pay reduced charges.
No. 21 (4/20/1940): As decreed by the Police President, pedestrians may use the crossing points [on the two streets dividing the ghetto] only during seven fifteen-minute intervals between 8:30 AM and 4:45 PM.
No. 22 (4/22/1940): Jobs are available for fourteen unmarried craftsmen, including three “tailors specializing in military uniforms.”
1940 Apr. 1-1940 Apr. 22
Folder TitleDate
171No. 24 (4/22/1940): All those who receive cash in letters from abroad must report in person at the Community.
No. 25 (4/22/1940): Owners of claims against two companies in Lódz must register in person at the Community.
1940 Apr. 22
Folder TitleDate
172No. 26: In view of the fact that Rumkowski has been instructed to take over the administration of all real estate in the ghetto as of April 1, all rents are now to be paid to him.1940 Apr. 22
Folder TitleDate
173No. 27: Warning against renting apartments without Rumkowski’s permission.1940 Apr. 25
Folder TitleDate
174No. 28: Warning to landlords and superintendents not to collect “key money” or rent in any form whatsoever.1940 Apr. 28
Folder TitleDate
175No. 29 (5/2/1940): An order to all tailors, dressmakers, seamstresses etc. to register for jobs.
No. 30 (5/1/1940): Formation of the Ordnungsdienst is announced. The new service is to maintain peace and order, all ghetto inhabitants must obey its orders or face punishment.
1940 May 1-1940 May 2
Folder TitleDate
176No. 31: Homeless families are permitted to occupy single rooms located in the “extended Jewish quarter [added ghetto territory].” However, they will be expelled if they pay key money or rent to the landlord.1940 May 3
Folder TitleDate
177No. 32 (5/6/1940): It is forbidden for the pedestrians to stop (stehen bleiben) at the Lagiewnicka Street and Baluty Ring. Those who do not comply will be punished by the Ordnungsdienst with one day of forced labor.
No. 33 (5/7/1940): Order to all owners and keepers of domestic animals to report their number to the Community.
1940 May 6-1940 May 7
Folder TitleDate
178No. 34: An order to all shoemakers, bootmakers, leather workers, plumbers, and hat and capmakers to register for jobs.1940 May 7
Folder TitleDate
179N.N.: Rumkowski repeats the order of Chief of Police Schäfer about the closing off of the ghetto.1940 May 8
Folder TitleDate
180No. 35: All ghetto residents are to register in the newly formed Registration Office.1940 May 9
Folder TitleDate
181No. 36: Plots of land are being offered by the Department of Gardens and Land Cultivation to those who are interested in growing vegetables. The plot owners are allowed to keep the produce.1940 May 11
Folder TitleDate
182No. 37: Rumkowski takes over the Department of Gardens and Land Cultivation.1940 May 10
Folder TitleDate
183No. 38 (5/10/1940): The Department of Gardens and Land Cultivation will assume the care of the Jewish cemetery.
No. 39 (5/13/1940): An order to all dental technicians to register with the Community for jobs.
1940 May 9-1940 May 13
Folder TitleDate
184No. 40 (5/13/1940): An order for all retailers of coal to register with the Community.
No. 41 (5/13/1940): Second notice to register all domestic animals. Those who do not comply will be punished and will not receive fodder for their livestock.
No. 42 (3/13/1940): Notice about the distribution of coal which will take place between May 14 and 18 at the Coal Depot. Coal will be sold at the rate of 25 kg. per kitchen according to certified lists from the house committees.
No. 43 (5/16/1940): All house watchmen are dismissed as of May 31. Those desiring to keep their jobs, as well as new applicants, are to submit requests to the chief of the Ordnungsdienst.
No. 44 (5/19/1940): All house committees are dissolved, and new committees, each serving three to five adjoining houses, are to be established. Committee chairmen will be personally responsible for the work of these committees. Lists of committees and their chairmen must be submitted for approval by May 23. Persons elected may not decline to serve.
No. 45 (5/19/1940): The price of a 2 kg. loaf of bread is set at 0.60 RM. A warning that loaves must have full weight.
No. 46 (5/25/1940): An experienced milk maid is wanted.
1940 Mar. 13-1940 May 25
Folder TitleDate
185No. 47 (5/25/1940): All pushcarts should be reported by owners for registration and numbering.
No. 48 (5/25/1940): In order to organize the distribution of food, each must pay an advance of to his house committee for each member of the household. Regulations concerning transmittal of the money to the Provisioning Department.
1940 May 25
Folder TitleDate
186No. 49 (5/28/1940): A new kindergarten has been opened for children of poor families.
No. 50 (5/31/1940): Ghetto residents may register their financial claims against persons outside the ghetto if there are prospects that the debtor can pay.
No. 51 (5/31/1940): All horsedrawn vehicles and pushcarts must be brought in for inspection.
1940 28 May-1940 May 31
Folder TitleDate
187No. 52: First distribution of food rations will begin on June 3. Ration cards will be issued to those who have made advance payment. Instructions concerning procedures and a list of items for the first week.1940 June 2
Folder TitleDate
188No. 53: Prohibition by the German administration on sending food parcels to ghetto residents. Instead, a sum of money must be paid at the Municipal Savings Bank in Litzmannstadt for an equivalent in food to be issued to the beneficiaries in the ghetto.1940 June 2-1940 June 3
Folder TitleDate
189No. 54 (6/3/1940): Only old, used articles and no food whatsoever may be sent out of the ghetto. Packages will be inspected and violators punished.
No. 55 (6/4/1940): All ghetto entrances on Hohensteinerstrasse and Alexanderhofstrasse will be closed after 5 PM daily.
Supplement to No. 52 (6/12/1940): The following items will be distributed in the second week of food rationing: sugar, 250 g.; groats, 500 g.; rye flour, 250 g.
1940 June 3-1940 June 12
Folder TitleDate
190No. 56 (6/6/1940): Persons who failed to register for food rations, including those too poor to make advance payment, can do so until July 7. Those who avoid registration will not receive rations and will be punished.
No. 57 (6/7/1940): Chairmen of the house committees are to turn in the money collected for the forthcoming distribution of food rations. No. 58 (6/8/1940): The gates across the thoroughfares will be closed after 8 PM. No. 59 (6/12/1940): Tailors, painters and other skilled workers are wanted by the Labor Assignments Department.
1940 June 6-1940 June 12
Folder TitleDate
191No. 60 (6/12/1940): A population census will be taken on June 16. No one is to leave home without special permission.
No. 61 (n.d.): Applicants for the job of janitor must report in person at the Community on February 28[?].
n.d., 1940 June 12
Folder TitleDate
192No. 62 (6/17/1940): All births must be registered within eight days at the Registry Office.
No. 63 (6/17/1940): Instruction concerning mail exchange with enemy and non-enemy countries, including the General Government. Use of Hebrew characters is prohibited. All mail must be in German.
1940 June 17
Folder TitleDate
193No. 64 (6/18/1940): In order to eliminate corruption and black marketeering by butchers, meat will no longer be distributed by them but by their assistants under the supervision of a trusted person.
No. 65 (6/18/1940): All orders for cargoes or C.O.D. parcels must be cancelled, or those receiving them will be severely punished.
1940 June 18
Folder TitleDate
194No. 66 (6/20/1940): Request to refrain from applying for jobs. “To alleviate misery of several hundred applicants, I have made every effort to find positions which in fact are not needed. I have filled positions requiring only one person with three ...”
No. 67 (6/21/1940): Urgent call to sell cribs and children’s beds to Rumkowski’s office in order to open a new nursery for poor mothers and enlarge the children section of the hospital at Hanseatnistrasse.
1940 June 20-1940 June 21
Folder TitleDate
195No. 68: List of rations to be issued during the third food distribution, June 17 to 24. Detailed instructions on procedures and for the collection of advance payment of 1.50 RM per person.1940 June 20
Folder TitleDate
196No. 69: A summer camp has been established for children between four and seven years old. Children of poor parents will be accepted free of charge.1940 June 21
Folder TitleDate
197Nos.70 and 71: As of July 8, the Reichsmark will be discontinued as legal tender in the ghetto. A new currency, Mark-Quittungen (Mark scrip) will be issued in denominations of 50 Pfennig to 50 Marks. All RM, Zloty coins, foreign currency are to be exchanged at “my bank ... at the current rate of exchange.” No money is allowed to leave the ghetto and no other currency except the scrip may be used in the ghetto.1940 June 24
Folder TitleDate
198No. 72: The fourth distribution of food rations will take place between June 25 and July 1. Rations include 2 kg. coal for two weeks, 20 kg. of kindling wood and one box of matches. Also “special stores” will open where eggs, butter, cheese, rice, white bread and lemons will be sold for children up to three years of age and to persons with a doctor’s prescription.1940 June 28
Folder TitleDate
199No. 73: Announces openings of day camps and summer camps for children, four to fifteen years. A total of 11,000 children will be accepted, 7,000 free of charge. In order to meet the expenses, rations in the fourth distribution will be priced slightly higher.1940 June 28
Folder TitleDate
200No. 74: On June 30 the population, “provoked by irresponsible individuals from the underworld” remained in the streets after 8 PM. As a punishment, beginning July 3, the curfew starts at 6 PM.1940 July 2
Folder TitleDate
201Nos. 75 and 76: All dogs must be registered, muzzled and leashed because of an epidemic of rabies.1940 July 2
Folder TitleDate
202No. 77: All doctor’s prescriptions for special food rations are cancelled. Physicians may issue a limited number of new prescriptions in the most urgent cases and only with the approval of the Health Department.1940 July 6
Folder TitleDate
203No. 78: On order of the authorities it is strictly forbidden to talk with persons on the other side of the ghetto fence.1940 July 9
Folder TitleDate
204No. 79: The sale of bread, rolls, saccharine and candy in the streets is prohibited. Food stores must obey sanitary regulations [listed] which will be enforced by the Ordnungsdienst and the Sanitation Department. Non-compliance will be punished.1940 July 10
Folder TitleDate
205No. 80: In order to balance the accounts of the house committees, special rations of certain food items will be issued to them. The next regular rations will be distributed only to those house committees whose accounts are balanced.1940 July 10
Folder TitleDate
206No. 81: The ghetto Post Office will inspect all outgoing correspondence. Letters soliciting food or other goods, whether against payment or as gifts, will be destroyed. Assistance may be rendered only by depositing money in the account of the Ernährung-und-Wirtschaftstelle Getto at the Municipal Savings Bank in Litzmannstadt, and an equivalent in food or ghetto currency will be transmitted to the beneficiary.1940 July 12
Folder TitleDate
207No. 82: Persons experienced in milking goats are to register with the Agriculture Department.1940 July 12
Folder TitleDate
208Nos. 83 and 86: On order of the authorities mail traffic from and to the ghetto is temporarily suspended pending an improvement in health conditions.1940 July 13-1940 July 16
Folder TitleDate
209No. 84: The sixth distribution of food rations will be connected with the reorganization of the advance payment system. 3 Mk per person are to be paid for the listed food items.1940 July 14
Folder TitleDate
210No. 85: Upholsterers are urgently requested to register for work.1940 July 15
Folder TitleDate
211No. 87: House committees are to deliver the advance payment for the sixth distribution by July 21, or they will receive no rations.1940 July 18
Folder TitleDate
212No. 88: On order of the police all dogs must be brought for inspection, leashed and muzzled, to the courtyard of the German police in the ghetto. Owners must pay a fee of 2 RM. Violators will be punished by the Police President.1940 July 20
Folder TitleDate
213No. 89: All linen must be turned in to the administration which will pay for it. In case of non-compliance controls will be carried out, and all linen will be confiscated for the benefit of the Community.1940 July 20
Folder TitleDate
214No. 90: Another first-aid station has been established. Both stations will be open day and night.1940 July 26
Folder TitleDate
215No. 91: Rations for the seventh period: sugar, 250 g.; farina, 250 g.; wheat flour, 250 g.; coffee mix, l00 g.; honey, l00 g.; salt, l00 g.; soda, l00 g.; butter, 50 g.; vinegar, 1/10 liter; matches, one box; coal, 10 kg. Advance payment: 2.50 RM1940 July 27
Folder TitleDate
216No. 92: As per agreement with the Schutzpolizei and the Gestapo, all residents from the streets along the ghetto border [a wire fence] who left their homes without authorization in the last few days are to return there immediately. Ghetto residents may freely use the sidewalks along the border provided they do not stop or engage in conversation, particularly with persons on the other side of the fence. Violators will be severely punished. Stores along the border are to be opened.1940 July 30
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217N.N.: Registration is open for a new day camp “for the poorest children.”1940 July 30
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218No. 93: Inhabitants of the ghetto are exempted from paying municipal taxes as of April 1, 1940.1940 Aug. 1
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219No. 94: House committees are to remove all flammable materials from their basements and attics and are to keep barrels and wash-tubs filled with water in the courtyards. Electrical installations and repairs must be authorized by the Electrical Department, and repairs in stores by the Economic Department. Inhabitants must inform the Fire Brigade of any combustibles. Suspicious signs of smoke and vapor must be reported. The house committees are responsible for enforcement of these rules by August 13.1940 Aug. 20
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220No. 95: Children born in 1939 are to be registered with the Health Department for smallpox vaccination.1940 Aug. 3
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221No. 96: All licensed produce grocers who used to do business in the street markets are to register on August 5-7.1940 Aug. 3
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222No. 97: A purchasing agency for second-hand clothes has been opened for the benefit of second-hand clothes retailers.1940 Aug. 4
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223No. 98 (supplement to No. 91): ½ kg. potatoes will be added to the ration list for the seventh period.1940 Aug. 5
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224No. 99: For budgetary reasons the number of Ordnungsdienst personnel will not be increased. New applications will not be considered and prospective applicants are strictly forbidden “to gather at the Balut Ring and importune me with questions.” 1940 Aug. 9
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225No. 101: List of rations to be issued in the eighth distribution against payment of 2.25 Mk.1940 Aug. 11
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226No. 102: Complaints against the house committees are to be addressed to the Central Control Office.1940 Aug. 11
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227No. 103: A Textile Manufacturing division will open shortly. Owners of yarns may offer their supplies for purchase.1940 Aug. 12
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228No. 104: Appeal to the population not to listen to “irresponsible elements” who for selfish reasons are trying to sow unrest and prevent carrying out of the constructive aid program for the ghetto inhabitants. Accomplishments are recalled: work has been obtained for craftsmen; soup kitchens are being established and will serve 10,000 meals daily; housing will improve.1940 Aug. 12
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229No. 105: To protect “many people who sell their personal belongings,” a purchasing office will be established where “trusted agents” will evaluate the articles offered, such as jewelry, gold and silver, precious stones, furs, stocks and bonds, clothing, linen, etc.; they will pay accordingly for goods purchased.1940 Aug. 13
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230No. 106: Houses of worship may be opened, provided that approval has been obtained from Rumkowski.1940 Aug. 13
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231No. 107: House committees must apply to Rumkowski in writing for a permit to establish a house kitchen. Those committees which have already opened such kitchens must obtain approval retroactively within three days. Severe measures will be taken against violators.1940 Aug. 13
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232No. 108: All area and block committees are dissolved and their “duties and rights” are to be taken over by the house committees.1940 Aug. 20
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233No. 109: List of rations to be issued in distributions 9, and 9a against payments of 1.75 Mk and 1.39 Mk respectively. Three special items - 1 lemon, 2 eggs, 1 piece of soap - will be exchanged for milk coupons.1940 Aug. 20
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234No. 110: Announcement about the jailing of two families for two weeks for resisting sequestration of rent and business tax. Severe measures will be taken in such cases should they occur again.1940 Aug. 23
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235No. 111: 70,000 kg. potatoes will be distributed among the poor free of charge at the rate of 1 kg. per person.1940 Aug.26
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236N. 112: [A German police order of Aug. 14 is copied] Because of a rabies epidemic all dogs in the ghetto were destroyed as of July 22. Keeping a dog is forbidden. A dog found in the ghetto must be registered at once with the Ordnungsdienst. [Rumkowski adds further] All dogs must be turned over by Aug. 29 or violators will be severely punished. If a stray dog is found after that day in a house, the house committee must bring the dog that same day, or all tenants in the house will be responsible.1940 Aug. 27
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237No. 113: All tenants must pay their rent directly to Rumkowski’s office.1940 Aug. 23
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238No. 114: Announcing the opening of the purchasing office for valuables, clothing, etc., and of a currency exchange office where Reichmarks can be exchanged for ghetto money.1940 Aug. 29
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239No. 115 (8/29/1940): The purchasing office will buy all kinds of kitchen utensils for cash.
No. 116 (8/30/1940): Beginning September 1, a ration of 3 kg. of potatoes will be distributed to the house committees for an advance payment.
1940 Aug. 29-1940 Aug. 30
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240No. 117: Detailed instructions concerning the registration of births and the resulting duties of parents, witnesses and midwives. Violators will be severely punished.1940 Sept. 2
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241No. 118: Detailed regulations concerning payment for allocated electricity.1940 Sept. 5
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242No. 119: List of rations to be issued in the tenth distribution against payment of 2.10 RM. Additional items for sale: groats, soda, vinegar and potatoes. The ration includes 5 kg. coal.1940 Sept. 11
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243No. 120: Postal service will resume as of September 16. Letters, postcards and telegrams must be in German. Money orders may be sent to other ghetto residents only.1940 Sept. 14
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244No. 121: Mail boxes are to be used for mail to the Reich, the General Government and the Protectorate only. Other mail must be turned in at the ghetto mail office and identity papers presented. Use of postcards is recommended.1940 Sept. 16
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245N.N.: All textile manufacturers and retailers are to register by September 17 [1940].n.d. [1940]
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246No. 122: Announcement No. 94 is reiterated. New compliance date is set for September 30.1940 Sept. 12
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247No. 123: New regulations for welfare aid are announced [following the hunger demonstrations in Aug. 1940]. Effective September 20, 60,000 adults, 15,000 children and 7,000 aged will receive relief payments of 9, 7 and 10 Mk respectively per month. In addition, 15,000 children and old people will be fed in the summer camps, orphanages, nurseries and old age homes. Recipients of relief aid are exempted from paying rent but will have to work when required by Rumkowski. The work is paid and it should be performed efficiently and conscientiously, or workers will lose both the job and the relief aid. All soup kitchens will serve meals at 15, 20 and 25 Pfennigs. A Winter Aid program will provide clothing, shoes and fuel for the entire population. The cost of the new relief program is 995,000 Mk per month. Another 665,000 Mk is needed for other public benefit purposes. The total monthly expenditure equals 1,650,000 Mk while the income is only between 600,000 and 700,000 Mk per month. A loan will have to be raised to balance this budget. Appeal to keep the peace and to cooperate. Persons spreading false rumors are warned of punishment “incomparably more severe’’ than those meted out until now.1940 Sept. 20
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248No. 124: Parents are urged to keep their children from besieging food transports and snatching food. A warning that relief for these children will be cut off.1940 Sept. 20
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249No. 125: In order to carry out announcement No. 123, the ghetto will be divided into twenty-seven regions. Relief applicants should submit their requests to the regional administrators.1940 Sept. 20
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250No. 126: The crops from “my grounds” will be sold at public auction.1940 Sept. 20
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251No. 127: Persons stealing wood from houses, fences, etc., and persons buying it will be prosecuted.1940 Sept. 27
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252No. 128: List of rations to be issued against payment of 3.25 Mk per person: 350 g. sugar, 150 g. honey, 100 g. cooking oil, 750 g. flour, 100 g. salt, 100 g. fish, 50 g. onions, 5 kg. potatoes, 5 kg. coal, additional items for sale include groats, soda, vineagar and coffee mix. House committees are ordered to distribute the rations to the rightful recipients, or they will be most severly punished.1940 Sept. 28
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253No. 129: Crops from the ghetto fields are being put up for auction.1940 Sept. 29
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254No. 130: Despite the greatest effort relief aid could not be allotted prior to the Holy Days because of the overwhelming number of applicants. House committees are urged to issue meals on a loan basis.1940 Oct. 1
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255No. 131: Detailed regulations concerning fees for the maintenance of houses. All tenants must pay 40% of the rent to the house committees for house expenditures. Persons refusing to pay are subject to punishments such as the withholding of sugar and coal rations, forced labor, and imprisonment. Owners of toilets must pay an additional amount, or the supply of water will be discontinued and the toilet sealed.1940 Oct. 1
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256No. 132 (10/2/1940): Distribution of ½ kg. oatmeal to children and sick persons.
No. 133 (10/4/1940): With the approval of the Gestapo the curfew time is set for 9 PM.
1940 Oct. 2-1940 Oct. 4
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257No. 134: “Saturday is a day of rest.” All stores are to be closed. Street vending is forbidden. Only the Health Office, the Central Food Warehouse, the dairies and all the soup kitchens should be kept open.1940 Oct. 11
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258No. 135: Warning against paying “high black market prices” for food. Sufficient quantities of potatoes and vegetables arrive daily. The Ordnungsdienst should be informed of such exorbitant prices, whereupon the merchandise will be confiscated and the usurers punished.1940 Oct. 11
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259No. 136: Persons not entitled to relief aid are to withdraw their applications at once or they will be most severly punished and their names published. So far 31,045 families, or 97,065 individuals, have received relief payments in the mail.1940 Oct. 11
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260No. 137: New Year’s wishes from Rumkowski to all delegations, individuals and especially children who sent letters and telegrams.1940 Oct. 11
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261No. 138: All person who left valuables outside the ghetto may notify Rumkowski personally and “with confidence.” These will be properly secured, and their owners will receive cash compensation with only “a certain percentage” deducted for the benefit of the Community.1940 Oct. 11
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262No. 139: List of rations to be issued against the payment of 3.17 Mk.1940 Oct. 11
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263No. 140: According to the Litzmannstadter Zeitung, Polish small coins will be devalued as of Nov. 1. They must be exchanged for German coin by Oct. 25.1940 Oct. 11
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264No. 141: Instructions regarding use of gas.1940 Oct. 15-1940 Oct. 16
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265No. 142: The Purchasing Office for kitchen utensils will buy pots, pails, plates, glasses and other listed articles.1940 Oct. 16
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266No. 143: Garbage and excrement should be removed exclusively by the hand-carts or other vehicles provided by the Economic Department at a charge of 1.50 to 5.00 Mk.1940 Oct. 16
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267No. 144: List of rations to be issued in the special thirteenth distribution for the Succos holiday: 250 g. sugar, 250 g. onions, 30 g. oil, 5 kg. potatoes, 1 box matches, ½ cake soap.1940 Oct. 19
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268No. 145: Regulations regarding hiring workers for the ghetto workshops. They are to be hired only by the workshop manager and by an expert commission which is approved by Rumkowski. Instructions for an increase in control and discipline.1940 Oct. 20
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269No. 146: A Sports Committee has been named. The population is exhorted to join athletic clubs.1940 Oct. 22
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270No. 147: All students graduating from the sixth and seventh grades of the elementary schools may apply for entrance examinations to the general or vocational high school.1940 Oct. 23
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271No. 148: Due to large work orders, all sewing machines must be loaned to the Community, or the owners will be punished and their machines confiscated.1940 Oct. 26
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272No 149: Families with children may apply to purchase a goat provided they can handle and maintain the animal.1940 Oct. 26
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273No 150: Bad weather has delayed the supplies of flour. The population should not become restless. “There will be enough bread.”1940 Oct. 30
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274No. 151: List of rations to be issued in the fourteenth distribution against payment of 7.59 Mk: 25 kg. potatoes, 0.5 kg. each of onions, turnips, carrots and beets, 0.25 kg. salt, 15 kg. dust coal.1940 Oct. 30
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275No. 152: In order to enable the needy to purchase the latest large food ration, the relief payment for the next forty days (Oct. 20 to Dec. 1) will be mailed immediately. Those who received prior payment on the basis of wrongful application “will be prosecuted by my Court.”1940 Oct. 30
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276No. 153: The deadline for exchanging Polish coins is extended until Nov. 4.1940 Oct. 30
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277No. 154: All rags, fabrics and remnants, yams, woven leather straps, feathers and down, hides and leather products must be registered for sale with the Textile Manufacturing Department. It is prohibited to use any such materials in manufacturing or to move them from one place to another without permission of the Department. Goods not registered will be confiscated.1940 Nov. 2
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278No. 155: Only 18 bakeries will sell bread on Nov. 3.1940 Nov. 2
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279No. 156: Pending introduction of bread rationing and issuing of bread ration cards, house committees may temporarily obtain 300g of bread for each of their tenants at designated stores.1940 Oct. 30
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280No 157: Effective 11/1/1940 house committees may no longer collect money for house maintenance. These tasks will now be carried out under the supervision of the Finance Department. The house watchmen will be placed on Rumkowski’s budget.1940 Nov. 6
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281No. 158: The Supreme Control Chamber (Höchste Kontroll-Kammer) has been established in order to “ruthlessly eliminate all kinds of transgressors and to prevent future abuses.” The Höchste Kontroll-Kammer will have the following far-reaching powers: a) control over all departments, and b) control over all public affairs in the ghetto. The Höchste Kontroll-Kammer may dismiss employees without notice, carry out checks and searches in offices and private homes, and order arrests pending decisions by Rumkowski or by the Court, with whom it will closely cooperate. The population is urged to support the Höchste Kontroll-Kammer. Complaints may be submitted in person at the Höchste Kontroll-Kammer office.1940 Nov. 6
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282No. 159: Owners of spinning mills, cotton wool manufacturing plants, garment shops and related businesses which are located in Litzmannstadt and vicinity are to report to the Textile Department irrespective of whether the firm was taken over by a commissioner or a trustee.1940 Nov. 6, 1940 Nov. 9
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283No. 160: Private production of sausage is prohibited. Stores found in possession of sausages after Nov. 17 will be closed and their owners punished.1940 Nov. 12
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284No. 161: Production and sale of bakery products from white and rye flour is prohibited. Violators will be punished.1940 Nov. 12
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285No. 162: Due to the lack of proper space to store the most essential foods for the winter, the ghetto residents will now receive a supply of provisions for three months, from December to February. These include cabbage, beets, onions, turnips of as yet unspecified quantities, 50 kg. potatoes, and ½ cake soap. In addition, the ration for “this month” will include 250 g. salt, 500 g. flour, 500 g. groats, 250 g. sugar, 100 g. oil and “some” coal. Total price is 20 Mk which should be paid immediately in order to avoid abuses by the house committees. The recently introduced food ration cards will become valid in the near future.1940 Nov. 14
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286By an agreement with the authorities, a rat poisoning campaign is to be carried out in the entire ghetto.1940 Nov. 14
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287No. 164: “Irresponsible and undesirable elements” are spreading false rumors. Only information published in the Announcements is correct. Promise to provide food, and relief aid. Appeal to disregard rumors and to report names of rumor-mongers in writing.1940 Nov. 15
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288No. 165: Two large kitchens will be opened on Nov. 19. Midday meals without bread will be issued there for 15 Pfennigs.1940 Nov. 18
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289No. 166: “Healthy, robust men eighteen to forty years of age can get work outside the ghetto,” and they will receive wages, lodging and food. The cost of the food will be deducted from their wages, and the balance can be transferred to their families in the ghetto through Rumkowski’s clearing account. For the time being, only 600 applicants will be accepted.1940 Nov. 19
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290No. 167: List of rations to be issued in the fifteenth distribution honey, l00 g. each of oil and coffee, 1/10 liter vinegar, 1 box matches, 10 kg. coarse coal dust. Persons who did not receive their rations from the house committees are urged to inform Rumkowski about it by mail, with no postage required. House committee chairmen guilty of abuses will be punished.1940 Nov. 20
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291No. 168: Owners of carpentry workbenches are instructed to loan them promptly to Rumkowski’s carpentry shops, or they will be punished and the workbenches confiscated.1940 Nov. 19-1940 Nov. 20
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292No. 169: An additional 3,000 registration cards for work outside the ghetto will be issued on Nov. 29.1940 Nov. 28
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293Nos. 170, 172 (11/29/1940, 12/4/1940): More registration cards for work outside the ghetto will be issued on December 1 and 4.1940 Nov. 29, 1940 Dec. 5, 1940 Dec. 29
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294No. 171: As of this date, all physicians, medical students, nurses and midwives are mobilized and subject to the orders of the head of the Health Department [in connection with a strike of hospital personnel which began on December 1]. Violators will be punished with up to three months’ imprisonment, and in especially grave cases, with “most severe and far-reaching measures.”1940 Dec. 3
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295No. 173: List of rations to be issued in the sixteenth distribution. New warning to the house committees.1940 Dec. 4
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296No. 174: All German Jews from the Old Reich are to report on December 6 to the Ordnungsdienst.1940 Dec. 5
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297No. 175: List of rations to be issued in the seventeenth distribution against payment of 1.86 Mk: 5 kg. potatoes, 1/2 kg. each of carrots and turnips, 100 g. barley, 100 g. each of salt and honey. Payments to obtain the ration may be made until December 9.1940 Dec. 6
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298No. 176: Trafficking in food products bought in “my stores” is prohibited. Stores found in possession of such goods will be closed and the merchandise confiscated.1940 Dec. 8
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299No. 177: Since the soup kitchens which serve individual buildings do not function satisfactorily, they are being taken over by Rumkowski.1940 Dec. 10
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300No. 178: Bread and food ration cards will be distributed on December 15. On that day all are to remain in their homes, except for distribution personnel, medical personnel, etc. All workshops and soup kitchens will be closed. Workers who are to report for departure [for work outside the ghetto] must bring their summonses.1940 Dec. 5, 1940 Dec. 12
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301No. 179 (12/17/1940): As ordered by the authorities, “all men’s and women’s fur coats, fur stoles, fur collars and skins” must be offered for sale to Rumkowski’s bank by January 1, 1941. After that date, the goods will be confiscated. No. 180 (12/20/1940): Registration of men eighteen to forty-five years old [for work outside the ghetto] will continue on December 22.1940 Dec. 17, 1940 Dec. 20
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302No. 181: All cart drivers, butchers and fish dealers are to register.1940 Dec. 20
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303No. 182: Relatives of the workers who were conscripted for labor outside the ghetto must inform the Labor Assignments Department of their correct address so that they may promptly receive money orders which are in their name.1940 Dec. 20
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304No. 183: Notwithstanding the shortage of coal, wooden houses, sheds, and fences are not to be taken apart without Rumkowski’s permission. Violators will be imprisoned for at least three months.1940 Dec. 21
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305No. 184: Owners of domestic animals should report each sickness of an animal within eighteen hours. No slaughtering is permitted without an examination and permission by a veterinarian.. Violators will be severely punished.1940 Dec. 22
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306No. 185: A list of sixty-four soup kitchens which were taken over by Rumkowski’s administration. All persons who want to eat in these kitchens must register there.1940 Dec. 24
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307No. 186: Effective December 30, food distribution by the house committees is discontinued and food ration cards are introduced. The food will display lists of customers, which everyone is instructed to check. A list of items to be distributed with coupons No. 81 and 82 is enclosed. Customers must bring their own wrappers, bags and other receptacles.1940 Dec. 27
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308No. 187: Announcement of a Chanukkah gift: all persons who are on relief will receive 2.64 Mk, and families with monthly incomes below 90 Mk will get 10.56 Mk to cover the cost of the first two food ration coupons. 450,000 Mk have been appropriated for this purpose. Remarks about the fact that 16,000 workers are employed in the ghetto workshops thus providing a living for 60,000 people. Warning against agitators and promise of additional public kitchens which will even issue meals “with meat.”1940 Dec. 28
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309No. 188: The deadline for surrendering furs is extended until January 10, 1941.1940 Dec. 31
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310No. 189: All owners of horses are to report immediately each change of ownership or death of an animal.1940 Dec. 31
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311No. 190: As of January 8 meal tickets in the soup kitchens and “private restaurants” will be issued only against ration coupons. Coupons No. 83 to 86 permit one meal per day or an equivalent food allotment for the eight day period beginning January 8. The allotment consists of 3 kg. potatoes, 400 g. groats, 150 g. flour, 30 g. each of oil and turnips, 50 g. salt. Coupon No. 90 is for 250 g. sugar, 150 g. honey, 100 g. coffee mix, ¼ kg. soda, ½ cake soap, 1 box matches. Coupon No. 100 is for 100 g. sausage or 50 g. margarine.1941 Jan. 4
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312No. 191: List of food rations for the period January 16 to 23. Includes 1/2 kg. meat and 200 g. sausage for the workers “in my workshops factories,” house watchmen, police and fire brigade, and chimney sweeps. Distribution of meat and sausage for the rest of the ghetto “will follow.”1941 Jan. 14
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313No. 192: Detailed instructions concerning identification of corpses at the Civil Registry Office by two witnesses. Among other things, all personal documents including ration cards of the deceased must be surrendered.1941 Jan. 15
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314No. 193: Sick persons will be admitted to the hospital only if they surrender their ration cards. Violators will be arrested.1941 Jan. 15
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315No. 194: Warning against swindlers who pose as mailmen and collect money by presenting forged notices of parcels to be picked up at the ghetto post office.1941 Jan. 16
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316No. 195: A special ration of 500 g. bread will be distributed on January 19.1941 Jan. 16
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317No. 196: Distribution of 4 kg. dust coal and 2 kg. firewood.1941 Jan. 17
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318No. 197: Relief payments for January are increased to 7 Mk for children, 10 Mk for adults and 12 to 16 Mk for old people.1941 Jan. 17
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319Nos. 198, 199: Because of the threat of flooding in the ghetto, all unemployed men are to work at various cleaning operations. All privately owned shovels, crowbars, sleds and pushcarts are to be loaned for snow and ice removal, or they will be confiscated.1941 Jan. 18
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320No.200: Beginning January 24, bread rations will be increased to 400g daily. Supplementary rations will be discontinued.1941 Jan. 21
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321N.N.: Proclamation against disturbances in the ghetto: “Irresponsible elements and provocateurs tried to disturb the work in the factories, and I was compelled yesterday to remove the workers from one factory by force ... I have repeatedly warned that the factories work mainly for the Wehrmacht. I am personally responsible for all incidents and production losses in the plants, and I cannot tolerate such excesses. Therefore I have decided to close down all factories.” Some agitators have been arrested and more arrests will follow until peace is restored in the ghetto.1941 Jan. 24
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322N.N.: Introduction of five and ten Pfennig ghetto postage stamps and a decoration “in three classes” for “meritorious work.” Artists are invited to submit designs with German and Yiddish lettering. The three best designs will be awarded respectively 100,60 and 40 Mk.1941 Jan. 30
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323No. 201: Distribution of basic food rations, consisting of 400g sugar, 200g synthetic honey, 150g coffee mix, 400g soda, 150g salt, 1/10 liter vinegar, 250g turnips, 200g carrots, 150g beets, 50g oil, ½ cake soap, 200g butter, 40g margarine, 50g oatmeal.1941 Jan. 22
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324No. 202: Distribution of coal and firewood.1941 Jan. 24
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325No. 203: Distribution of food rations to factory workers.1941 Jan. 28
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326No. 204: Distribution of 6 kg. dust coal and 2 kg. firewood.1941 Jan. 28
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327No. 206: On order of the authorities the ghetto area will be reduced by cutting off several blocks from its southern part. A special committee will organize a “methodical and orderly” transfer of the affected tenants into the ghetto. A warning not to occupy new quarters without authorization.1941 Feb. 1
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328No. 207: Distribution of coal.1941 Feb. 3
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329No. 208: Distribution of meat.1941 Feb. 3
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330No. 209: Supplement to No. 206. Tenants and house watchmen in the houses to be separated from the ghetto will be held responsible that “nothing is removed from the apartments that would cause damage to them.”1941 Feb. 3
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331No. 210: Distribution of basic rations.1941 Feb. 4
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332No. 211: All pushcarts and horse-drawn wagons are to receive a registration plate. Violators will be punished and their vehicles confiscated.1941 Feb. 4
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333No. 212: Distribution of sausages.1941 Feb. 5
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334No. 213: All horses should be vaccinated by February 9.1941 Feb. 7
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335No. 214: Distribution of food rations.1941 Feb. 13
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336No. 215: The population is assured that each of the “many thousands of letters” requesting relief or employment is being read. However, applications for jobs in the Ghetto Administration are “not worth the paper” they are written on.1941 Feb. 13
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337N.N.: “A serious complaint was received” [from the German authorities] that the uniforms manufactured in the ghetto for the Wehrmacht are not satisfactory, e.g., buttons, buttonholes, buckles, watch pockets, etc. were missing and many garments had ironing burns. All tailor shops will be closed for the purpose of reorganization.1941 Feb. 12
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338No. 216: Instructions on how to write letters so that they do not get destroyed at the ghetto post office. Only plain postcards containing “nothing about the economic situation” are permitted for mailing abroad. In the interior, letters of up to four pages are permitted. No parcels are to be solicited. Since many letters are returned because they are written in bad German, two studios will be opened where letters will be written “under the supervision of my Mail Office” for a fee.1941 Feb. 19
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339Nos. 217-219: Distribution of coal, food rations and kitchen meals.1941 Apr. 19-1941 Apr. 20
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340No. 220: New bread ration cards will be issued on February 27. Bread ration for two days will be distributed on February 28.1941 Feb. 25
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341No. 221: By order of the authorities, all food parcels which were sent into the ghetto by railway have been confiscated “for the benefit of the ghetto population.” Ghetto residents are urged to write promptly to their relatives and friends not to send any more packages.1941 Feb. 26
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342No. 222: Announcement No. 138 of Oct. 11 is repeated.1941 Feb. 27
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343No. 223: Distribution of supplemental food rations.1941 Feb. 28
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344N.N.: A warning to all cart drivers that their horses and wagons will be confiscated even for the smallest theft, and the culprits arrested and put to the hardest labor.1941 Feb. 28, 1941 Mar. 2
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345No. 224: Announcement No. 221 of February 26 is repeated.1941 Mar. 1
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346Nos. 225, 226, (3/3, 3/4/1941). Electric light may be on only after 8 PM. Only one 15-watt bulb per room is permitted. Such bulbs may be purchased at the Electricity Department. In case of violation the current will be cut off promptly.1941 Mar. 3, 1941 Mar. 4
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347No. 227: Because of a threat of epidemics, all unemployed men between eighteen and forty years should report to their house administrators for building cleanup. The work will proceed from 9 AM to 9 PM. Evaders will be punished.1941 Mar. 7
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348No. 228: Distribution of basic food rations.1941 Mar. 6
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349No. 229: Families with no stable income may lease plots of arable land for 20 Mk. Plots measuring 200 square meters “should suffice to maintain a family.” Tenants of certain houses may cultivate grounds which belong to the house. The Department of Agriculture will sell seeds and send gardening instructors, but will seize unused plots.1941 Mar. 7
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350No. 230: Distribution of coal.1941 Mar. 10
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351No. 231: By order of the authorities, 100 women twenty to thirty years are to register for work outside the ghetto.1941 Mar. 10
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352No. 232: Distribution of food rations.1941 Mar. 12
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353No. 233: Announcing the creation of an “absolutely independent special court” to punish offenses directed “against the essential interests of the community.” Two panels consisting of a judge and two assessors will issue “free” judgements. Investigation is dispensed with, and the prosecution and defense are excluded from the proceedings.1941 Mar. 15
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354No. 234: Distribution of food rations and kitchen meals.1941 Mar. 23
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355Nos. 235, 236 (3/21, 3/23/1941): Ghetto residents who have claims of money or merchandise against persons outside the ghetto are urged to report them to Rumkowski’s bank, provided that these claims are dated on or after Oct. 1, 1939. “I have succeeded to date in reclaiming tens of thousands of Marks in this manner.”1941 Mar. 21, 1941 Mar. 23
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356Nos. 237-239 (3/24, 3/25, 3/27/1941): Distribution of food rations, coal, butter and meat.1941 14 Mar., Mar. 24-1941 Mar. 27
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357No. 240: Repeats announcement No. 235.1941 Mar. 26
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358No. 241: Persons who wish to sell food which they received in gift parcels may do so “at my mail office.” The food will be turned over to the “dietetic food stores for sick persons.”1941 Apr. 1
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359No. 242: The “last ration of bread” before Passover will be issued on April 11. Beginning April 6, 2.5 kg. of matzot will be sold for 3.25 Mk for the period April 12-19.1941 Apr. 3
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360No. 243: Distribution of food rations and kitchen meals.1941 Apr. 4
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361No. 244: By order of the authorities a blackout at dusk will be in force for the entire ghetto beginning April 5. Violators will be punished most severly.1941 Apr. 4
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362No. 245: Ghetto residents are not allowed to write to persons outside the ghetto offering merchandise or asking for work. The exclusive purchaser of such merchandise is the Central Purchasing Agency.1941 Apr. 3, 1941 Apr. 10
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363No. 246: Continued registration of women for work outside the ghetto.1941 Apr. 11
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364No. 247: Skilled brush-makers and upholsterers may register at the Upholstery Division for work in a new factory.1941 Apr. 13
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365No. 248: Matzot may be purchased until April 15.1941 Apr. 13
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366No. 249: Repeats Announcement No. 246 of April 11.1941 Apr. 13
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367No. 250: Registration of men and women for work outside the ghetto continues.1941 Apr. 16
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368No. 251: Distribution of kitchen meals and food rations. Price list of food items.1941 Apr. 17
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369No. 252: Instructions to “overcome the unsanitary conditions in the Ghetto” by keeping the toilets and waste pits in proper condition. “In some cases the wooden parts ... are stolen, so that only the open pit remains; such thefts constitute an acute danger to the Ghetto population.” Stealing wood, as well as privately trading in wood and used tar boards, will be considered a grave crime and punished with imprisonment and hard labor. “Furniture wood” many be sold to “my Wood and Coal section.”1941 Apr. 21
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370No. 253: Detailed regulations for all residents to improve cleanliness of houses, courtyards, toilets, etc., in order to prevent epidemics. For each building a sanitation committee will be appointed to supervise weeks for cleanup work. Urgent appeal to the population to recognize “the great danger” and to keep themselves and their homes clean. Violators will be punished with fines or loss of their relief payments.1941 Apr. 21
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371No. 254: “From now on” 1 loaf [2 kg.] of bread will be sold for five days in exchange for one bread coupon.1941 Apr. 21
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372No. 255: Instructions concerning new registration numbers for pushcarts for the year 1941. Unnumbered carts will be confiscated and their owners punished.1941 Apr. 21, 1941 Apr. 23
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373No. 256: The 6PM curfew is lifted. The population is allowed to remain outside between 6AM and 9PM.1941 Apr. 23
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374No. 257: Detailed rules concerning new working hours in connection with the lifting of the 6PM curfew.1941 Apr. 23
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375No. 258: Instructions to the managers of the food stores and work shops concerning accounting for and returning empty receptacles such as bags, bottles, cans and barrels, since these must be sent back [to the Germans]. 1941 Apr. 24
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376Nos. 259-261 (4/25,4/29,5/7/1941): Distribution of food rations and kitchen meals.1941 Apr. 25, 1941 Apr.29, 1941 May 7
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377N.N.: Appeal to the “dear children,” signed by the School Department on behalf of Rumkowski, “whom you [children] esteem and love so much.” The children are urged to observe cleanliness everywhere in order to avoid epidemics “and other plagues,” not to step on the grass, pick the plants, or damage the benches in public places. In particular, they should not loiter in the streets, walk or stop near the ghetto fence and the bridges. “Avoid it ... don’t be curious.”1941 May 4
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378No. 262: Table scales and English scales will be purchased by the Central Purchasing Agency.1941 May 9
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379No. 263: Regulations against the street sale of candy and sweets, because it has been established that they contain harmful ingredients.1941 May 11
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380No. 264: Instructions on how to protect cultivated areas from damage and theft of produce.1941 May 11
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381No. 265: The post office will release packages and remittances only to persons who have a valid certificate of residence and an identification card with a photograph. Such cards may be obtained “at my registry office.”1941 May 11
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382No. 266: Effective May 15 the bread distribution centers will close down. Bread rations will be sold at the new grocery and bread stores.1941 May 11
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383No. 267: Distribution of food rations.1941 May 11
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384Nos. 268-269: Seamstresses with sewing machines may register for work.1941 May 11
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385N.N.: By the decree of the Police President of May 9, air-raid preparedness for the ghetto is ordered “as of today.” Detailed instructions on extinguishing fires. Air-raid wardens and first-aid personnel to be trained by special instructors shortly.1941 May 21
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386No. 270: Distribution of food rations.1941 May 22
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387No. 271: Because of large German orders, owners of sewing machines are ordered to sell the machines within ten days to the Central Purchasing Agency. Those who intentionally detach parts from their machines will be punished with imprisonment.1941 May 22
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388No. 272: Distribution of kitchen meals and food rations.1941 May 25
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389Nos. 273, 274 (5/25/1941, n.d.): Rations are being bought up from those who are unable to pay for them and then sold at exorbitant prices. Trafficking in rationed goods is strictly forbidden as of May 20. The Ordnungsdienst will enforce this rule, search the private stores and confiscate the goods.n.d., 1941 May 25
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390No. 275: Rumkowski delegates Henryk Neftalin to deal with numerous complaints about dishonesty, abuse and swindling by the employees of the ghetto administration. To this end, Neftalin receives the “widest powers,”including the right to order arrests. All ghetto officials are to assist him in this task. In urgent cases Neftalin is authorized to consult with the “President of my Court, S. Jacobson.” On the basis of Neftalin’s reports Rumkowski will pass judgement “even faster than the special court does.”1941 May 30
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391No. 276: Distribution of bread rations.1941 May 31
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392No. 277: Distribution of 250g rhubarb.1941 June 4
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393No. 278: Announcement of a “strict” curfew from 9PM, June 6 to 8PM, June 7 for shots fired in the direction of a German guard-post. The perpetrators were not apprehended. The mildness of this reprimand is due to Rumkowski’s intercession with the Germans.1941 June 4
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394No. 279: Distribution of food rations.1941 June 13
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395No. 280: All 2 Mk notes are void because of the many counterfeits now in circulation.1941 June 14
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396No. 281: Distribution of meat.1941 June 16
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397Nos. 282, 285, 289, 294: Registration for public works of all men seventeen to forty years of age who receive relief aid.1941 June 23-1941 July 21
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398N.N.: Warning against private conversations at work. “Persons caught ... will be immediately discharged and will lose their right to relief aid.”1941 June 23
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399Nos. 283, 284 (6/24,6/26/1941): Distribution of food rations and meat.1941 June 24-1941 June 26
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400No. 286: A rat poisoning action will take place on July 2.1941 June 29
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401No 287: Announcement No. 224 of April 4 about blackouts is repeated.1941 July 1
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402No. 288: Distribution of food rations.1941 July 3
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403Nos. 290, 291 (7/5, 7/12/1941): Distribution of meat and special food rations.1941 July 5, 1941 July 12
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404No. 292: Last warning against private makers of confectionary goods. When apprehended they will be punished with a minimum of three months imprisonment, and their merchandise and tools will be confiscated. Similar punishment awaits those who sell such items, including parents of the children who peddle candy in the streets. The children themselves will be sent to reform school.1941 July 18
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405No.293: Because of a large number of sewing machines offered for sale [see anouncement No. 271] the Central Purchasing Agency will discontinue buying them until July 20.1941 July 18
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406Nos. 295-297 (7/21, 7/25/1941): Distribution of food rations, meat and margarine.1941 July 21, 1941 July 25, 1941 Aug. 4
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407No. 298: Instructions on selling vegetables from the ghetto plots to the retailers. This can be done at a price fixed by the Vegetable Section and posted daily in the ghetto.1941 Aug. 14
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408N.N.: “Beware of typhoid fever!” Instructions on how to avoid it. [This folder is empty.]1941 Aug. 20
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409N.N.: Rumkowski will make a special speech about the relief distribution system.1941 Aug. 20
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410Nos. 299-301 (8/16, 8/26, 8/28/1941): Distribution of food rations and sausages.1941 Aug. 16, 1941 Aug. 26, 1941 Aug. 28
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411No. 302: Instructions how to prevent gas accidents.1941 Sept. 2
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412No. 303: Distribution of food rations.1941 Sept. 13
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413No. 304: 200 light country wagons have been assigned to the ghetto. They will be leased to groups of three to four people, who will thus be able to make a living. Registrants must submit character reference.1941 Sept. 17
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414No 305: Distribution of meat.1941 Sept. 16
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415Nos. 306, 312, 319: Announcements about the innoculation of children.1941 Sept. 25-1941 Oct. 23
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416N.N.: All kitchens will be closed for Yom Kippur. Bread rations due September 29 will cover only five days “this time,” instead of the usual six. 1941 Sept. 29
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417No. 307: Distribution of food rations.1941 Sept. 27-1941 Sept. 28
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418No. 308: Traffic regulations.1941 Oct. 2
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419Nos. 309, 310: Distribution of margarine and meat.1941 Oct. 2
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420No. 311: Instructions on paying electricity bills.1941 Oct. 6
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421N.N.: For the last two days of Succos, cholent will be accepted in twenty-six listed bakeries. Because of a space shortage, each family may bring only one small pot and leave it in the bakery for one day only.1941 Oct. 10
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422No. 314: All “ostgeld” banknotes (Reichskredit Kassenscheine) denominations of 0.50 RM to 100 RM have been declared void and must be exchanged by Oct. 28.1941 Oct. 17
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423Nos. 315 - 318, 320 (10/17-26/1941): Distribution of food rations, meat and butter.1941 Oct. 17-1941 Oct. 26
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424No. 321: Announcement No. 70 is repeated.1941 Oct. 27
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425N.N.: Appeal to the “new arrivals” [i.e. the deportees] for patience while living quarters are being assigned. Allocations will be made exclusively by the Housing Office. Ghetto residents are strictly forbidden to rent out rooms to the newcomers, and violators will be expelled from their apartments.1941 Oct. 31
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426No. 322: All persons who still have merchandise and valuables hidden in Litzmannstadt or in the ghetto should report in confidence to the Sonderabteilung [special unit] of the Ordnungsdienst. There will be no investigation, and an equivalent in ghetto money will be paid to the owners.1941 Nov. 2
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427N.N.: “Since it is forbidden to wear furs, fur collars and stoles in the ghetto,” all newcomers are requested to offer their furs for sale.1931 Nov. 2
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428No. 323: Distribution of food rations.1941 Nov. 2
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429No. 325: Women twenty to thirty years may register for work outside the ghetto. Registration begins November 4.1941 Nov. 3
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430No. 326: Distribution of meat.1941 Nov. 13
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431No. 327: In order to save electricity, the use of cooking appliances is prohibited. Only 15-watt lightbulbs may be used. Violators will have their current cut off.1941 Nov. 3
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432No. 328: Men and women eighteen to thirty-five years may register for work outside the ghetto.1941 Nov. 7
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433N.N.: Since it is prohibited to take photographs in the ghetto, all new arrivals must offer their cameras for sale by Nov. 23. Violators will be punished and their cameras confiscated.1941 Nov. 7
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434N.N.: “Proclamation to all new arrivals.” They must adjust to the conditions in the ghetto and strictly obey “all my directive.” Transport and group leaders must see to it that all luggage is returned to the rightful owners and they must assign the better cots and bunks in the camps to old people and mothers with infants. Proper sanitary conditions should be imposed by the transport physicians.1941 Nov. 7
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435No. 329: Distribution of margarine and preparation of cholent.1941 Nov. 9
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436No. 33: Strict warning about observing blackout regulations. “Only the factories are permitted to work at night with electric lights on.”1941 Nov. 8
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437No. 331: Distribution of meat and sausages.1941 Nov. 10
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438 Nos. 332, 333, 339 (11/11, 11/13, 11/25/1941): Distribution of briquettes and firewood. "Everybody must carry the briquettes [from the depot in Marysin] to his home," and no vehicles, "not even the smallest pushcart,” may be used for that purpose.1941 Nov. 11, 1941 Nov. 13, 1941 Nov. 25
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439No. 334: Distribution of meat.1941 Nov. 18
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440Nos. 335, 337 (11/18, 11/24/1941):. Hot coffee will be sold to the ghetto residents at fifty coffee distribution stands for 5 Pfennigs per liter.1941 Nov. 18, 1941 Nov. 24
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441Nos. 336-338, 340 (11/22-11/26/1941): Distribution of food rations, margarine, coffee and meat.1941 24 June, 1941 Nov. 22-1941 Nov. 26
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442No. 341: New arrivals must turn in their work books.1941 Nov. 29
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443N.N.: Home cooks will receive special winter rations beginning December 15. The first ration is to last until January 15, 1942. In order to make necessary repairs in the soup kitchens and to improve the kitchen system, as well as bring some warmth to homes, I have decided to reorganize the midday meals in spite of the scarcity of fuel.” The first ration will consist of 500 g. rye flour, 200 g. farfel, l00 g. each potato starch and oil, 200 g. each of salt and brown sugar, l0 g. bicarbonate of soda, 5 g. lemon acid, 20 kg. potatoes,1 kg. each carrots, beets, turnips and kohlrabi, and 8 kg. briquettes. Persons unable to buy all these rations at once may receive them in installmants. As a result of repairs in the kitchens, children will not receive their additional soup there.1941 Dec. 1-1941 Dec. 8
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444No. 342: An office for the new arrivals has been established "to resolve all matters affecting them as quickly as circumstances permit." Henryk Neftalin will head the new office.1941 Dec. 3
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445No. 343: Distribution of meat.1941 Dec. 6
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446No. 344, 1217/1941. To enable persons on relief to purchase special meal rations the relief rate is increased for the winter period to 12 Mk.1941 Dec. 7
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447N.N.: Distribution of coal. 1941 Dec. 8, 1941 Dec. 26-1941 Dec. 27
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448 N.N.: Since the lifting of the mail embargo for the new arrivals "too many letters have been written despite repeated warnings." Until further notice, mail to the Old Reich and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia will not be accepted. There will be no telegram service.1941 Dec. 13
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449N.N.: "Brothers and sisters! Regarding recent events [shooting by the German guards at the pedestrians in the streets adjoining the ghetto fence] I announce herewith that as a result of my intervention I have received assurances that those occurrences will not be repeated." Exeception will be made only for smugglers and those who will attempt to leave the ghetto without authorization. Appeal for calm and good work. [This folder is empty.]1941 Dec. 25
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450Nos. 345, 346 (12/11, 12/18/1941): Distribution of food rations and meat.1941 Dec. 11, 1941 Dec. 18
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451No. 347: Until further notice, all ghetto residents are strictly forbidden to shelter strangers or relatives not registered as members of the household. "Families violating this order will be forcibly evacuated from the ghetto.”1941 Dec. 30
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452No. 348: Rumkowski reiterates that the incidents at the ghetto fence will not occur again, as he promised in his proclimation of December 25 [he refers to the shooting on December 29 of a man who was carrying two suitcases and was mistaken by the German guards for a smuggler]. Renewed appeal to the ghetto population for calm and good work. 1942 Jan. 1
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453No. 349: Distribution of food rations.1942 Jan. 2
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454 No. 350: On order of the authorities all men's skiing and climbing boots must be sold to the Banking Department by January 15, or they will be confiscated and their owners punished.1942 Jan. 6
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455No. 351: Workers are wanted for the chemical shop and laundry.1942 Jan. 7
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456 No. 352: On orders of the authorities all mail service, except for remittances, has been discontinued until further notice.1942 Jan. 8
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457No. 353: Families to be evacuated (zur Ausreisse bestimmt) have the choice of either selling their furniture to the carpentry shop or storing it there.1942 Jan. 7
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458No. 354: Distribution of meat.1942 Jan. 11
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459N.N. (1/11, 1/26, 2/11/1942): Distribution of food rations to home cooks.1942 Jan. 11, 1942 Jan. 26, 1942 Feb. 11
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460No. 355: Persons assigned for evacuation must report to the assembly point in time or they will be apprehended by force wherever they are. "Last warning" to the population not to shelter those who do not belong to their households. Both families and house watchmen who violate this order will face evacuation as well.1942 Jan. 14
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461No. 356: By order of the authorities an announcement is made that Dr. Ulrich Georg Israel Schulz from Prague has been executed for resisting the police.1942 Jan. 19
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462Nos. 357-359 (1/20, 1/23, 1/29/1942): Distribution of food rations, margarine and meat.1942 Jan. 20-1942 Jan. 29
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463No. 350: Instructions on fire prevention. 1942 Jan. 29
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464No. 361: Registration for waste removal work.1942 Jan. 29
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465N.N.: Distribution of briquettes and firewood.1942 Jan. 30
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466No. 362: Distribution of food rations.1942 Feb. 4
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467No. 363: Registration of all hand-carts and horse-drawn wagons at the Transportation Department. For identification, bread ration cards must be presented by the owners. Violators will be punished and their vehicles confiscated.1942 Feb. 4
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468No. 364: Distribution of food rations.1942 Feb. 14
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469 No. 365: Appeal to sell medicine bottles, glass balloons, large glass containers and barrels to the Receptacle Division for use in ghetto pharmacies.1942 Feb. 15
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470 N.N.: Distribution of food rations.1942 Feb. 24
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471No. 366: The following copper coins will cease to be legal tender in the ghetto as of March 1: 1 and 2 Rentenpfenige, 1 and 2 Reichspfenige, 1 and 2 Groschen and 100 and 200 Kronen.1942 Feb. 25
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472No. 367: In addition to their hospital duties, all physicians are obliged to work in the dispensaries and to visit patients that are assigned to them by the Health Department without remuneration.1942 Feb. 26
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473N.N.: Distribution of matzos for Passover. n.d.
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474No. 368: Persons who are to be evacuated from the ghetto can sell "goods of any kind," including furniture and household goods, to the Central Purchasing Agency, as well as deposit ghetto money which they still possess, or transfer the money to someone else.1942 Mar. 2
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475No. 369: Instructions concerning the removal of ice and snow and other emergency work to prevent flooding. 1942 Mar. 4
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476N.N.: Distribution of coal and firewood.1942 Mar. 8
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477 N.N.: Ghetto residents may contact their relatives who live in the country by means of postcards [with pre-printed text]. Only one card per family will be accepted. The two ghetto mail offices will check the mailing address against that on the vegetable ration card.1942 Mar. 8
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478N.N. (3/17, 4/12, 4/14, 4/16, 5/20, 9/24/1942): Distribution of vegetables.1942 Mar. 17, 1942 Apr. 4, 1942 Apr. 16, 1942 May 20, 1942 Sept. 24
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479 No. 370: Leasing of arable land for the year 1942 is announced.1942 Mar. 20
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480No. 371: All recipients of deportation notices are to appear at the assembly point at the announced time, “or they will leave without any luggage.”1942 Mar. 22
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481No. 372: Rumors that the deportation has been called off are false. Therefore deportees must assemble at the pre-determined locations.1942 Mar. 25
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482No. 373: A general cleaning will be performed throughout the ghetto on April 6 between 8 AM and 3 PM. Everyone between the ages of fifteen and fifty is to participate. All workshops, factories, offices and food stores will be closed.1942 Apr. 3
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483N.N.: Distribution of food rations.1942 Apr. 3
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484 N.N.: Distribution of meat.1942 Apr. 17
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485No. 374: By order of the authorities everyone in the ghetto over ten years is to submit to a medical examination. Those who are employed or who carry a work certificate are exempt, as are the new arrivals from the Old Reich, Luxembourg, Vienna and Prague. Time schedule for each ghetto block is given. Bedridden persons will be helped by orderlies. Those failing to appear will be punished.1942 Apr. 18
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486No. 375: Rumors that persons over the age of sixty are exempt from the examination are false. Announcement No. 374 is repeated.1942 Apr. 20
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487 No. 376: Additional time schedules for medical examinations. “Because those who hold a job are exempt.”1942 Apr. 21
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488No. 377: Revised time schedules for medical examinations in order “to avoid misunderstandings.”1942 Apr. 22
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489No. 378: All those who failed to submit to the examinations must do so by April 28.1942 Apr. 27
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490 No. 379: Registration for examinations extended until April 29.1942 Apr. 28
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491No. 380: By order of the authorities the deportation of the Jews from Germany, Luxembourg, Vienna and Prague will begin on May 4. Persons who hold World War I German decorations and those who are employed are exempt. 12.5 kg. luggage may be taken along. “Possessions which must be left behind” may be offered for sale to the Central Purchasing Agency.1942 Apr. 29
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492No. 381: May 1 is the last day for medical examinations. 1942 Apr. 30
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493No. 382: A gardening consulting service is established for those who tend plots of land.1942 May 7
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494 No. 383: “Strict warning concerning blackout.” All dwellings including factories are to be blacked out at dusk. Tenants, house watchmen and factory managers are responsible for observing the blackout at their respective places. 1942 May 16
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495No. 384: Registration for work in Poznan.1942 May 27
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496No. 385: All furs which were previously exempted [from the mandatory sale] must now be sold to the bank by June 24, or they will be confiscated.1942 June 10
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497 No.386: Fruit trees and shrubs may be leased from the Department of Agriculture.1942 June 12
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498 N.N.: Distribution of food rations.1942 June 15
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499N.N.: All consumers waiting for their food rations must line up and wait for their turn. Nobody is entitled to preferential treatment.1942 June 27
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500 No. 387: Ghetto residents have repeatedly failed to salute German officials. These officials must be saluted even if they are passing through in an automobile. Members of the Ordnungsdienst and the Fire Brigade are to stand at attention; civilians should take off their hats; women and bare-headed men should bow their heads. “Non-compliance will be severely punished.”1942 June 27
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501Nos. 388, 389 (7/4, 7/8/1942): All valuables which were left behind in the city or which are hidden in the ghetto should be reported and offered for sale without fear of an investigation.1942 July 4, 1942 July 8
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502N.N. (7/26, 8/9, 9/11, 10/18, 11/18, 12/17/1942): Distribution of food rations.1942 July 26-1942 Dec. 17
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503No. 390: Additional instructions on fire prevention.1942 Aug. 1
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504No. 391: As of September 5, a general curfew starting at 5 PM is announced "until further notice." Everyone is to carry a work card. Persons apprehended in the streets without a pass will be deported.1942 Sept. 5
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505No. 392: The curfew imposed on September 5 [in connection of children and the sick] is now lifted.1942 Sept. 12
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506No. 393: Soup kitchens will re-open on September 14. The food situation will improve. Ration cards of those deported should be turned in promptly. The selling of food and fuel privately is strictly forbidden. House administrations and house watchmen are responsible for sealing the apartments of those deported and for protecting them against looting.1942 Sept. 13
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507No. 394: Those who buy food with ration cards which belonged to deportees are to be placed on “special lists” and most severely punished.1942 Sept. 17
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508 No. 395: Distribution of 26 kg. potatoes for November and December.1942 Sept. 30
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509N.N.: Distribution of 39 kg. potatoes for January and February, 1943.1942 Oct. 10
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510No. 396: To prevent spoilage of winter potatoes, pits should be dug for storage. For that purpose all spades and shovels are requisioned for two weeks.1942 Oct. 28
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511 N.N.: Distribution of cigarettes and tobacco.1942 Nov. 8, 1942 Nov. 15
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512N.N.: Distribution of meat and sausages.1942 Nov. 5, 1942 Nov. 14
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513N.N.: Distribution of coal and firewood.1942 Dec. 4
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514 No. 397: Repeated warning about strict observance of the blackout in all dwellings, offices, workshops and factories. Threat of severe punishment for those guilty of negligence.1943 Feb. 19
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515N.N.: Distribution of briquettes, 15 kg. per person, for March.1943 Feb. 26
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516No. 398: Announcement issued by the German Ghetto Administration and signed by Biebow about the purchasing of used articles of all kinds. “It has been established that old clothing, underwear and other used articles remain in many houses, cellars, attics, as well as apartments which were occupied by deportees. The ghetto population is under obligation to deliver them for purchase at designated collection points by March 28.” Warning of punishment.1943 Mar. 9
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517 N.N.: Distribution of coal and firewood.1943 Mar. 22
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518N.N. (4/16, 5/27, 6/2-26/1943): Distribution of potatoes and vegetables.1943 May 26- 1943 June 16
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519N.N.: Warning not to pour slops into waste pits. “As is well known,the options for the removal of waste are very limited.” Overflowing pits constitute a health hazard. Tenants will have to empty the pits themselves.1943 May 3
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520N.N. (5/20, 6/9-24/1943): Distribution of food rations.1943 May 20, 1943 June 9-1943 June 24
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521 N.N.: Distribution of meat and sausages.1943 May 26
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522N.N.: A ceiling price of 2Mk is established for 1 kg. lettuce, radishes and spinach which are grown in “private plots.” No selling to dealers or peddling the vegetables in the streets is allowed.1943 June 9
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523 N.N.: Distribution of coal and firewood.1943 June 27
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524 No. 399: The order to report hidden merchandise and valuables is reiterated. 1943 July 5
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525No. 400: Repeated warning against fires and detailed instructions for fire prevention and fire fighting.1943 Oct. 10
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526 No. 401: Due to the reduced allotment of potatoes, extra soup rations are cancelled as of November 7. In addition, only 2 kg. potatoes per person will be issued weekly.1943 Nov. 3
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527 N.N.: Repeated appeal to sell any valuables such as gold, diamonds, foreign currency and furs to the Bank. People wishing to give “confidential information in this matter” may contact Rumkowski “at any time” through the Ordnungsdienst. Lengthening of volunteer registration for people to work outside the ghetto.1943 Nov. 4, 1944 June 9
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528No. 402: Cancellation of the distribution of "B" food cards.1943 Nov. 5
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529No. 403: An additional soup ration will be distributed among the most deserving workers (“10% of the work force”) in the next six days.1943 Nov. 8
Folder TitleDate
530 No. 404: Dwellings must be cleaned by house watchmen on Sundays as well as weekdays.1943 Nov. 19
Folder TitleDate
531 No. 406: The obligation to salute German officials is reiterated.1944 Jan. 6
Folder TitleDate
532No. 407: Effective immediately and until further notice, ghetto residents are forbidden under severe punishment to shelter persons not registered as members of their households in their homes.1944 Feb. 9
Folder TitleDate
533No. 408: All rings and other silver and gold jewelry must be turned over to the Sonderabteilung by February 7.1944 Feb. 12
Folder TitleDate
534No. 409: Concerning the “sending of 1500 workers away from the ghetto.” All persons who were examined by the medical commission must report at the Central Prison on February 13. Those found not fit for work outside the ghetto will be sent home promptly. Those who did not submit to medical examination must do so by February 13 or ration cards for their entire families and their meal coupons will be stopped. They will also face punitive measures “which will not depend on us.”1944 Feb. 12
Folder TitleDate
535No. 410: On the instructions of the authorities, the ghetto population is reminded “for the last time” that all German officials must be saluted.1944 Feb. 16
Folder TitleDate
536No. 411: “A curfew is announced for February 20 in connection with the sending of 1600 workers to work outside the ghetto.” On February 19 managers of plants and offices are to hand all workers their identity cards. These must be returned on February 21. Male workers without such cards and meal coupons on February 20 will be arrested. House watchmen are to unlock cellars and attics upon request. Keys must be placed in every house and hall door.1944 Feb. 18
Folder TitleDate
537No. 413: The deadline for turning in jewelry is extended until March 12. Afterwards these object will be confiscated without compensation.1944 Feb. 26
Folder TitleDate
538 No. 414: “Last warning” to those in hiding to report at once to the Central Prison. In any case they will eventually be apprehended when applying for ration cards and will face punishment along with those who gave them shelter.1944 Mar. 3
Folder TitleDate
539 N.N.: Distribution of coal.1944 Jan. 28, 1944 Mar. 4, 1944 Apr. 27, 1944 June 22, 1944 July 18
Folder TitleDate
540No. 415: Another warning about observing blackout regulations.1944 May 2
Folder TitleDate
541 N.N.: Voluntary registration for work outside the ghetto continues.1944 June 9
Folder TitleDate
542No. 416: Men and women, including married couples, may register for work outside the ghetto. Children old enough to work may register with their parents. Everyone will be issued complete equipment and will be allowed to take 15 kg. luggage. Registrants may buy their rations right away without waiting their turn. 1944 June 16
Folder TitleDate
543No. 417: All household articles of registrants may be sold to the Central Purchasing Agency or turned over to the Agency for storage.1944 June 18
Folder TitleDate
544N.N.: Distribution of potatoes and vegetables.1944 June 27, 1944 July 18, 1944 July 20, 1944 July 26
Folder TitleDate
545N.N.: Detailed air raid instructions. In case of alarm everybody should leave buildings and seek shelter in ditches, under trees, etc. “Use all natural opportunities for cover!” 1944 July
Folder TitleDate
546N.N.: Distribution of food rations and coal.1944 July 1, 1944 July 18
Folder TitleDate
547N.N.: In addition to the 20 Mk scrip, an equivalent coin will be introduced.1944 July 21
Folder TitleDate
548N.N.: Persons assigned to work outside the ghetto but who were not deported may buy back goods sold to the Central Purchasing Agency.1944 July 21
Folder TitleDate
549No. 417: At the instruction of the Mayor of Litzmannstadt the ghetto will be evacuated. “The [plant] crews will go as units together with their families.” 5000 persons must report daily and the luggage is not to exceed 20 kg. per person. The first transport includes plants 1 and 2 (tailor shops), and it will leave from the Radegast (Radogoszcz) depot on Aug, 3 at 8AM. The deportees are to report at 7AM at the railroad station.1944 Aug. 2
Folder TitleDate
550N.N.: Beginning tomorrow, everybody except for evacuees is to return to work until the time of the evacuation of their respective plants.1944 Aug. 3
Folder TitleDate
551 N.N.: A meeting is announced for all workers where Rumkowski will explain the evacuation of the ghetto.1944 Aug. 3
Folder TitleDate
552No. 418: Announcement by the Mayor of Litzmannstadt. "Since the employees of plants 1 and 2 did not follow Instruction No. 417 regarding evacuation of the ghetto" their rations will be blocked promptly. Anyone who gives them shelter or food will be punished by death.1944 Aug. 4
Folder TitleDate
553 No. 419: The employees of plants 1 and 2 are to report at once to the Central Prison together with their families.1944 Aug. 5
Folder TitleDate
554No. 420: On the instruction of the Mayor of Litzmannstadt plants 3 and 4 (tailor shops) are to depart on Aug. 8. All machinery must be removed as fast as possible. Managers should see to it that all employees leave. Evacuees must report with their families to the Ordnungsdienst precincts. 1944 Aug. 5
Folder TitleDate
555No. 421: The Gettoverwaltung chief Biebow will speak on Aug 7 at 10AM and 4 PM to the workers of selected tailor plants about the evacuation.1944 Aug. 6
Folder TitleDate
556N.N.: Rumkowski will address the ghetto population at 6PM “about the situation which has developed today.” 1944 Aug. 6
Folder TitleDate
557No. 422: Announcement No. 420 is repeated. The evacuees are to report to the Central Prison promptly. Biebow will speak to them.1944 Aug. 7
Folder TitleDate
558No. 423: Five other tailor shops will leave the ghetto. Employees and their families must report to the Central Prison on Aug. 8 and 10.1944 Aug. 7
Folder TitleDate
559 N.N.: “Last warning” to the employees of the tailor shops to report voluntarily to the Central Prison “by 9 AM tomorrow.” Appeal to “sisters and brothers” to obey the order. “See to it that today's events are not repeated.”1944 Aug. 8
Folder TitleDate
560No. 424: All plants will be closed effective Aug. 10. Only ten persons may remain in a plant to pack up the stock. All inhabitants of the ghetto's western part must move to the eastern part. Rations will no longer be issued in the western part.1944 Aug. 9
Folder TitleDate
561N.N.: Rumors that the evacuation has been stopped are false. Evacuees are advised to report voluntarily to avoid “coercive measures such as those applied in recent days.”1944 Aug. 10
Folder TitleDate
562N.N.: The former Culture House has been designated an assembly point for evacuees.1944 Aug. 10
Folder TitleDate
563N.N.: Appeal to the workers of the Leather Division to report immediately for evacuation. 1944 Aug. 11
Folder TitleDate
564No. 425: The western part must be fully evacuated by today and will be closed off tomorrow. Instructions will be issued concerning workers left behind in the plants there.1944 Aug. 13
Folder TitleDate
565N.N.: Appeal to the ghetto population to report voluntarily for evacuation.1944 Aug. 13
Folder TitleDate
566N.N.: All remaining workers of the leather shops are to register promptly for evacuation.1944 Aug. 14
Folder TitleDate
567N.N.: Employees of six underwear and dressmaking shops are to report for departure.1944 Aug. 14
Folder TitleDate
568No. 426: “JEWS OF THE GHETTO! COME TO YOUR SENSES! Volunteer for the transports!” People should report today or tonight at the latest at the assembly points, so that they leave together with their families.1944 Aug. 15
Folder TitleDate
569 No. 427: Announcement by the Gestapo about the reduction of the ghetto. The areas listed must be fully evacuated. Persons found there will be punished by death.1944 Aug. 17
Folder TitleDate
570N.N.: In view of the reduction of the ghetto area, "I give you the opportunity" to report voluntarily for tomorrow's transport.1944 Aug. 17
Folder TitleDate
571N.N.: All employees of the Labor Department are to report for work assignment.1944 Aug. 18
Folder TitleDate
572N.N.: Tailors who did not report for deportation are ordered to do so by midnight or they will be “ruthlessly deported.”1944 Aug. 19
Folder TitleDate
573N.N.: Remaining workers of the Electrical Appliances Workshop as well as other electricians are to register today for employment. Until their departure they will be lodged in the Electrical Appliances Workshop.1944 Aug. 20
Folder TitleDate
574N.N.: Announcement of August 19 is repeated.1944 Aug. 20
Folder TitleDate
575No. 428: Announcement by the Gestapo about further reduction of the ghetto and the immediate evacuation of affected areas.1944 Aug. 17, 1944 Aug. 22
Folder TitleDate
576N.N.: Appeal to volunteer today and tonight for evacuation in order to avoid compulsory measures.1944 Aug. 22
Folder TitleDate
577No. 429: Announcement by the Gestapo about further reduction in the ghetto. With the exception of one designated area the entire ghetto must be completely evacuated by 7AM, Aug. 25. Exempted are work crews in plants, hospitals and the Central Prison, and the 4th Ordnungsdienst precinct in Marysin.1944 Aug. 23
Folder TitleDate
578N.N.: Warning concerning blackout. Many windows were lit. Lights must be turned off “in apartments which are no longer inhabited.”1944 Aug. 24

Series IV: Circulars by Rumkowski and his Staff, 1940-1944

Series IV is in Yiddish, German, and Polish.
ca. 0.5 linear foot
Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

The circulars by Rumkowski and his staff (Series 4) were intended as administrative memoranda and informational bulletins for the administration’s internal use. For the most part the circulars are about matters such as organizational changes in the administration, employment policies, the use of office materials, salaries, rules for office correspondence, etc. In addition, many circulars touch directly upon the living conditions of the administration employees and industry workers as they relate to the distribution of various food items, wages, taxes and sick benefits. The bulk of the circulars were issued between May 1940, and November 1942. The last item in this series is dated July 21, 1944.

Folder TitleDate
579N.N.: About employees who are exempt from paying the advance fee of 3 Mk for food.1940 May 25
Folder TitleDate
580N.N.: About submitting lists of employees to the Department of Welfare to ascertain their elegibility for aid.1940 June 30
Folder TitleDate
581N.N.: About working hours in offices.1940 July 1
Folder TitleDate
582N.N.: About placing orders for office materials.1940 July 4
Folder TitleDate
583NN.: About paying rents promptly.1940 July 30
Folder TitleDate
584N.N.: About not sending any more workers to the Office of Public Works because of lack of demand.1940 Aug. 6
Folder TitleDate
585N.N.: Painting jobs in the departments must be approved by the Labor Department.1940 Aug. 9
Folder TitleDate
586N.N.: Employees earning less than 60 Mk monthly will receive twenty free medical aid coupons, but only sixty such coupons will be distributed daily. Also, all construction, metal, electrical, painting and carpentary jobs must be contracted exclusively with the Labor Department.1940 Aug. 21
Folder TitleDate
587N.N.: Free medical assistance and other matters.1940 Aug. 26
Folder TitleDate
588N.N.: About payment of salaries to employees.1940 Sept. 1
Folder TitleDate
589N.N.: Request for lists of those employees who are to receive free meals.1940 Sept. 13
Folder TitleDate
590N.N.: About employees who are authorized to sign correspondence.1940 Sept. 14
Folder TitleDate
591N.N.: Managers are to send reports about expenses to the Department of Financial Aid, which is preparing a plan to aid the jobless.1940 Sept. 23
Folder TitleDate
592N.N.: About hiring workers in the ghetto workshops.1940 Sept. 27
Folder TitleDate
593N.N.: About making hectographic copies.1940 Sept. 20
Folder TitleDate
594N.N.: About closing offices and workshops for the High Holy Days.1940 Sept. 10
Folder TitleDate
595No. 101: About persons authorized to sign letters for the Vaad Hakibbutzim.1940 Oct. 2
Folder TitleDate
596No. 102: About financial aid to employees who receive low salaries.1940 Oct. 2
Folder TitleDate
597No. 103: About working hours in the departments.1940 Oct. 8
Folder TitleDate
598No. 104: About closing offices and workshops for Yom Kippur.1940 Oct. 10
Folder TitleDate
599No. 105: Saturday is the day of rest in the ghetto.1940 Oct. 13
Folder TitleDate
600No. 106: About closing offices and workshops for Succos.1940 Oct. 15
Folder TitleDate
601No. 107: Questionnaires are to be submitted to the Personnel Department by employees who have been working since August 25.1940 Oct. 20
Folder TitleDate
602No. 109: About advance pay for employees to enable them to buy food ration No. 14.1940 Nov. 4
Folder TitleDate
603No. 110: About persons authorized to sign documents of the Court and the Central Prison.1940 Nov. 5
Folder TitleDate
604No. 111: About persons authorized to sign correspondence in nine workshops.1940 Oct. 7
Folder TitleDate
605No. 113: About submitting lists of employees to the Personnel Department.1940 Nov. 17
Folder TitleDate
606N.N.: Favoritism is forbidden.1940 Nov. 19
Folder TitleDate
607No. 114: About transferring employees from one job to another.1940 Nov. 24
Folder TitleDate
608No. 115: Managers are to report each month on contractors with whom they do business.1940 Dec. 3
Folder TitleDate
609No. 116: About sending lists of employees to the Office of Financial Aid on schedule. About persons authorized to sign the court documents and correspondence of the Vaad Hakibbutzim.1940 Dec. 10
Folder TitleDate
610No. 117: Request for names of persons authorized to distribute ration cards to employees.1940 Dec. 12
Folder TitleDate
611N.N.: Wearing any kind of insignia is forbidden.1940 Dec. 19
Folder TitleDate
612N.N.: Request to all workshops and departments to submit inventories of all raw materials, merchandise and food supplies as of December 13 to Central Accounting.1940 Dec. 27
Folder TitleDate
613No. 1/41: About the distribution of Chanukkah gifts to the employees who earn less than 90 Mk per month.1940 Jan. 1
Folder TitleDate
614N.N.: Disclosing information to unauthorized persons is forbidden.1941 Jan. 23
Folder TitleDate
615No. 4/41: Wages for the final third of February are to be paid only to those employees who have paid their January rent.1941 Feb. 1
Folder TitleDate
616N, 7/41: List of eight tailor shops.1941 Feb. 4
Folder TitleDate
617No. 9/41: About the distribution of bread.6-7 Feb. 1941
Folder TitleDate
618No. 10/41 (2/11/1941): About submitting payroll lists. No. 11/41 (2/11/1941): Information about braziers can be obtained from J. Brink.1941 Feb. 11
Folder TitleDate
619N.N.: About ordering stationery.1941 Feb. 13
Folder TitleDate
620No. 12/41: About the Kitchens Committee.1941 Feb. 19
Folder TitleDate
621No. 13/41: Distribution of Meat.1941 Feb. 21
Folder TitleDate
622No. 14/41: About withholding wages from employees who did not pay their rent.1941 Feb. 21
Folder TitleDate
623N.N.: An Order to all managers to review all matters regarding Aryan property in the ghetto with the control Commission.1941 Feb. 25
Folder TitleDate
624No. 15/41: About the establishment of the Division of Paper Products, with M.D. Bajgelman as manager.1941 Mar. 3
Folder TitleDate
625N.N.: About returning margarine cartons to the Division of Paper Products.1941 Mar. 3
Folder TitleDate
626No. 16/41: About workshops in Marysin which are placed under the supervision of the Ordnungsdienst.1941 Mar. 10
Folder TitleDate
627N.N.: About proper preparation of food cards in order to avoid their misuse.1941 Mar. 24
Folder TitleDate
628No. 17/41: About the responsibility of managers to deliver food cards to their employees.1941 Mar. 28
Folder TitleDate
629No. 18/41: About a holiday bonus for Passover.1941 Mar. 30
Folder TitleDate
630N.N.: Managers are to sign all documents personally.1941 Apr. 1
Folder TitleDate
631N.N.: Managers are responsible for effecting a complete blackout in their divisions and workshops.1941 Apr. 5
Folder TitleDate
632No. 19/41: Workshops have been opened for arts and crafts and for galvanization.1941 Apr. 16
Folder TitleDate
633N.N.: Request from the Personnel Office not to employ persons who are listed as discharged employees.1941 Apr. 20
Folder TitleDate
634No. 20/41: Areas around workshops and offices in the ghetto may be cultivated in order to embellish them.1941 Apr. 25
Folder TitleDate
635No. 21/41: Copies of the payroll are to be sent to the Relief Department.1941 Apr. 30
Folder TitleDate
636No 22/41: Employees who receive aid from the Relief Department will be severely punished and will lose their jobs with the Ghetto Administration.1941 Apr. 30
Folder TitleDate
637No. 23/41: About the new location of a distribution store.1941 May 18
Folder TitleDate
638No. 25/41: About reporting all typewriters.1941 May 27
Folder TitleDate
639No. 26/41: Regulations concerning bonus payments for the employees of the Ghetto Administration who have tenure.1941 June 29
Folder TitleDate
640No. 26/41: A warning to employees not to accept financial aid, or they will lose their jobs.1941 July 10
Folder TitleDate
641N.N.: About new office hours.1941 July 20
Folder TitleDate
642N.N.: About transportation passes.1941 Aug. 5
Folder TitleDate
643N.N.: Managers are urged to use only as many workers for a job as needed.1941 Aug. 8
Folder TitleDate
644N.N.: Merchandise is to be delivered by the divisions for cash only.1941 Aug. 15
Folder TitleDate
645N.N.: About ordering stationery.1941 Aug. 28
Folder TitleDate
646No. 27/41: Warning that even if a member of an employee’s family accepts financial aid, the employee will be dismissed.1941 Sept. 10
Folder TitleDate
647No. 28/41: About the addresses and telephone numbers of divisions.1941 Sept. 16
Folder TitleDate
648N.N.: Warning against damaging windows.1941 Oct. 6
Folder TitleDate
649No. 29/41: Stationery is to be used sparingly because of difficulties in procuring supplies.1941 Nov. 5
Folder TitleDate
650N.N.: Managers are to provide information about job openings in their workshops within three days.1941 Nov. 25
Folder TitleDate
651N.N.: About submitting reports on the number of employees.1941 Dec. 10
Folder TitleDate
652N.N.: About the location of telephone sets in offices.1942 Jan. 3
Folder TitleDate
653N.N.: About calendars for the year 1942.1942 Jan. 4
Folder TitleDate
654N.N.: About new taxes on wages, and about rent, which is set at four percent of one’s salary.1942 Jan. 6
Folder TitleDate
655N.N.: About submitting reports on activities to the Statistics Department.1942 Jan. 9
Folder TitleDate
656N.N.: About the distribution of cigarettes.1942 Jan. 23
Folder TitleDate
657N.N., No. 1/42: Stationery and office materials may be obtained from the Division of Paper Products only.1942 Jan. 9, 1942 Jan. 13
Folder TitleDate
658N.N.: Disclosing information to persons who do not have Rumkowski’s authorization is forbidden.1942 Jan. 23
Folder TitleDate
659N.N.: Managers are to submit reports by February 1 to Rumkowski’s office with lists of their employees.1942 Jan. 29
Folder TitleDate
660N.N.:Warning to managers to obey strictly fire prevention regulations.1942 Jan. 30
Folder TitleDate
661N.N.:Salary scale for workers.1942 Feb. 15
Folder TitleDate
662N.N.: Request to send lists of employees to Rumkowski’s office.1942 Mar. 7
Folder TitleDate
663N.N.: Managers are forbidden to distribute any clothing, footwear and underwear. Requests must be submitted to the Clothing Department.1942 Mar. 8
Folder TitleDate
664No. 2/42: All empty receptacles are to be sent back to the newly established Division of Receptacles.1942 Mar. 10
Folder TitleDate
665N.N.: Requests for workers should be directed to the Central Secretariat daily until 4PM, and on weekends until 2PM.1942 Mar. 13
Folder TitleDate
666N.N.: Hiring and firing of workers should be reported to the Labor Assignments division within three days.1942 Mar. 15
Folder TitleDate
667N.N.: Orders and instructions of the Health Department with regard to the prevention of infectious diseases are obligatory for all divisions and workshops.1941 Mar. 18
Folder TitleDate
668N.N.: Distribution of food rations.1942 Mar. 22
Folder TitleDate
669N.N.: Because of repeated complaints from the Gettoverwaltung with regard to the handling of receptacles, managers will have to account for receptacles which are in their care, or they may expect deductions from their salaries.1942 Mar. 24
Folder TitleDate
670N.N.: Lists of employees should be submitted to the Statistical Department each Tuesday.1942 Apr. 8
Folder TitleDate
671No. 3/42: A special committee is established for institutions and workshops in the Marysin II area.1942 Apr. 27
Folder TitleDate
672N.N.: Warning about obeying fire prevention instructions.1942 May 2
Folder TitleDate
673N.N.: A list of smokers should be submitted in connection with the introduction of special cigarette cards.1942 May 4
Folder TitleDate
674N.N.: About orders for office materials.1942 May 4
Folder TitleDate
675N.N.: Owners of plots are urged to make use of the land through agricultural cultivation.1942 May 5
Folder TitleDate
676N.N.: Telephones are to be used only for office matters; wiretapping equipment will be installed in the Central Telephone Station.1942 May 7
Folder TitleDate
677N.N.: The obligation to greet German officials is to be observed rigorously by the ghetto population.1942 May 22
Folder TitleDate
678N.N.: Department of Transportation has been established.1942 May 22
Folder TitleDate
679N.N: Managers are responsible for the observance of blackout regulations.1942 May 27
Folder TitleDate
680N.N.: Managers are requested to update workers’ attendance books daily.1942 May 29
Folder TitleDate
681N.N.: Distribution of meals to employees.1942 June 1
Folder TitleDate
682N.N.: Distribution of cigarettes.1942 June 6, 1942 June 15
Folder TitleDate
683N.N.: Regulations regarding the tax on wages.1942 June 10
Folder TitleDate
684N.N.: Warning to obey blackout regulations.1942 June 6
Folder TitleDate
685N.N.: Establishment of the Control Office at Central Accounting is announced.1942 June 17
Folder TitleDate
686N.N.: About greeting German officials in the streets.1942 June 19
Folder TitleDate
687N.N.: Seals should be ordered only from the Printing Office.1942 June 30
Folder TitleDate
688N.N.: All orders for materials and accessories must be submitted to the Central Purchasing Agency.1942 June 30
Folder TitleDate
689N.N.: Beginning July 3, sick workers will not receive supplementary meals.1942 July 1
Folder TitleDate
690N.N.: Sick workers will receive sick benefits instead of wages.1942 July 3
Folder TitleDate
691N.N.: Managers are threatened with losing their jobs if they do not observe regulations regarding hiring, discharging or transferring employees.1942 July 4
Folder TitleDate
692N.N.: New members of the Supreme Control Chamber are named, with Joseph Rumkowski as the chairman.1942 Aug. 16
Folder TitleDate
693N.N.: About thefts in offices.1942 Aug. 20
Folder TitleDate
694N.N.: Warning to obey blackout regulations1942 Aug. 31
Folder TitleDate
695N.N.: Employees are to report to the management the names of those members of their household who were deported.1942 Sept. 14
Folder TitleDate
696N.N.: About working hours in offices.1942 Oct. 5
Folder TitleDate
697N.N.: Workers with low wages are to receive an advance payment of 100 Mk. to enable them to pay for the potato rations for November and December 1942 Oct. 5
Folder TitleDate
698N.N.: A sign shop has been established.1942 Oct. 15
Folder TitleDate
699N.N.: The Gettoverwaltung will distribute clothing, underwear and shoes to needy employees.1942 Oct. 19
Folder TitleDate
700N.N.: 1942. Workshops and divisions are to inform the Labor Department about employees who have left their jobs voluntarily or who were discharged as a result of a medical examination, and about those who have been absent from work without any good excuse.1942 Oct. 29
Folder TitleDate
701N.N.: Announcement about the dissolution of the Supreme Control Chamber.1942 Nov. 1
Folder TitleDate
702N.N.: Winter daylight saving time will begin on November 2.1942 Nov. 2
Folder TitleDate
703N.N.: Distribution of cigarettes.1942 Nov. 7
Folder TitleDate
704N.N.: Lists of wrappers should be submitted by workshops and divisions to the Receptacles Division.1942 Dec. 26
Folder TitleDate
705N.N.: About ordering new typewriter ribbons in exchange for used ones.1943 Feb. 9
Folder TitleDate
706N.N.: About the withdrawal of meal control cards from persons who did not show up for medical examination.1944 Feb. 12
Folder TitleDate
707N.N.: About reporting to the Statistics Department the names of employees who were sent to work outside the ghetto.1944 July 10
Folder TitleDate
708N.N.: About fire prevention in workshops, warehouses and offices.1944 June 29
Folder TitleDate
709N.N.: About fastening flower boxes onto windows [so that they do not fall into the street].1944 July 21

Series V: General Correspondence of Chaim Mordecai Rumkowski,  1940-1942

This series is inGerman.
10 folders
Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

This small series holds correspondence of Rumkowski covering a variety of topics. Among the topics are included a list of Lódz Jews in internment camps, correspondence between Rumkowski and the American Joint Distribution Committee concerning the emigration of a Jewish family, and letters to Rumkowski from individuals seeking work. Correspondence is with individuals, organizations, and Jewish communites.

Folder TitleDate
710Letter from the Jewish hospital in Kalisz, attesting that a member of the Kalisz Judenrat, Izydor Wisniewski, is travelling to Lódz for the purpose of soliciting aid for the hospital. Included is a German travel permit for I. Wisniewski.1940 Jan. 18
Folder TitleDate
711Letter from the American Joint Distribution Committee, Warsaw branch (4/7/1940) and reply by Rumkowski (5/1/1940) regarding emigration of a Jewish family from Lódz to the U.S. or Switzerland.1940 Apr. 7, 1940 May 1
Folder TitleDate
712Request to the Jewish Community of Nowy Sacz for a list of the Lódz Jews incarcerated in the internment camps there. Signed by S. Jacobson.1940 June 7
Folder TitleDate
713Letter to A. Widawski, in the ghetto, about borrowing a small typewriter table from him.1940 June 10
Folder TitleDate
714Authorization to seize iron rods from their owner.1940 June 25
Folder TitleDate
715Two letters to private individuals about assigning rooms in the ghetto.1940 June 26
Folder TitleDate
716Letters to Rumkowski asking for jobs or support.1940-1941
Folder TitleDate
717Letter confirming the illness of a Jew in Lódz, issued to enable his son in Czestochowa to send money.1940 Sept. 5
Folder TitleDate
718Letter from the Ezras Rabonim in Warsaw to Rumkowski, requesting that pension be given to the widows of Rabbi Treistmann, Chief Rabbi of Lódz, and Rabbi Friedel of Baluty.1941 May 13
Folder TitleDate
719Letter to the photographer Mordechai Grossman forbidding him to accept private assignments.1941 Dec. 8
Folder TitleDate
720Rumkowski’s thank-you card to well-wishers on the occasion of the New Year.1942
Return to the Top of Page
 

B: THE CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION, 1932-1944

Arrangement:

Divided into the following series:

Series VI: Departments of the Ghetto Administration,  n.d., 1932, 1940-1944

This series is in German.
0.66 linear foot
Arrangement:

Series VI is divided into 13 subseries:

Scope and Content:

Series VI is comprised of papers from several offices within the ghetto administration. The work of these offices cover aspects of daily life. Three such offices, the Central Accounting (Subseries 1), the Supreme Control Chamber (Subseries 2), and the Personnel department (Subseries 6) discuss administrative topics like the payment of workers and supplemental food rations.There are also two offices which deal with safety and security issues, the Ordnungsdienst and Sonderkommando (Subseries 3) and the Fire Fighters and Chimney Sweep Brigade ( Subseries 4). Departments such as the Deportation Commission and the Resettlement Department, Subseries 11 and 12 respectively, dealt with the movement of ghetto inhabitants into and out of the Lódz ghetto. Much of the documents in this series are circulars and notices.

Subseries 1: Central Accounting and Chief Cashier,  1940-1943

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 1 consists of circulars and notices concerning wages, payroll taxes, and various accounting papers. Topics found here include supplemental payments to families.

Folder TitleDate
 Request to the departments that employees be paid all wages that are due them.1940 Dec. 27
721Request to the departments that employees be paid all wages that are due them.1940 Dec. 27
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about paying wages.1941 Aug. 1
722Circular about paying wages.1941 Aug. 1
Folder TitleDate
 List of payroll taxes for the month of January, 1941.1941 Jan. 28
723List of payroll taxes for the month of January, 1941.1941 Jan. 28
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about submitting end-of-year balances to Central Accounting by all ghetto institutions.1941 Dec. 19
724Circular about submitting end-of-year balances to Central Accounting by all ghetto institutions.1941 Dec. 19
Folder TitleDate
 Notices on various accounting matters.1942 Jan. 15
725Notices on various accounting matters.1942 Jan. 15
Folder TitleDate
 Instructions on compiling payroll lists.1942 Jan. 16
726Instructions on compiling payroll lists.1942 Jan. 16
Folder TitleDate
 Set of instructions and examples of bookkeeping procedures for labor divisions and administration departments.1942
727Set of instructions and examples of bookkeeping procedures for labor divisions and administration departments.1942
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about the preparation of payroll.1942 Jan. 30
728Circular about the preparation of payroll.1942 Jan. 30
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about the distribution of family supplemental payments.1942 Feb. 1
729Circular about the distribution of family supplemental payments.1942 Feb. 1
Folder TitleDate
 Notice about submitting lists of employees to whom late payments are owed.1942 Feb. 10
730Notice about submitting lists of employees to whom late payments are owed.1942 Feb. 10
Folder TitleDate
 Notice about making payments to those employees who are isolated in quarantine.1942 Feb. 20
731Notice about making payments to those employees who are isolated in quarantine.1942 Feb. 20
Folder TitleDate
 Notice about blocking family supplemental payments for the month of May, 1942.1942 May
732Notice about blocking family supplemental payments for the month of May, 1942.1942 May
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about the payment of family supplements for May, 1942.1942 May
733Circular about the payment of family supplements for May, 1942.1942 May
Folder TitleDate
 Request for lists of loans taken out by employees.1942 Aug. 9
734Request for lists of loans taken out by employees.1942 Aug. 9
Folder TitleDate
 Notice about payments for daily meals.1942 Dec. 17
735Notice about payments for daily meals.1942 Dec. 17
Folder TitleDate
 Bookkeeping instructions.1943 Jan. 22
736Bookkeeping instructions.1943 Jan. 22
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about deducting food costs from wages.1942 Sept. 22
737Circular about deducting food costs from wages.1942 Sept. 22
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about withholding the wages of adolescent employees under the care of the Office of Child Welfare.1940 Oct. 23
738Circular about withholding the wages of adolescent employees under the care of the Office of Child Welfare.1940 Oct. 23
Folder TitleDate
 The currency of the Lódz ghetto.n.d.
739The currency of the Lódz ghetto.n.d.

Subseries 2: Supreme Control Chamber,  1940-1942

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Papers found in Subseries 2 include circulars about the Supreme Control Chamber and are about pay and wages and the distribution of food rations among other topics.

Folder TitleDate
 Circular to the heads of all institutions in the ghetto about the establishment of the Supreme Control Chamber (11/11/1940). Also: an I.D. card of an Supreme Control Chamber member.1940 Nov. 11
740Circular to the heads of all institutions in the ghetto about the establishment of the Supreme Control Chamber (11/11/1940). Also: an I.D. card of an Supreme Control Chamber member.1940 Nov. 11
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about a questionnaire to be answered by all department heads concerning the organization and activities of their respective departments.1940 Nov. 27
741Circular about a questionnaire to be answered by all department heads concerning the organization and activities of their respective departments.1940 Nov. 27
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about the availability of meat for the employees of the ghetto administration.1940 Dec. 12
742Circular about the availability of meat for the employees of the ghetto administration.1940 Dec. 12
Folder TitleDate
 Circular to all labor divisions about bookkeeping requirements.1941 Jan. 6
743Circular to all labor divisions about bookkeeping requirements.1941 Jan. 6
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about submitting all purchase or supply orders to the Supreme Control Chamber for approval.1941 Jan. 17
744Circular about submitting all purchase or supply orders to the Supreme Control Chamber for approval.1941 Jan. 17
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about submitting complaints to the Supreme Control Chamber.1942 Aug. 20
745Circular about submitting complaints to the Supreme Control Chamber.1942 Aug. 20
Folder TitleDate
 Circular No. 2, about sick pay.1942 Aug. 27
746Circular No. 2, about sick pay.1942 Aug. 27
Folder TitleDate
 Circular No. 3, 8/281/1942, regarding the distribution of supplemental food rations.1942 Aug. 28
747Circular No. 3, 8/281/1942, regarding the distribution of supplemental food rations.1942 Aug. 28
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about the distribution of soup.1942 Aug. 30
748Circular about the distribution of soup.1942 Aug. 30
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about wage levels for adolescents, women and men.1942 Sept. 12
749Circular about wage levels for adolescents, women and men.1942 Sept. 12
Folder TitleDate
 Circulars Nos. 5 and 6, regulating payments for daily soup rations.1942 Sept. 25
750Circulars Nos. 5 and 6, regulating payments for daily soup rations.1942 Sept. 25
Folder TitleDate
 Circular No. 7, about minimum pay for a working adolescent. Circular No. 8, about compensation pay for laid-off workers.1942 Oct. 12
751Circular No. 7, about minimum pay for a working adolescent. Circular No. 8, about compensation pay for laid-off workers.1942 Oct. 12

Subseries 3: Ordnungsdienst and Sonderkommando,  n.d., 1940-1944

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Records of the Ordnungsdienst and of the Sonderkommando highlight the role of the latter, a special unit which in time became independent of the Ordnungsdienst and even of Rumkowski, wielding sinister power in the terrorized ghetto (folders 755, 758, 759). A file of daily reports, dated June 17-July 12, 1944, and signed by the chiefs of the Ordnungsdienst, Leon Rosenblatt and Julian Grosbart, gives a picture of the work of the Jewish police in the last months of the ghetto (folder 765). These records, as well as the records of the Ghetto Court, exemplify the type of crime which was particularly common in the ghetto: thefts of small quantities of food. An Ordnungsdienst file describes an extensive investigation, into a shortage of 3.5 kg. of meat in a distribution store ( folder 763). A court file relates a case against five youths who were accused of stealing a sack of flour.

Among the Ordnungsdienst records there is also a report about the shooting to death of seven persons in one week by Schupo guards (July 21-28, 1940). The vicitims were killed because they were spotted within eight meters of the ghetto fence ( folder 760).

Folder TitleDate
 Report about a woman who was released from the German police prison and sent to the ghetto.1940 May 29
752Report about a woman who was released from the German police prison and sent to the ghetto.1940 May 29
Folder TitleDate
 A blank copy of a police permit to remain outside during the curfew. Also a letter from Rumkowski’s office listing officials who are authorized to issue such permits.1940 May 14
753A blank copy of a police permit to remain outside during the curfew. Also a letter from Rumkowski’s office listing officials who are authorized to issue such permits.1940 May 14
Folder TitleDate
 Request to the Legal Office of the Ordnungsdienst to release the property of a deceased person which was seized by this office.1940 July 16
754Request to the Legal Office of the Ordnungsdienst to release the property of a deceased person which was seized by this office.1940 July 16
Folder TitleDate
 Letter to Rumkowski about accepting five men (names listed) into the Ordnungsdienst and assigning them to the “secret political service,” because they did well in spotting political agitators.1940 Aug. 14
755Letter to Rumkowski about accepting five men (names listed) into the Ordnungsdienst and assigning them to the “secret political service,” because they did well in spotting political agitators.1940 Aug. 14
Folder TitleDate
 Confidential report to Henryk Neftalin about corruption and misappropriation of funds in the Legal Office.1940 Sept. 28
756Confidential report to Henryk Neftalin about corruption and misappropriation of funds in the Legal Office.1940 Sept. 28
Folder TitleDate
 Order issued by Leon Rosenblatt on the third anniversary of the Ordnungsdienst. Describes the tasks which the Ordnungsdienst performed, including the handling of deportations to the ghetto, elimination of smuggling, guarding of food supplies, enforcement of order in food lines, enforcement of sanitary requirements, etc. Lists names of the thirty-five Ordnungsdienst members who had died since.1943 Mar. 1
757Order issued by Leon Rosenblatt on the third anniversary of the Ordnungsdienst. Describes the tasks which the Ordnungsdienst performed, including the handling of deportations to the ghetto, elimination of smuggling, guarding of food supplies, enforcement of order in food lines, enforcement of sanitary requirements, etc. Lists names of the thirty-five Ordnungsdienst members who had died since.1943 Mar. 1
Folder TitleDate
 Reports by the Sonderkommando about searches which were ordered by the Gestapo or by Rumkowski. Signed by Hercberg.1940
758Reports by the Sonderkommando about searches which were ordered by the Gestapo or by Rumkowski. Signed by Hercberg.1940
Folder TitleDate
 Reports by the Sonderkommando about searches which were ordered by the Gestapo or by Rumkowski, signed mostly by M. Wolman. Items confiscated in the searches include: one woman’s ring, one silver cigarette holder, five U.S. dollars, two Reichsmarks, fifty Reichsmarks.1944
759Reports by the Sonderkommando about searches which were ordered by the Gestapo or by Rumkowski, signed mostly by M. Wolman. Items confiscated in the searches include: one woman’s ring, one silver cigarette holder, five U.S. dollars, two Reichsmarks, fifty Reichsmarks.1944
Folder TitleDate
 Report about seven persons shot to death during the week of July 21, 1940. Refers to five men and two women who were killed by German guards because they were spotted within eight meters of the ghetto fence.1940 July 21
760Report about seven persons shot to death during the week of July 21, 1940. Refers to five men and two women who were killed by German guards because they were spotted within eight meters of the ghetto fence.1940 July 21
Folder TitleDate
 Various Ordnungsdienst reports, relating to the following: lost ration cards, loitering in the streets after 9 PM, stealing and corruption in a provisions store and a bakery, commotion in a food line, etc.1940-1943
761Various Ordnungsdienst reports, relating to the following: lost ration cards, loitering in the streets after 9 PM, stealing and corruption in a provisions store and a bakery, commotion in a food line, etc.1940-1943
Folder TitleDate
 Case file concerning lost ration cards.1943 Apr. 13
762Case file concerning lost ration cards.1943 Apr. 13
Folder TitleDate
 Case file of search and interrogation in a meat distribution store where a shortage of 3.5 kg. of meat was detected.1944 Mar. 27
763Case file of search and interrogation in a meat distribution store where a shortage of 3.5 kg. of meat was detected.1944 Mar. 27
Folder TitleDate
 Personal request by a member of the Sonderkommando for a coupon which would entitle him to a dentist’s appointment.1944 June 5
764Personal request by a member of the Sonderkommando for a coupon which would entitle him to a dentist’s appointment.1944 June 5
Folder TitleDate
 Daily Ordnungsdienst reports signed by Leon Rosenblatt and Julian Grosbart. Information on arrests, sicknesses and deaths, suicides, murders, population statistics.1944 June 17-1944 July 12
765Daily Ordnungsdienst reports signed by Leon Rosenblatt and Julian Grosbart. Information on arrests, sicknesses and deaths, suicides, murders, population statistics.1944 June 17-1944 July 12
Folder TitleDate
 Rules for the inmates of the correctional institution for juveniles at the Central Prison.n.d.
766Rules for the inmates of the correctional institution for juveniles at the Central Prison.n.d.

Subseries 4: Fire and Chimney Sweeps Brigade,  1941-1943

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 4 is comprised of four folders discussing fire protection in the ghetto and New Year’s greetings to residents from the fire brigade.

Folder TitleDate
 New Year’s greetings from the fire brigade. Blank Ordnungsdienst tickets.1941 Sept. 21
767New Year’s greetings from the fire brigade. Blank Ordnungsdienst tickets.1941 Sept. 21
Folder TitleDate
 Letters from the fire inspector to the Culture House about improving fire protection preparedness.1942 May 25, 1942 Nov. 11
768Letters from the fire inspector to the Culture House about improving fire protection preparedness.1942 May 25, 1942 Nov. 11
Folder TitleDate
 Letter from the fire inspector to the storehouse of the Groceries and Bread Department about fire protection.1943 Mar. 9
769Letter from the fire inspector to the storehouse of the Groceries and Bread Department about fire protection.1943 Mar. 9

Subseries 5: The Ghetto Court,  n.d., 1941-1943

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Circulars, verdicts, and files will be found here which document crimes and a divorce case, among other court matters.

Folder TitleDate
 Circular from the court to all departments about garnishing salaries for alimony payments.1941 Mar. 5
770Circular from the court to all departments about garnishing salaries for alimony payments.1941 Mar. 5
Folder TitleDate
 Verdict against four men accused of stealing flour from the bakery on 34 Lutomierska Street. The verdict was pronounced by Rumkowski.1941 July 18
771Verdict against four men accused of stealing flour from the bakery on 34 Lutomierska Street. The verdict was pronounced by Rumkowski.1941 July 18
Folder TitleDate
 File of a divorce case before the court.1942 Mar. 29
772File of a divorce case before the court.1942 Mar. 29
Folder TitleDate
 Verdict in a civil suit involving the property of a deceased ghetto couple.1942 June 10
773Verdict in a civil suit involving the property of a deceased ghetto couple.1942 June 10
Folder TitleDate
 Prosecution act against five youths accused of stealing a sack of flour.1942 June 22
774Prosecution act against five youths accused of stealing a sack of flour.1942 June 22
Folder TitleDate
 Announcement about an amnesty on the eve of Passover.1943 [Apr.19?]
775Announcement about an amnesty on the eve of Passover.1943 [Apr.19?]
Folder TitleDate
 File of the case against Berek Kustin, a night watchman at warehouse No. 17 who was accused of stealing groceries from the warehouse, May - July, 1943. Police investigation, reports, indictment, verdict.1943
776File of the case against Berek Kustin, a night watchman at warehouse No. 17 who was accused of stealing groceries from the warehouse, May - July, 1943. Police investigation, reports, indictment, verdict.1943
Folder TitleDate
 Blanks of summonses.[n.d.]
777Blanks of summonses.[n.d.]

Subseries 6: Personnel Department,  1940-1943

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 6 holds papers from the Personnel Department. Topics include the paynent of wages, the hiring and firing of employees, and vacation time for workers.

Folder TitleDate
 A decision to withhold one third of the wages of a house guard and give it to his estranged wife for child support.1940 June 6
778A decision to withhold one third of the wages of a house guard and give it to his estranged wife for child support.1940 June 6
Folder TitleDate
 Request to department heads to submit personal questionnaires filled out by all employees.1940 Aug. 22
779Request to department heads to submit personal questionnaires filled out by all employees.1940 Aug. 22
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about the firing of certain employees and the subsequent extension of their employment.1940 Aug. 31
780Circular about the firing of certain employees and the subsequent extension of their employment.1940 Aug. 31
Folder TitleDate
 Instructions about the payment of wages to administration employees.1940 Sept. 1, 1940 Sept. 30
781Instructions about the payment of wages to administration employees.1940 Sept. 1, 1940 Sept. 30
Folder TitleDate
 Employees are prohibited from having their clothing and shoes made by private contractors.1940 Sept. 28
782Employees are prohibited from having their clothing and shoes made by private contractors.1940 Sept. 28
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about withholding wages until all rent is paid in full.1941 Aug. 4
783Circular about withholding wages until all rent is paid in full.1941 Aug. 4
Folder TitleDate
 Circular prohibiting hiring persons who lost their previous jobs as a result of delinquent behavior.1941 Apr. 20
784Circular prohibiting hiring persons who lost their previous jobs as a result of delinquent behavior.1941 Apr. 20
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about vacation time (one week) to which each employee is entitled.1941 Aug. 4
785Circular about vacation time (one week) to which each employee is entitled.1941 Aug. 4
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about awarding a vacation in the rest home in Marysin. Also blanks of admittance forms.1942 July 6
786Circular about awarding a vacation in the rest home in Marysin. Also blanks of admittance forms.1942 July 6
Folder TitleDate
 Request for lists of office employees who were sequestered for work by the Labor Assignments Department, and instruction on the payment of their wages.1942 May 17
787Request for lists of office employees who were sequestered for work by the Labor Assignments Department, and instruction on the payment of their wages.1942 May 17
Folder TitleDate
 Request for lists of employees entitled to vacation. They have their choice of a ration coupon instead.1942 July 19
788Request for lists of employees entitled to vacation. They have their choice of a ration coupon instead.1942 July 19
Folder TitleDate
 Blank of an order to submit to medical examination.1942
789Blank of an order to submit to medical examination.1942
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about new working hours.1943 Feb. 1
790Circular about new working hours.1943 Feb. 1

Subseries 7: The Rabbinate,  n.d., 1941

Scope and Content:

This subseries consists of four folders holding papers with two announcements about holidays, a request about a kashrus investigation of food items for Passover, and an opinion on eating non-kosher foods.

Folder TitleDate
 Announcement about High Holy Day services on the premises of Public Kitchen No. 2n.d.
791Announcement about High Holy Day services on the premises of Public Kitchen No. 2n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Announcement about reserving seats for the High Holy Days in two ghetto synagogues.n.d.
792Announcement about reserving seats for the High Holy Days in two ghetto synagogues.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Request by the Vaad Harabonim to Rumkowski to permit a kashrus investigation of twenty-one food items including saccharine, margarine and lemon acid, which are used during Passover.1941 Mar. 24
793Request by the Vaad Harabonim to Rumkowski to permit a kashrus investigation of twenty-one food items including saccharine, margarine and lemon acid, which are used during Passover.1941 Mar. 24
Folder TitleDate
 An opinion by the rabbinate in the matter of consumption of non-kosher meat.1941 Feb. 27
794An opinion by the rabbinate in the matter of consumption of non-kosher meat.1941 Feb. 27

Subseries 8: Civil Registry Department,  n.d., 1940-1943

Scope and Content:

Subseries 8 holds four folders consisting of a list, an announcement, and forms pertainig to marriage as well as a letter concerning transferring the Lódz Jewish registry books to the ghetto.

Folder TitleDate
 Letter to Rumkowski asking him to make a request of the authorities that the Jewish registry books at the Lódz municipality be turned over to the Registry Office in the ghetto.1940 June 3
795Letter to Rumkowski asking him to make a request of the authorities that the Jewish registry books at the Lódz municipality be turned over to the Registry Office in the ghetto.1940 June 3
Folder TitleDate
 Announcement about the obligatory registration of religious weddings.1940 Nov. 18
796Announcement about the obligatory registration of religious weddings.1940 Nov. 18
Folder TitleDate
 Lists of couples to be married at wedding ceremonies performed by Rumkowski.1944 July 4, 1944 July 6
797Lists of couples to be married at wedding ceremonies performed by Rumkowski.1944 July 4, 1944 July 6
Folder TitleDate
 Blank of a permit for a religious wedding.1943
798Blank of a permit for a religious wedding.1943
Folder TitleDate
 Blank of a marriage contractn.d.
799Blank of a marriage contractn.d.

Subseries 9: Department of Statistics, 1940-1944

Arrangement:

Mostly chronological.

Scope and Content:

Of special significance are the records of the Statistics Department. Included are statistical charts on the ghetto population, which the department compiled for the Germans. These reports cover the period from May, 1940, to June, 1942, and include data on ghetto territory, population by sex and age, population movement, deportations and vital statistics (folder 800). There are also samples of daily statistical “Reports on Activities of the Jewish Community of Litzmannstadt” for the periods January 1-31, 1942, and June 15-July 14, 1944 (folders 802, 803). It should be mentioned here, that besides collecting and analyzing statistical data, this department serviced other institutions in the ghetto by preparing charts, maps and elaborate albums about their activities. Examples of these are included elsewhere in this collection.

Folder TitleDate
 Statistical tables of the ghetto for the period, 62 p. Contains data on the following subjects: ghetto territory, population according to sex and age, population movement (deaths, births, departures including forced labor outside the ghetto), arrivals, deportations from the ghetto in 1942, mortality and its causes, vital statistics of the resettled deportees, non-Jews in the ghetto, weddings, divorces, health statistics.1940 May-1942 June
800Statistical tables of the ghetto for the period, 62 p. Contains data on the following subjects: ghetto territory, population according to sex and age, population movement (deaths, births, departures including forced labor outside the ghetto), arrivals, deportations from the ghetto in 1942, mortality and its causes, vital statistics of the resettled deportees, non-Jews in the ghetto, weddings, divorces, health statistics.1940 May-1942 June
Folder TitleDate
 Blank of a statistical chart for a daily population count by sex, age and profession. On the reverse there are handwritten statistical notes.n.d.
801Blank of a statistical chart for a daily population count by sex, age and profession. On the reverse there are handwritten statistical notes.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 “Report on activities of the Jewish Community of Litzmannstadt.” Daily statistical reports. Includes data on welfare, health conditions, births and deaths, provisioning.1942 Jan. 1-1942 Jan. 31
802“Report on activities of the Jewish Community of Litzmannstadt.” Daily statistical reports. Includes data on welfare, health conditions, births and deaths, provisioning.1942 Jan. 1-1942 Jan. 31
Folder TitleDate
 “Report on activities of the Jewish Community of Litzmannstadt.” Daily statistical reports.1944 June 15 to 1944 July 19
803“Report on activities of the Jewish Community of Litzmannstadt.” Daily statistical reports.1944 June 15 to 1944 July 19
Folder TitleDate
 Circular from the Department of Statistics about making graphic and photographic displays.1942 Mar.
804Circular from the Department of Statistics about making graphic and photographic displays.1942 Mar.
Folder TitleDate
 Circular to ghetto institutions about departmental employment reports.1942 Apr. 12, 1942 May 1
805Circular to ghetto institutions about departmental employment reports.1942 Apr. 12, 1942 May 1

Subseries 10: The Ghetto Post Office, n.d., 1941-1942

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

This small subseries contains several folders pertaining to regulations on the sending of mail and parcels, both in and outside of the ghetto. It also has postal stamps and a photocopy of a photograph sent to the Rumkowski from a labor camp in Rissa.

Folder TitleDate
 Draft of an announcement concerning receiving money and parcels at the ghetto post office (submitted to Rumkowski for his signature).1941 May 5
806Draft of an announcement concerning receiving money and parcels at the ghetto post office (submitted to Rumkowski for his signature).1941 May 5
Folder TitleDate
 Information about sending parcels to laborers who work outside the ghetto.1941 Dec. 8
807Information about sending parcels to laborers who work outside the ghetto.1941 Dec. 8
Folder TitleDate
 Information about sending mail in and out of the ghetto.1941 Dec. 8
808Information about sending mail in and out of the ghetto.1941 Dec. 8
Folder TitleDate
 Blank forms for sending mail.n.d.
809Blank forms for sending mail.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Judenpost Litzmannstadt-Getto postal stamps, values of five, ten and twenty Pfennigs.n.d.
810Judenpost Litzmannstadt-Getto postal stamps, values of five, ten and twenty Pfennigs.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Letter forwarded to Rumkowski, to which photocopies of a photograph received from the labor camp in Lissa were attatched.1942 June 3
811Letter forwarded to Rumkowski, to which photocopies of a photograph received from the labor camp in Lissa were attatched.1942 June 3

Subseries 11: Deportation Commissions, 1942, 1944

Arrangement:

Mostly chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 11 has three folders of requests of exemption from deportation, as well as a list of persons to be deported in July 1944 and a blank of a summons.

Folder TitleDate
 Request by Chaim Josef Wajskohl to the Deportation Commission to annul the decision to deport him and his family. Request not approved despite the support of the Rabbinate for the applicant.1942 Mar. 11
812Request by Chaim Josef Wajskohl to the Deportation Commission to annul the decision to deport him and his family. Request not approved despite the support of the Rabbinate for the applicant.1942 Mar. 11
Folder TitleDate
 Blank of a summons to appear at the deportation processing center.1944 July
813Blank of a summons to appear at the deportation processing center.1944 July
Folder TitleDate
 List of thirty-two persons approved for deportation.1944 July 6
814List of thirty-two persons approved for deportation.1944 July 6
Folder TitleDate
 List of four persons who had their deportation orders annulled by Rumkowski and other members of the commission. Included are invalidated deportation summonses.1944 July 12-1944 July 18
815List of four persons who had their deportation orders annulled by Rumkowski and other members of the commission. Included are invalidated deportation summonses.1944 July 12-1944 July 18
Folder TitleDate
 Request by Gitla Mlawer to cancel her deportation order because she is gravely ill. Included are doctors’ statements in support of the request.1944 July 5
816Request by Gitla Mlawer to cancel her deportation order because she is gravely ill. Included are doctors’ statements in support of the request.1944 July 5
Folder TitleDate
 Similar request by Frajdla Berman.1944 July 25
817Similar request by Frajdla Berman.1944 July 25

Subseries 12: Resettlement Department,  1932

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

This subseries holds several folders of documents pertaining to resettlement and resettled employees. It includes information on wages for resettled employees and registration of new resettled employees.

Folder TitleDate
 Circular to all ghetto institutions to submit lists of employees who are “new arrivals” [resettled “Western” Jews] to the department.1941 Dec. 30
818Circular to all ghetto institutions to submit lists of employees who are “new arrivals” [resettled “Western” Jews] to the department.1941 Dec. 30
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about submitting bills to the department for work connected with resettlement. Also, request for separate payroll lists of resettled employees.1942 Jan. 16
819Circular about submitting bills to the department for work connected with resettlement. Also, request for separate payroll lists of resettled employees.1942 Jan. 16
Folder TitleDate
 Instructions on registering resettled employees.1942 Mar. 11, 1942 Mar. 20
820Instructions on registering resettled employees.1942 Mar. 11, 1942 Mar. 20
Folder TitleDate
 Request to return to the department wage lists of resettled employees who were subsequently deported from the ghetto.1932 May 30
821Request to return to the department wage lists of resettled employees who were subsequently deported from the ghetto.1932 May 30
Folder TitleDate
 Instructions not to prepare any more separate wage lists for the resettled employees.1942 Nov. 22
822Instructions not to prepare any more separate wage lists for the resettled employees.1942 Nov. 22

Subseries 13: Cemetery Department,  1941 Jan.-1941 Feb.

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 13 consists of two folders of notices of the Cemetery Department. The first discusses the use of shrouds and boards for the dead, and the other pertains to Department employees’ conduct.

Folder TitleDate
 Notice about providing shrouds and boards for the deceased.1941 Jan. 28
823Notice about providing shrouds and boards for the deceased.1941 Jan. 28
Folder TitleDate
 Notice forbidding cemetery employees to receive any payment from the families of the deceased.1941 Feb. 20
824Notice forbidding cemetery employees to receive any payment from the families of the deceased.1941 Feb. 20

Series VII: Publications

This series is in Yiddish, German, and Polish.
0.16 linear foot
Arrangement:

Mostly chronological.

Scope and Content:

Publications (Series 7) includes a complete set (eighteen issues) of the Geto-tsaytung, the short-lived organ of Rumkowski, and ghetto calendars for the years 1942 and 1943.

Folder TitleDate
825Geto-tsaytung far informatsye, farordenungen un bakantmachungen (Ghetto Gazette for Information, Announcements, and Ordinances), nos. 1-18, Yiddish. Issues 1 to 10 were published weekly, issues 11 to 18 irregularly. Rumkowski’s official organ, it included articles, announcements (numbered 201 to 305, and three unnumbered), regular columns, speeches, reports of Rumkowski’s conferences and visits, periodic reports on activities of ghetto institutions and workshops, etc. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 include poems about Rumkowski by L. Berman. No. 11/12, a double issue, and Nos. 14 and 15 feature a column titled “Facts and Notes” which is signed by Rumkowski. Nos. 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13 and 14 publish, under the title Tsum shandslup! (To the Pillory!), the names of nintey-eight persons convicted by the Special Court and their offenses. Following are summaries of each issue:
No. 1 (3/7/1941): Article about the purpose of the paper (to fight against “malicious agitators and slanderers”). Appeal to the ghetto youth to enter vocational re-training in preparation for work “in my factories and workshops.” Notice about Rumkowski’s visit to the Central Prison. Information about large shipments of vegetables to the ghetto.
No.2 (3/14/1941): Topics include: Administration of workshops. Donation of 20,000 Mk to the loan association of the Ordnungsdienst. Preparations to open a kosher public kitchen. Asylum for the homeless requires better facilities. Warning not to walk near the ghetto fence.
No. 3 (3/21/1941): Detailed report about the celebration of Rumkowski’s sixty-fourth birthday. Article,”You will not starve!” about the distribution of relief aid for March and April. Notice about the opening of the correctional home for juvenile offenders.
No.4 (3/28/1941): Announcement of a special Passover bonus for “over 20,000 workers and office employees.” Report about a conference of ghetto physicians on the tuberculosis epidemics. Announcement by Joseph Rumkowski that no hospital visits will be allowed without presenting a delousing certificate.
No. 5 (3/28/1941): Opening of three kosher kitchens during Passover. Promise to open a dietetic food store. New plant for food production.
No. 6 (4/11/1941): Report about the establishment of the committee to study employment possibilities for young people. Opening of a diet food store which disburses food articles in fulfillment of “food prescriptions” dispensed by physicians. Ban on all visits to the children’s day camp and orphanage in Marysin to prevent the danger of epidemics.
No. 7 (4/17/1941): Report by Dr. Leon Szykier, head of the Health Department, on the work of the ghetto physicians. Since the closing off of the ghetto they made 71,102 home visits. The dispensaries handled 19,439 cases. First aid was administered in 17,056 cases. The doctors often gave their own blood for transfusions. Six doctors died at work.
No 8 (4/25/1941): Report about the first anniversary of the tailors’ workshops. After one year the Clothing Division now has six workshops with 6,000 workers. Report on vocational training for 250 adolescents in the metal workshops.
No. 9 (5/2/1941): Speech by Rumkowski to 250 nurses whom he thanked for working twelve-hour shifts. Report on the first anniversary of the ghetto carpentry shops, now employing 800 workers.
No. 10 (5/11/1941): Notice about the reorganization of food distribution stores with a list of forty-five bread and grocery stores, forty-five vegetable stores, fifteen meat stores and fifteen milk stores.
No. 11/12 (5/18/1941): In the column “Facts and Comments” Rumkowski reports on his trip to the Warsaw ghetto, where he obtained the transfer of twelve physicians to Lódz. He tells of the health service network in the Lódz ghetto: five hospitals with 1,225 beds, two first aid stations, four dispensaries and six pharmacies. In the same column he promises to try the former chief judge of the Schnell-Gericht (Special Court) and his “accomplices” who were arrested on Rumkowski’s orders. Instructions about air raid protection.
No 13 (6/20/1941): Editorial by Rumkowski about his new welfare program, which calls for work without pay by relief aid recipients; they will receive soup on the job “to give them strength.” Report about the Office of the Chief Cashier (Hauptkasse) which issues ghetto currency and supervises the disbursement of the payroll. Recall of Dr. Szykier from his position as Rumkowski’s deputy. Punitive measures against illegal candy factories and against the “coal miners,” i.e. people, mostly children, who dig in the ground in search of bits of coal, causing damage to cultivated plots and even to houses.
No. 14 (7/15/1941): “Facts and Comments:” all men, except ordained rabbis and those over the age of fifty are forbidden to wear long clothes, because materials are needed to mend torn clothing. Changes in the ghetto administration: the Schnell-Gericht is dissolved; a new Supreme Control Chamber with Rumkowski as chairman is to replace the old one. New appointments in the Ordnungsdienst, the Welfare Department and the Court.
No. 15 (8/1/1941): “Facts and Comments:” school kitchens and another kosher kitchen have been opened. The Juvenile Court has been established. Instructions on first aid in case of an air raid.
No. 16 (8/17/1941): Report about Rumkowski’s visit to the school kitchens where 14,000 children receive their midday meal. Establishment of the Board of Guardians for the Protection of Minors. Warning that everybody must wear the yellow Star of David.
No. 17 (9/14/1941): Report about a conference on the high rate of illness and on crowded dispensaries. New nominations: L. Rosenblatt, chief of the Ordnungsdienst and A. Jakubowicz, head of three workshops, are Rumkowski’s new deputies.
No. 18 (9/21/1941): “Erev Rosh Hashanah.” Appeal to workers to increase productivity. Amnesty on the occasion of the High Holy Days. Special food cards for children, age two to seven. The Kitchens Department is instructed by Rumkowski to issue a “better and thicker meal,” i.e. soup, on the day of Rosh Hashana.
1941 Mar. 7-1941 Sept. 21
Folder TitleDate
826Geto-tsaytung far informatsye, farordenungen un bakantmachungen, incomplete set.[n.d.]
Folder TitleDate
827Ghetto calendar for the year 1942, 6 p., Yiddish. “Published by the Eldest of the Jews in Litzmannstadt.” Includes: dates of establishment of all ghetto institutions beginning October 14, 1939; alphabetic listing of ghetto institutions, their addresses and telephone numbers; slogans excerpted from Rumkowski’s speeches.1942
Folder TitleDate
828Ghetto calendar for the year 1943, 53 p., Yiddish.1943
Folder TitleDate
829Circular by the Press Office about ordering printed signs from the Paper Products Division.1942 June 28

Series VIII: The Ghetto Archives, n.d., 1940-1944

This series is in German, Polish, and Yiddish.
ca. 1.25 linear feet
Arrangement:

Series VIII is divided into 3 subseries: Reports, Monographs and Essays by Archives Staff; The Chronicle of the Lódz Ghetto; and Speeches by Chaim Mordecai Rumkowski.

Scope and Content:

The Ghetto Archives (Series 8) is one of the more extensive series in the collection. It is comprised of materials which were written by the archives staff expressly for the purpose of creating an historical record. Aside from the well known Daily Chronicle of the Lódz ghetto (published in book form after the war), of which large fragments may be found in this series, the ghetto archivists also wrote monographs and essays on subjects related to ghetto history and recorded a number of interviews with officials from the ghetto administration and industry. Although these works suffer from a laudatory attitude towards the ghetto officials and enterprises, they also contain rich and detailed information about the organization of the ghetto, its administration, the activities of individual departments, forced labor, the school system, the welfare system, the resettlement of the “Western” Jews in the ghetto, the reform of religious customs, provisioning, and cultural life.

Outstanding in this group are reports and literary sketches by Joseph Zelkowicz, a Yiddish writer, journalist and pre-war YIVO correspondent who wrote in Yiddish (most of the other items are in Polish or German). His reports on social and economic conditions in the ghetto are more daring than those of his colleagues. Zelkowicz also wrote about the killings of ghetto Jews by Nazis. His magnum opus is the report about the Gesperre action, a detailed, day-by-day description of the deportation of children, the aged and infirm in September 1942 ( folder 880).

This series also includes transcripts of speeches given by Rumkowski on various occasions (all were reported and excerpted in the Chronicle). They convey a striking psychological portrait of the man who stubbornly led the ghetto on the road to destruction, deceiving his subordinates as well as himself.

Subseries 1: Reports, Monographs, and Essays by the Archives Staff,  n.d., 1940-1944

Arrangement:

Partially chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 1 holds many reports and essays written by the staff of the Ghetto Archives on the establishment of the ghetto and conditions affecting daily life within the ghetto.

Folders 830-848 and folder 852 describe the establishment of and the earliest years of the ghetto. Reports in the first two folders of this subseries discuss the organization and expenditures of several administrative offices of the ghetto. Folder 832 contains a lengthy document that describes the establishment of the ghetto, including the work of the Germans that led to its creation. Several folders, specifically 840, 842 and 843, discuss the registration of ghetto inhabitants and the use of registration statistics. The most prominent topics in the reports focus on work done in the ghettto workshops, the food situation and the deportations of ghetto inhabitants. Three folders (836, 862 and 898) focus on disturbances and crimes committed due to lack of food. Folders 854 and 896 specifically deal with the importance of the daily soup ration. Documentation on deportations include the effects of deportations on the ghetto community as well as efforts by the administration to encourage inhabitants to join the deportations.

Several of the reports in this subseries detail the growth of child labor in the workshops of the ghetto, especially a report in folder 874 by the Commission for Social Re-Classification of the Adolescent, which discusses the hope that making children part of the ghetto workforce will save more of them from deportation. Further information on child labor is in folders 870, 877, 878, 886, 887, and 893. Folders 835 and 845 also contain information on education and the closing of the secondary schools in the ghetto.

Folder TitleDate
 “Report on the Activities of the Jewish Community under the leadership of the Eldest of the Jews in Litzmannstadt. Rough balance for the period of January 1 to July 27, 1940,” by J.B.A., n.d., 9p., German. Analysis of income and expenditures of the following departments: Finance (taxes), Schools, Labor Assignments, Provisioning, Health, Police, Welfare (includes public kitchens, old age and children’s homes, summer camps, rent subsidy, hakhshara).n.d.
830“Report on the Activities of the Jewish Community under the leadership of the Eldest of the Jews in Litzmannstadt. Rough balance for the period of January 1 to July 27, 1940,” by J.B.A., n.d., 9p., German. Analysis of income and expenditures of the following departments: Finance (taxes), Schools, Labor Assignments, Provisioning, Health, Police, Welfare (includes public kitchens, old age and children’s homes, summer camps, rent subsidy, hakhshara).n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Labor Assignments Department. Nine interviews with the officials of the department about its organization and development. Interviews with M. Radzyner, Szymon Nowak, Kowalski, Reingold, Goldreich, Mrs. Weintraub, Mrs. Bugajerow and Jakub Warszawski. Also, an interview with the head of the Registration Office, Szpigiel, about the population censuses and their relation to Labor Assignments.1940 Dec.
831Labor Assignments Department. Nine interviews with the officials of the department about its organization and development. Interviews with M. Radzyner, Szymon Nowak, Kowalski, Reingold, Goldreich, Mrs. Weintraub, Mrs. Bugajerow and Jakub Warszawski. Also, an interview with the head of the Registration Office, Szpigiel, about the population censuses and their relation to Labor Assignments.1940 Dec.
Folder TitleDate
 Establishment of the Lódz ghetto and the first months of its existence. A comprehensive report, no author, 45 p., p. 1 missing, end missing, German. Includes information on German actions leading to the sealing of the ghetto, organization of the Jewish ghetto administration, Rumkowski as the ghetto Eldest, the black market, communication with the outside world, ghetto area and population.1940 Apr. 20
832Establishment of the Lódz ghetto and the first months of its existence. A comprehensive report, no author, 45 p., p. 1 missing, end missing, German. Includes information on German actions leading to the sealing of the ghetto, organization of the Jewish ghetto administration, Rumkowski as the ghetto Eldest, the black market, communication with the outside world, ghetto area and population.1940 Apr. 20
Folder TitleDate
 Comments on the nomination of Dr. Leon Szykier as Rumkowski’s deputy, no author, 1 p., Yiddish.1941 Jan. 22
833Comments on the nomination of Dr. Leon Szykier as Rumkowski’s deputy, no author, 1 p., Yiddish.1941 Jan. 22
Folder TitleDate
 “A project to reduce the ghetto,” by [Joseph Zelkowicz], 20 p., Yiddish. Notes about the order issued by the Germans in January to reduce the ghetto area. The order (which later was temporarily withdrawn) would have resulted in the reduction of the ghetto area and the number of dwellings by five percent. Interviews with ghetto officials about the planned evacuation of people and institutions from the affected area. Statistical information on the number of streets, buildings, rooms and residents in the disputed area. Also a diagram of births and deaths in the ghetto for the period November, 1940 to January, 1941.1941 Feb. 1-1941 Feb. 7, 1940 Nov.-1941 Jan.
834“A project to reduce the ghetto,” by [Joseph Zelkowicz], 20 p., Yiddish. Notes about the order issued by the Germans in January to reduce the ghetto area. The order (which later was temporarily withdrawn) would have resulted in the reduction of the ghetto area and the number of dwellings by five percent. Interviews with ghetto officials about the planned evacuation of people and institutions from the affected area. Statistical information on the number of streets, buildings, rooms and residents in the disputed area. Also a diagram of births and deaths in the ghetto for the period November, 1940 to January, 1941.1941 Feb. 1-1941 Feb. 7, 1940 Nov.-1941 Jan.
Folder TitleDate
 Closing of secondary and vocational schools, by J.Z., 2 p., Yiddish. A report in the form of daily notes about Rumkowski’s order of January 19, 1941, to discontinue classes for one month. Interview with the heads of the School Department. A “note for the Ghetto Archives” asserts that the Gymnasium building will now house the orphanage, which was forced to give up its buildings in Marysin to a Polish children’s home.1941 Jan. 20-1941 Jan. 28
835Closing of secondary and vocational schools, by J.Z., 2 p., Yiddish. A report in the form of daily notes about Rumkowski’s order of January 19, 1941, to discontinue classes for one month. Interview with the heads of the School Department. A “note for the Ghetto Archives” asserts that the Gymnasium building will now house the orphanage, which was forced to give up its buildings in Marysin to a Polish children’s home.1941 Jan. 20-1941 Jan. 28
Folder TitleDate
 “The Carpenter’s Strike” by J.Z., 14 p., Yiddish. Daily notes on the sit-in strike by workers in the carpentry shops and about their clashes with the Ordnungsdienst. The strike erupted when supplementary bread rations and soup for workers were discontinued. Interviews with the Ordnungsdienst officials, and managers of workshops. Reports on meetings with Rumkowski. Copies of documents relating to the strike, such as daily Ordnungsdienst reports. Rumkowski’s announcements, and leaflets by the strikers against Rumkowski. Also, information about a short-lived strike by grave diggers and about their working conditions. “The forty graves which they prepare daily fall short of demand…” with about two hundred dead being brought each day to the cemetery.1941 Jan. 23-1941 Feb. 2
836“The Carpenter’s Strike” by J.Z., 14 p., Yiddish. Daily notes on the sit-in strike by workers in the carpentry shops and about their clashes with the Ordnungsdienst. The strike erupted when supplementary bread rations and soup for workers were discontinued. Interviews with the Ordnungsdienst officials, and managers of workshops. Reports on meetings with Rumkowski. Copies of documents relating to the strike, such as daily Ordnungsdienst reports. Rumkowski’s announcements, and leaflets by the strikers against Rumkowski. Also, information about a short-lived strike by grave diggers and about their working conditions. “The forty graves which they prepare daily fall short of demand…” with about two hundred dead being brought each day to the cemetery.1941 Jan. 23-1941 Feb. 2
Folder TitleDate
 Report from the ghetto court about a murder trial, no author, 3 p., German.1941 July 24
837Report from the ghetto court about a murder trial, no author, 3 p., German.1941 July 24
Folder TitleDate
 Notes on money and labor in the Lódz ghetto during the first year of its existence, no author, 14 p., Polish. The chapter on money is a concise history of the ghetto's own monetary system. The chapter on labor is a draft of part of an interview about forced labor [see folder No. 839].1940 Nov. 25-1940 Nov. 26
838Notes on money and labor in the Lódz ghetto during the first year of its existence, no author, 14 p., Polish. The chapter on money is a concise history of the ghetto's own monetary system. The chapter on labor is a draft of part of an interview about forced labor [see folder No. 839].1940 Nov. 25-1940 Nov. 26
Folder TitleDate
 Export of forced labor and the organization of the labor assignments (Arbeitseinsatz) system, [1940], no author. A concise history of forced labor, from the roundups of Jews at the outset of the German occupation in 1939, until the closing of the ghetto and the establishment of the Labor Assignments Department for organized labor conscription. Polish, 12 p., with Yiddish translation, 9 p., which differs in certain details from the original. Several drafts of the Polish version and a draft of the Yiddish version are included.1939, [1940]
839Export of forced labor and the organization of the labor assignments (Arbeitseinsatz) system, [1940], no author. A concise history of forced labor, from the roundups of Jews at the outset of the German occupation in 1939, until the closing of the ghetto and the establishment of the Labor Assignments Department for organized labor conscription. Polish, 12 p., with Yiddish translation, 9 p., which differs in certain details from the original. Several drafts of the Polish version and a draft of the Yiddish version are included.1939, [1940]
Folder TitleDate
 The Address Registration Office (Biuro Meludnkow, Meldeburo). Two interviews with the successive office heads, Henry Neftalin and Ignacy Weiland, about the organization and operations of this office until January 1941. The office supervised a network of one hundred house administrators, who worked on maintaining and updating address registration for all ghetto inhabitants. The report includes statistics on the movement of the ghetto population between July, 1940 and June, 1941. 19 p., Polish, includes draft and final version. Also a report about the Address Registration Office, no author, n.d., 8p., Polish, which is similar in content to the above document.n.d., 1940 Jan., 1940 July-1941 June
840The Address Registration Office (Biuro Meludnkow, Meldeburo). Two interviews with the successive office heads, Henry Neftalin and Ignacy Weiland, about the organization and operations of this office until January 1941. The office supervised a network of one hundred house administrators, who worked on maintaining and updating address registration for all ghetto inhabitants. The report includes statistics on the movement of the ghetto population between July, 1940 and June, 1941. 19 p., Polish, includes draft and final version. Also a report about the Address Registration Office, no author, n.d., 8p., Polish, which is similar in content to the above document.n.d., 1940 Jan., 1940 July-1941 June
Folder TitleDate
 Attacks on the Jews by the Volhyniaks, 1 p., Polish. Information about atrocities against the Jews of the ghetto committed by the Volksdeutsche [ethnic Germans] from Volhynia (Wotyln, Volyn), who were resettled to Lódz.n.d.
841Attacks on the Jews by the Volhyniaks, 1 p., Polish. Information about atrocities against the Jews of the ghetto committed by the Volksdeutsche [ethnic Germans] from Volhynia (Wotyln, Volyn), who were resettled to Lódz.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Statistics Department. Report and interviews about the organization and development of the department. Interviewed are the department head, Henryk Neftalin, as well as F. Ratner and Eksztajn. The department was created first as a unit within the Address Registration Office, in connection with the order by the Germans to compile statistics on the ghetto populaton by age and sex, based on the population census of June 16, 1940. It was established as a separate department in September, 1940, and its operations included gathering statistical data about all institutions in the ghetto. Attached is a sample form used to compile data on the age, sex and profession of the ghetto population. 9 p., Polish.n.d.
842Statistics Department. Report and interviews about the organization and development of the department. Interviewed are the department head, Henryk Neftalin, as well as F. Ratner and Eksztajn. The department was created first as a unit within the Address Registration Office, in connection with the order by the Germans to compile statistics on the ghetto populaton by age and sex, based on the population census of June 16, 1940. It was established as a separate department in September, 1940, and its operations included gathering statistical data about all institutions in the ghetto. Attached is a sample form used to compile data on the age, sex and profession of the ghetto population. 9 p., Polish.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Civil Registry Department, no author, 3 p., Polish. Report about the organization and work of the department and its four offices: births, marriages, deaths and passports. The department was organized on the initiative of Henryk Neftalin. Its unique feature is that it legalizes religious marriages, which is contrary to Nuremberg laws. A rabbinic council is attached to the department for the purpose of performing the ceremony. Details about the registration of births and deaths.n.d.
843Civil Registry Department, no author, 3 p., Polish. Report about the organization and work of the department and its four offices: births, marriages, deaths and passports. The department was organized on the initiative of Henryk Neftalin. Its unique feature is that it legalizes religious marriages, which is contrary to Nuremberg laws. A rabbinic council is attached to the department for the purpose of performing the ceremony. Details about the registration of births and deaths.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 “The Fire-fighters and Chimney Sweepers Brigade.” Report on operations, no author, 7 p., Polish.n.d.
844“The Fire-fighters and Chimney Sweepers Brigade.” Report on operations, no author, 7 p., Polish.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 The School system in the ghetto during its first year. Report, no author. Includes: expulsion of Jewish teachers and students from Polish schools at the beginning of the German occupation of Lódz; condition of Jewish schools before the establishment of the ghetto; statistics of schools and students in the ghetto; information about day camps, kindergartens, hakhshara and kibbutzim; instruction in the ghetto schools.n.d.
845The School system in the ghetto during its first year. Report, no author. Includes: expulsion of Jewish teachers and students from Polish schools at the beginning of the German occupation of Lódz; condition of Jewish schools before the establishment of the ghetto; statistics of schools and students in the ghetto; information about day camps, kindergartens, hakhshara and kibbutzim; instruction in the ghetto schools.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 “Scopolamin,” by [Joseph Zelkowicz], 12 p., Yiddish. About the removal of forty-six patients from the psychiatric ward in the ghetto and their subsequent deportation.1941 Aug.
846“Scopolamin,” by [Joseph Zelkowicz], 12 p., Yiddish. About the removal of forty-six patients from the psychiatric ward in the ghetto and their subsequent deportation.1941 Aug.
Folder TitleDate
 Organization and work of the first workshops and divisions in the ghetto. Two versions of the same report, the first two pages of each being almost identical. August 1941, no author, Polish. Detailed account of efforts by Rumkowski to create industry in the ghetto in order to save the population from starvation and to “morally legalize the existence of a mass of 150,000 people, who otherwise were known for their laziness and detestation of work.” General information about production output through August 1941, and about the major customer of the ghetto industry, the German military. Details about the following workshops and divisions: underwear and linen, hatters, tannery, tailors, rugs, upholstery, gum products, shoemakers, paper products, leather products, carpentry, textiles.n.d.
847Organization and work of the first workshops and divisions in the ghetto. Two versions of the same report, the first two pages of each being almost identical. August 1941, no author, Polish. Detailed account of efforts by Rumkowski to create industry in the ghetto in order to save the population from starvation and to “morally legalize the existence of a mass of 150,000 people, who otherwise were known for their laziness and detestation of work.” General information about production output through August 1941, and about the major customer of the ghetto industry, the German military. Details about the following workshops and divisions: underwear and linen, hatters, tannery, tailors, rugs, upholstery, gum products, shoemakers, paper products, leather products, carpentry, textiles.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 “The Welfare Department: Its Establishment, Activities and Liquidation” by J[oseph] Z[elkowicz], n.d., 90 p., end missing, Yiddish. History of the department from its organization on 10/15/1939 until its closing on 9/27/1940. The author made use of Rumkowski’s reports to the Gestapo as well as reports of the Relief Department and Statistics Department. Describes: the destruction of the economic fabric of the Jewish community in Lódz by the Germans and the rapid impoverishment of the population; Rumkowski’s welfare policy prior to establishing the ghetto; increase in the number of welfare recipients, free meals and cash assistance; favoritism and abuse in the distribution of welfare funds; the closing of the department. Includes statistical charts.n.d., 1939 Oct. 15-1940 Sept. 27
848“The Welfare Department: Its Establishment, Activities and Liquidation” by J[oseph] Z[elkowicz], n.d., 90 p., end missing, Yiddish. History of the department from its organization on 10/15/1939 until its closing on 9/27/1940. The author made use of Rumkowski’s reports to the Gestapo as well as reports of the Relief Department and Statistics Department. Describes: the destruction of the economic fabric of the Jewish community in Lódz by the Germans and the rapid impoverishment of the population; Rumkowski’s welfare policy prior to establishing the ghetto; increase in the number of welfare recipients, free meals and cash assistance; favoritism and abuse in the distribution of welfare funds; the closing of the department. Includes statistical charts.n.d., 1939 Oct. 15-1940 Sept. 27
Folder TitleDate
 Report of a meeting of the Vaad Harabonim with Rumkowski, Polish, last page only.n.d.
849Report of a meeting of the Vaad Harabonim with Rumkowski, Polish, last page only.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Relief Department, no author, n.d., 22 p., Polish. Report on activities of this department, which succeeded the Welfare Department. Part 1 describes the situation with regard to public welfare in the ghetto and the disintegration of the welfare system in the summer of 1940. Part 2 deals with the creation of the Relief Commission in September, 1940, in connection with the Germans’ loan of two million marks to the ghetto and the mass registration of prospective aid recipients in September and October, 1940. Statistics relating to the distribution of public aid through July, 1941.n.d., 1940 Sept.-1941 July
850Relief Department, no author, n.d., 22 p., Polish. Report on activities of this department, which succeeded the Welfare Department. Part 1 describes the situation with regard to public welfare in the ghetto and the disintegration of the welfare system in the summer of 1940. Part 2 deals with the creation of the Relief Commission in September, 1940, in connection with the Germans’ loan of two million marks to the ghetto and the mass registration of prospective aid recipients in September and October, 1940. Statistics relating to the distribution of public aid through July, 1941.n.d., 1940 Sept.-1941 July
Folder TitleDate
 “Twenty-five Live Chickens and One Dead Document” by [Jospeh Zelkowicz}, 12 p., Yiddish. An account of a murderous guard at the ghetto fence, a Volksdeutsch called “Red-haired Janek” who, bearing a grudge against a Jew because a smuggling deal fell through (involving the twenty-five chickens), shot and killed twenty-four Jews between June 2 and 28, 1940.1942 Jan.
851“Twenty-five Live Chickens and One Dead Document” by [Jospeh Zelkowicz}, 12 p., Yiddish. An account of a murderous guard at the ghetto fence, a Volksdeutsch called “Red-haired Janek” who, bearing a grudge against a Jew because a smuggling deal fell through (involving the twenty-five chickens), shot and killed twenty-four Jews between June 2 and 28, 1940.1942 Jan.
Folder TitleDate
 “The First Seven Months in the Litzmannstadt Ghetto ...“ by B[ernard] H[eilig]. Description of the arrival of the second transport of Jews from Prague, who were deported to the Lódz ghetto on October 22, 1941, and of the conditions of their ghetto life.1942 May 25
852“The First Seven Months in the Litzmannstadt Ghetto ...“ by B[ernard] H[eilig]. Description of the arrival of the second transport of Jews from Prague, who were deported to the Lódz ghetto on October 22, 1941, and of the conditions of their ghetto life.1942 May 25
Folder TitleDate
 “Bread in the Year Nineteen Forty-Two” by [Joseph Zelkowicz], 12 p., Yiddish. Fluctuations in the price of bread in relation to deportations from the ghetto during the first half of 1942; the destructive effects of hunger on the ghetto population. Fragment of a larger work, pp. 92-103 only.1942 Jan.
853“Bread in the Year Nineteen Forty-Two” by [Joseph Zelkowicz], 12 p., Yiddish. Fluctuations in the price of bread in relation to deportations from the ghetto during the first half of 1942; the destructive effects of hunger on the ghetto population. Fragment of a larger work, pp. 92-103 only.1942 Jan.
Folder TitleDate
 “Hold On to Your Bowl,” by [Joseph Zelkowicz], 2p., Yiddish. A short essay about the symbolic meaning of the soup bowl in the ghetto. “Neither the [barbed] wire, nor the bridges and the gates, nor the yellow patch,” but the soup bowl is “a true symbol of the ghetto.” Written in connection with the reorganization of the meal distribution system implemented on June 1, 1942.n.d.
854“Hold On to Your Bowl,” by [Joseph Zelkowicz], 2p., Yiddish. A short essay about the symbolic meaning of the soup bowl in the ghetto. “Neither the [barbed] wire, nor the bridges and the gates, nor the yellow patch,” but the soup bowl is “a true symbol of the ghetto.” Written in connection with the reorganization of the meal distribution system implemented on June 1, 1942.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 “How the Deportees Work in the Ghetto” by Alicia de Bunom, 3 p., German. Reflections by a secretary who came to the ghetto with the first Viennese transport (10/17/1941) about difficulties in breaking the language barrier and obtaining work.1942 June 10
855“How the Deportees Work in the Ghetto” by Alicia de Bunom, 3 p., German. Reflections by a secretary who came to the ghetto with the first Viennese transport (10/17/1941) about difficulties in breaking the language barrier and obtaining work.1942 June 10
Folder TitleDate
 “In the Paper Products Division,” by J[oseph] Z[elkowicz], 10 p., Yiddish. Development of the production of paper and related products in the ghetto. Description of each unit in the division.1940 June 28
856“In the Paper Products Division,” by J[oseph] Z[elkowicz], 10 p., Yiddish. Development of the production of paper and related products in the ghetto. Description of each unit in the division.1940 June 28
Folder TitleDate
 Observations on ghetto life by O[skar] S[inger], 2 p., German.1942 June
857Observations on ghetto life by O[skar] S[inger], 2 p., German.1942 June
Folder TitleDate
 Reviews by O[skar] R[osenfeld] of the symphonic concerts in the ghetto, July 1942 and n.d., 5 p., German. Description of the “Wednesday Concerts” in the Culture House, including a description of the hall, characteristics of the conductors (Teodor Ryder, David Beigelman), the orchestra and the public. Reviews of performances of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony and the Unfinished Symphony of Schubert.n.d., 1942 July
858Reviews by O[skar] R[osenfeld] of the symphonic concerts in the ghetto, July 1942 and n.d., 5 p., German. Description of the “Wednesday Concerts” in the Culture House, including a description of the hall, characteristics of the conductors (Teodor Ryder, David Beigelman), the orchestra and the public. Reviews of performances of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony and the Unfinished Symphony of Schubert.n.d., 1942 July
Folder TitleDate
 Introduction to the “Encyclopaedia of the Ghetto,” by O[skar] R[osenfeld], 2p., German. Points out a need for explanations of new words and expressions which describe ghetto reality. Calls the planned work an important part of the cultural history of the ghetto.n.d.
859Introduction to the “Encyclopaedia of the Ghetto,” by O[skar] R[osenfeld], 2p., German. Points out a need for explanations of new words and expressions which describe ghetto reality. Calls the planned work an important part of the cultural history of the ghetto.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 “What People Eat Nowadays,” by O[skar] S[inger], 1 p., German. About hunger in the ghetto.1942 July 7
860“What People Eat Nowadays,” by O[skar] S[inger], 1 p., German. About hunger in the ghetto.1942 July 7
Folder TitleDate
 A visit to the old age home for Jews from Western Europe, by [J. Zelkowicz], 17p, Yiddish. Notes about an old age home established in December, 1941, to accommodate deportees. Statistics about the patients and their respective fates (death, deportation, placement in ghetto hospitals). Remarks on their primitive living conditions.1942 July 7
861A visit to the old age home for Jews from Western Europe, by [J. Zelkowicz], 17p, Yiddish. Notes about an old age home established in December, 1941, to accommodate deportees. Statistics about the patients and their respective fates (death, deportation, placement in ghetto hospitals). Remarks on their primitive living conditions.1942 July 7
Folder TitleDate
 “The Garbage Affair,” by J[oseph] Z[elkowicz]. Report about the trial in the ghetto court against eight controllers from the garbage disposal division, who falsified work records and forced garbage collection workers to give them part of their food rations.1942 July 5
862“The Garbage Affair,” by J[oseph] Z[elkowicz]. Report about the trial in the ghetto court against eight controllers from the garbage disposal division, who falsified work records and forced garbage collection workers to give them part of their food rations.1942 July 5
Folder TitleDate
 “The Art of Painting in the Ghetto,” by O[skar] R[osenfeld], 2 p., German. The ghetto is suggestive to an artist because it is totally different from the rest of the world. An appreciation of the painter Israel Leizerowicz.1942 July 8
863“The Art of Painting in the Ghetto,” by O[skar] R[osenfeld], 2 p., German. The ghetto is suggestive to an artist because it is totally different from the rest of the world. An appreciation of the painter Israel Leizerowicz.1942 July 8
Folder TitleDate
 “In the Corset Factory,” by J[oseph] Z[elkowicz], 10p., Yiddish. Report on the modest beginnings and rapid growth of the factory, which in July of 1942 employed 1250 workers.1942 July 13
864“In the Corset Factory,” by J[oseph] Z[elkowicz], 10p., Yiddish. Report on the modest beginnings and rapid growth of the factory, which in July of 1942 employed 1250 workers.1942 July 13
Folder TitleDate
 “Thoughts about Thoughts,” by O[skar] S[inger], 1 p., German. Critical remarks about supplementary meal tickets - supplementary food rations will perhaps delay but not stop the physical exhaustion of the ghetto laborer.1942 July 14
865“Thoughts about Thoughts,” by O[skar] S[inger], 1 p., German. Critical remarks about supplementary meal tickets - supplementary food rations will perhaps delay but not stop the physical exhaustion of the ghetto laborer.1942 July 14
Folder TitleDate
 Fragment of a report about the brush factory, no author. [Zelkowicz?], 2 p., Yiddish.1942 May 17
866Fragment of a report about the brush factory, no author. [Zelkowicz?], 2 p., Yiddish.1942 May 17
Folder TitleDate
 Report by O[skar] S[inger], of the public execution in the ghetto of two Jews who sought to escape from a transport to the labor camp but were apprehended.1942 July 23
867Report by O[skar] S[inger], of the public execution in the ghetto of two Jews who sought to escape from a transport to the labor camp but were apprehended.1942 July 23
Folder TitleDate
 “Dying in the Litzmannstadt Ghetto,” by O[skar] S[inger], 5 p., German. Contemporary man has never known such a way of dying.1942 July 27
868“Dying in the Litzmannstadt Ghetto,” by O[skar] S[inger], 5 p., German. Contemporary man has never known such a way of dying.1942 July 27
Folder TitleDate
 “Two Days Late,” by O[skar] S[inger], 2 p., German. Report of the death of a young man from Prague. Describes the life of a deported family.1942 July 28
869“Two Days Late,” by O[skar] S[inger], 2 p., German. Report of the death of a young man from Prague. Describes the life of a deported family.1942 July 28
Folder TitleDate
 “With the Hat Makers,” by O[skar] S[inger], 2p., German. Report of a visit to the hat factory. Statistics about production, number of employees, number of children apprentices.1942 July 28
870“With the Hat Makers,” by O[skar] S[inger], 2p., German. Report of a visit to the hat factory. Statistics about production, number of employees, number of children apprentices.1942 July 28
Folder TitleDate
 Report about the rest home in Marysin, no author, 4 p., Polish. The home opened in July, 1942, for the purpose of awarding officials with “faultless” records with a week’s vacation.n.d. [1942 Aug.]
871Report about the rest home in Marysin, no author, 4 p., Polish. The home opened in July, 1942, for the purpose of awarding officials with “faultless” records with a week’s vacation.n.d. [1942 Aug.]
Folder TitleDate
 “The White Sea,” by O[skar] S[inger], 8 p., German. Report about the division of milk products where a so-called “salad” is also produced from half-rotten leftovers of vegetables. Statistics of production.1942 Aug. 20
872“The White Sea,” by O[skar] S[inger], 8 p., German. Report about the division of milk products where a so-called “salad” is also produced from half-rotten leftovers of vegetables. Statistics of production.1942 Aug. 20
Folder TitleDate
 Report about the orphanages in the ghetto, no author, 8 p., German. Recalls the Jewish orphanages in Lódz prior to the war, including the Helenowek orphanage whose director was Rumkowski. Describes the Marysin orphanage in the ghetto, which was closed by the Germans in the winter of 1941, and the new orphanage, closer to the center of the ghetto, which replaced the Marysin home. Other smaller orphanages are mentioned. The report was written a week after the conclusion of the deportation of children and old people to the Chelmno death camp.1942 Sept. 18
873Report about the orphanages in the ghetto, no author, 8 p., German. Recalls the Jewish orphanages in Lódz prior to the war, including the Helenowek orphanage whose director was Rumkowski. Describes the Marysin orphanage in the ghetto, which was closed by the Germans in the winter of 1941, and the new orphanage, closer to the center of the ghetto, which replaced the Marysin home. Other smaller orphanages are mentioned. The report was written a week after the conclusion of the deportation of children and old people to the Chelmno death camp.1942 Sept. 18
Folder TitleDate
 “Commission for Social Re-classification of the Adolescent.” Report on activities, no author, 14 p., Polish. Established in March, 1941, to organize vocational training of ghetto youths aged fourteen to seventeen years and to make them part of the ghetto work force. Details about vocational courses and on-the-job training. Broadening of the commission’s tasks following deportations. Efforts to save children from being deported by lowering the working age to ten years.n.d. [1942 Dec.]
874“Commission for Social Re-classification of the Adolescent.” Report on activities, no author, 14 p., Polish. Established in March, 1941, to organize vocational training of ghetto youths aged fourteen to seventeen years and to make them part of the ghetto work force. Details about vocational courses and on-the-job training. Broadening of the commission’s tasks following deportations. Efforts to save children from being deported by lowering the working age to ten years.n.d. [1942 Dec.]
Folder TitleDate
 “The Reformed Ghetto Wedding in Light of the Halakha and Folk Tradition,” no author, 26 p., Yiddish. Essay about the new wedding ceremony which was introduced by Rumkowski after the abolition of the ghetto rabbinate in September, 1942.1942 Nov. 17
875“The Reformed Ghetto Wedding in Light of the Halakha and Folk Tradition,” no author, 26 p., Yiddish. Essay about the new wedding ceremony which was introduced by Rumkowski after the abolition of the ghetto rabbinate in September, 1942.1942 Nov. 17
Folder TitleDate
 “The Development of the Shoe Factory,” no author, 4 p., Polish. Recalls the beginnings of the shoemaking division, which started off with a modest workshop in Marysin where the cobblers were assisted by the hakhshara members. The resort not only fulfills German orders but also provides footwear for the ghetto population.n.d., [1942]
876“The Development of the Shoe Factory,” no author, 4 p., Polish. Recalls the beginnings of the shoemaking division, which started off with a modest workshop in Marysin where the cobblers were assisted by the hakhshara members. The resort not only fulfills German orders but also provides footwear for the ghetto population.n.d., [1942]
Folder TitleDate
 “In the Quilt and Pillow Workshop,” no author, 3p., Yiddish. The shop mostly employs women and girls. Used bedding which was left behind by deported Jews is recycled in the production of feather covers and pillows.n.d., [1942]
877“In the Quilt and Pillow Workshop,” no author, 3p., Yiddish. The shop mostly employs women and girls. Used bedding which was left behind by deported Jews is recycled in the production of feather covers and pillows.n.d., [1942]
Folder TitleDate
 “Child Labor in the Tailoring Workshop,” no author, 6p., Polish. A report on the situation of three hundred child and adolescent workers who are employed in the shops where military wear is made. Many of them lost their parents in the deportations. Their wages are extremely low, and they suffer mistreatment from the older workers.1942 Dec.
878“Child Labor in the Tailoring Workshop,” no author, 6p., Polish. A report on the situation of three hundred child and adolescent workers who are employed in the shops where military wear is made. Many of them lost their parents in the deportations. Their wages are extremely low, and they suffer mistreatment from the older workers.1942 Dec.
Folder TitleDate
 “The Celebration of the Ghetto Labor,” by [Joseph Zelkowicz], 28 p., Yiddish. Detailed report about the second anniversary of the Textiles Division and the celebration which took place in the Culture House. Participants included managers of other divisions, who in their speeches summarized the accomplishments of their respective workshops. Elaborate albums depicting the work of these units were presented to Rumkowski. In closing, Rumkowski awarded workers who “took part in this celebration.”1943 Jan. 5
879“The Celebration of the Ghetto Labor,” by [Joseph Zelkowicz], 28 p., Yiddish. Detailed report about the second anniversary of the Textiles Division and the celebration which took place in the Culture House. Participants included managers of other divisions, who in their speeches summarized the accomplishments of their respective workshops. Elaborate albums depicting the work of these units were presented to Rumkowski. In closing, Rumkowski awarded workers who “took part in this celebration.”1943 Jan. 5
Folder TitleDate
 “In Those Days of Nightmare” by Joseph Zelkowicz, 74p., end missing, Yiddish. Daily notes on the September deportation of 16,500 old people and children who were subsequently annihilated in the Chelmo death camp.1942 Sept. 12
880“In Those Days of Nightmare” by Joseph Zelkowicz, 74p., end missing, Yiddish. Daily notes on the September deportation of 16,500 old people and children who were subsequently annihilated in the Chelmo death camp.1942 Sept. 12
Folder TitleDate
 Ten short biographies of the judges of the ghetto court, the resort managers and the commissioner of the Ordnungsdienst, prepared by J[oseph] Z[elkowicz] for the “Encyclopaedia of the Ghetto.” 10 p., Yiddish.[n.d.?]
881Ten short biographies of the judges of the ghetto court, the resort managers and the commissioner of the Ordnungsdienst, prepared by J[oseph] Z[elkowicz] for the “Encyclopaedia of the Ghetto.” 10 p., Yiddish.[n.d.?]
Folder TitleDate
 Biographical notes of several workshop managers for the planned “Encyclopaedia of the Ghetto,” no author.n.d.
882Biographical notes of several workshop managers for the planned “Encyclopaedia of the Ghetto,” no author.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 “Department of Groceries and Bread,” no author, 28 p., Polish. Organization of provisioning in the ghetto and work of the Department of Groceries and Bread. Depicts the total dependence of the ghetto on supplies from the Germans and the resultant wild fluctuations in the availability and price of food. Statistics on food distribution, the ration system and the black market.n.d.
883“Department of Groceries and Bread,” no author, 28 p., Polish. Organization of provisioning in the ghetto and work of the Department of Groceries and Bread. Depicts the total dependence of the ghetto on supplies from the Germans and the resultant wild fluctuations in the availability and price of food. Statistics on food distribution, the ration system and the black market.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Satire in the ghetto. Songs and texts about various aspects of ghetto life by A[licia] d[e] B[unom], S. Janowski and unknown writers. 9 p.n.d., 1942 July
884Satire in the ghetto. Songs and texts about various aspects of ghetto life by A[licia] d[e] B[unom], S. Janowski and unknown writers. 9 p.n.d., 1942 July
Folder TitleDate
 Mieten auf! by O[skar] S[inger], 5 p., German. Report on the supply and distribution of potatoes and vegetables in the ghetto.1943 Mar. 1
885Mieten auf! by O[skar] S[inger], 5 p., German. Report on the supply and distribution of potatoes and vegetables in the ghetto.1943 Mar. 1
Folder TitleDate
 “Child Labor in the Hatters’ Division.” by H. D[umnow], 9 p., Polish. Describes the integration of three hundred children and adolescents into the workforce of the division as planned and executed by the Commission for Social Re-classification. Working conditions, payroll, feeding, vocational training, study of Yiddish.1943 Mar. 11
886“Child Labor in the Hatters’ Division.” by H. D[umnow], 9 p., Polish. Describes the integration of three hundred children and adolescents into the workforce of the division as planned and executed by the Commission for Social Re-classification. Working conditions, payroll, feeding, vocational training, study of Yiddish.1943 Mar. 11
Folder TitleDate
 Children workers in the electrical workshops. Report by H. D[umnow], 5 p., Polish. Work and vocational training of 211 children and adolescents, who “...will soon become well trained, professional electricians.”1943 Apr. 8
887Children workers in the electrical workshops. Report by H. D[umnow], 5 p., Polish. Work and vocational training of 211 children and adolescents, who “...will soon become well trained, professional electricians.”1943 Apr. 8
Folder TitleDate
 “What’s Cooking in the Ghetto Nowadays” by A[licia] d[e] B[unom], 2p., German. How the meagerness of food affects the ghetto diet.1943 Oct.
888“What’s Cooking in the Ghetto Nowadays” by A[licia] d[e] B[unom], 2p., German. How the meagerness of food affects the ghetto diet.1943 Oct.
Folder TitleDate
 Analysis of statistics of coal supplies in Warthegau for 1943/44. Report by O[skar] S[inger], 3/1943, 4 p., German. About a statistical work project assigned to the ghetto by the German administration.1943 Jan.
889Analysis of statistics of coal supplies in Warthegau for 1943/44. Report by O[skar] S[inger], 3/1943, 4 p., German. About a statistical work project assigned to the ghetto by the German administration.1943 Jan.
Folder TitleDate
 “Making New From Old. A Visit to the Division of Second-hand Goods,” by O[skar] S[inger], 3 p., German. Storing and reconditioning goods confiscated in the ghetto or supplied by the Germans, mainly from liquidated Jewish communities in Warthegau.1942 Aug. 6
890“Making New From Old. A Visit to the Division of Second-hand Goods,” by O[skar] S[inger], 3 p., German. Storing and reconditioning goods confiscated in the ghetto or supplied by the Germans, mainly from liquidated Jewish communities in Warthegau.1942 Aug. 6
Folder TitleDate
 “Day Care Home at the Clothing and Linen Division,” by H. Dumnow, 4 p., Polish. The home takes care of children, aged between two and eight years, whose mothers work in the Division’s factories; a model for similar divisional day care homes for children who survived the September deportation.1943 Apr. 23
891“Day Care Home at the Clothing and Linen Division,” by H. Dumnow, 4 p., Polish. The home takes care of children, aged between two and eight years, whose mothers work in the Division’s factories; a model for similar divisional day care homes for children who survived the September deportation.1943 Apr. 23
Folder TitleDate
 “In the Low-voltage Division,” by [Joseph Zelkowicz], 3 p., Yiddish. Production of desk and wall telephones and electrical tools.1943 July 19
892“In the Low-voltage Division,” by [Joseph Zelkowicz], 3 p., Yiddish. Production of desk and wall telephones and electrical tools.1943 July 19
Folder TitleDate
 “In the Third Slipper Workshop,” by [Joseph Zelkowicz], 5 p., Yiddish. History of the Slipper Division. Description of how to make slippers from rags, a method which brought the ghetto large German orders. Details about the rag industry in the ghetto. Information about the workforce, which consisted largely of women and children.1943 July 27
893“In the Third Slipper Workshop,” by [Joseph Zelkowicz], 5 p., Yiddish. History of the Slipper Division. Description of how to make slippers from rags, a method which brought the ghetto large German orders. Details about the rag industry in the ghetto. Information about the workforce, which consisted largely of women and children.1943 July 27
Folder TitleDate
 “In the Transmission Belt Workshop,” by [Joseph Zelkowicz] 8 p., Yiddish. Making transmission belts from old army knapsacks.1943 Aug. 10
894“In the Transmission Belt Workshop,” by [Joseph Zelkowicz] 8 p., Yiddish. Making transmission belts from old army knapsacks.1943 Aug. 10
Folder TitleDate
 “In the Second-hand Shoe Depot,” by [Joseph Zelkowicz], 8/17/1943, 5 p., Yiddish. Details about the storage of personal property belonging to Jews who perished in the deportations of summer, 1942. Establishment by Rumkowski of the Office for Special Tasks, 6/1/1942, to organize the sorting of booty. The shoe depot employs six hundred women, who sorted about 100,000 pairs of shoes as well as large numbers of other leather goods, including phylacteries.1942 June 1, 1943 Aug. 17
895“In the Second-hand Shoe Depot,” by [Joseph Zelkowicz], 8/17/1943, 5 p., Yiddish. Details about the storage of personal property belonging to Jews who perished in the deportations of summer, 1942. Establishment by Rumkowski of the Office for Special Tasks, 6/1/1942, to organize the sorting of booty. The shoe depot employs six hundred women, who sorted about 100,000 pairs of shoes as well as large numbers of other leather goods, including phylacteries.1942 June 1, 1943 Aug. 17
Folder TitleDate
 Twenty-two reports from the ghetto by Joseph Zelkowicz, [spring - summer, 1943]. Drafts in a notebook, 93 p., Yiddish (except where indicated), also typed copies of some reports. Includes:
“Night Life in the Ghetto,” 8/6/1943, 3 p.: Observations on the ghetto at night, when people gather in their backyards after a fifteen-hour workday.
“In the Meat Provisioning Main Office,” 7 p.
“In the Chemical Division,” 6 p.: Organized in May, 1941, by a group of chemists from Prague, this division is called the “wunderkind” of the ghetto because it reprocesses food leftovers and various by-products into edible items.
“In the Clothing Department” 12p.: A report on the operation of the department which distributes clothing and shoes among the ghetto inhabitants.
Panie wydzielaczki,” (Women cooks who distribute the soup), 3p., Polish.: Reflections on the importance of soup distributors in the labor divisions, because survival depends on the contents of that daily bowl of soup.
“ Lots of Prayers, Few Noodles” and “Wednesday Dried Out”: About hunger in the ghetto.
“In the Book Collection,” 3 p.: About a book collection created in the ghetto from the books that were the property of Jews deported in 1942 to Chelmno.
“ Blessed is the Land,” 4p.: About cultivating garden plots in the ghetto.
“All that Can Happen in the Ghetto,” 4p.: How new words, expressions and jokes surface in the reality of the ghetto life.
“ In the Chemical Laundry,” 10 p.: Operations of the washing plant in the ghetto, which, among others, was given the task of cleaning the belongings left behind by deported Jews.
[1943 Spring-Summer]
896Twenty-two reports from the ghetto by Joseph Zelkowicz, [spring - summer, 1943]. Drafts in a notebook, 93 p., Yiddish (except where indicated), also typed copies of some reports. Includes:
“Night Life in the Ghetto,” 8/6/1943, 3 p.: Observations on the ghetto at night, when people gather in their backyards after a fifteen-hour workday.
“In the Meat Provisioning Main Office,” 7 p.
“In the Chemical Division,” 6 p.: Organized in May, 1941, by a group of chemists from Prague, this division is called the “wunderkind” of the ghetto because it reprocesses food leftovers and various by-products into edible items.
“In the Clothing Department” 12p.: A report on the operation of the department which distributes clothing and shoes among the ghetto inhabitants.
Panie wydzielaczki,” (Women cooks who distribute the soup), 3p., Polish.: Reflections on the importance of soup distributors in the labor divisions, because survival depends on the contents of that daily bowl of soup.
“ Lots of Prayers, Few Noodles” and “Wednesday Dried Out”: About hunger in the ghetto.
“In the Book Collection,” 3 p.: About a book collection created in the ghetto from the books that were the property of Jews deported in 1942 to Chelmno.
“ Blessed is the Land,” 4p.: About cultivating garden plots in the ghetto.
“All that Can Happen in the Ghetto,” 4p.: How new words, expressions and jokes surface in the reality of the ghetto life.
“ In the Chemical Laundry,” 10 p.: Operations of the washing plant in the ghetto, which, among others, was given the task of cleaning the belongings left behind by deported Jews.
[1943 Spring-Summer]
Folder TitleDate
 Handwritten notes by “J.B.A.” [Yerakhmiel Bryman]. Includes a collection of ghetto jokes and a note about a composer of nigunim, Israel Sabiner, and his singing group, Gerer Hasidim, in the ghetto during 1940.1941-1944
897Handwritten notes by “J.B.A.” [Yerakhmiel Bryman]. Includes a collection of ghetto jokes and a note about a composer of nigunim, Israel Sabiner, and his singing group, Gerer Hasidim, in the ghetto during 1940.1941-1944
Folder TitleDate
 Reports from the ghetto court [by Joseph Zelkowicz] including:
“Heaven and Earth and ... Soup,” 1/30/1944, about a trial of six persons charged with conspiring to steal additional soup portions;
“How Could They Have Known ...,” 3/15/1943, about three youths who blackmailed a former policeman’s wife;
and a piece about five youths who stole a sack of flour, 8/19/1942.
1942 Aug. 19, 1943 Mar. 15, 1944 Jan. 1930
898Reports from the ghetto court [by Joseph Zelkowicz] including:
“Heaven and Earth and ... Soup,” 1/30/1944, about a trial of six persons charged with conspiring to steal additional soup portions;
“How Could They Have Known ...,” 3/15/1943, about three youths who blackmailed a former policeman’s wife;
and a piece about five youths who stole a sack of flour, 8/19/1942.
1942 Aug. 19, 1943 Mar. 15, 1944 Jan. 1930
Folder TitleDate
 “Three Years of the Ordnungsdienst,” no author, n.d. [March, 1943]. Report on the anniversary celebration of February 28, 1943. German, 2 p. n.d., 1943 Feb. 28
899“Three Years of the Ordnungsdienst,” no author, n.d. [March, 1943]. Report on the anniversary celebration of February 28, 1943. German, 2 p. n.d., 1943 Feb. 28
Folder TitleDate
 Stories from the ghetto by Joseph Zelkowicz, 16p. handwritten, 144 p. typewritten. Thirty reports in the form of short stories about the people in the ghetto, interspersed with thoughts on the strength of faith, Jewish ethics, the fate of the ghetto, the will to survive.n.d.
900Stories from the ghetto by Joseph Zelkowicz, 16p. handwritten, 144 p. typewritten. Thirty reports in the form of short stories about the people in the ghetto, interspersed with thoughts on the strength of faith, Jewish ethics, the fate of the ghetto, the will to survive.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 A letter from the quilt workshop to the ghetto archives, about the transfer of that shop’s records to the archives because of its liquidation.1944 July 19
901A letter from the quilt workshop to the ghetto archives, about the transfer of that shop’s records to the archives because of its liquidation.1944 July 19
Folder TitleDate
 Report of a speech by Biebow to the workers in the tailors’ workshops, in which he urged them to join the deportation peacefully.1944 Aug. 7
902Report of a speech by Biebow to the workers in the tailors’ workshops, in which he urged them to join the deportation peacefully.1944 Aug. 7
Folder TitleDate
 Illegible handwritten notes.n.d.
903Illegible handwritten notes.n.d.

Subseries 2: The Chronicle of the Lódz Ghetto,  1941-1944

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 2 contains various issues of the Daily Chronicle of the Lódz ghetto, usually written in Polish, but also with some issues in German and Yiddish. The Chronicle documented important events in the ghetto. The most common topic of the Chronicle in this subseries appears to be the deportations of Jews to and from the ghetto. Folders 909, 912, 914 and 916 describe the deportations of Jews from central Europe and other parts of Poland to the Lodz ghetto, while folders 911, 912 and 919 focus on the deportations of inhabitants away from the ghetto.

Folder TitleDate
 Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej (Bulletin of the Daily Chronicle). Twenty issues, 24 p., Polish.1941 Jan. 13-1941 Jan. 31
904Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej (Bulletin of the Daily Chronicle). Twenty issues, 24 p., Polish.1941 Jan. 13-1941 Jan. 31
Folder TitleDate
 Chronik. Abbreviated German version of folder 904, 12 p.1941 Jan. 13-1941 Jan. 31
905Chronik. Abbreviated German version of folder 904, 12 p.1941 Jan. 13-1941 Jan. 31
Folder TitleDate
 “Review of the Most Important Events in the Ghetto in February,” 2 p., Polish.1941 Mar.
906“Review of the Most Important Events in the Ghetto in February,” 2 p., Polish.1941 Mar.
Folder TitleDate
  Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej (Bulletin of the Daily Chronicle). 17 issues, 18 p., Polish.1941 Mar. 1-1941 Mar. 31
907 Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej (Bulletin of the Daily Chronicle). 17 issues, 18 p., Polish.1941 Mar. 1-1941 Mar. 31
Folder TitleDate
 Monats-Chronik, monthly review of Oct., 1941, 4 p., German.1941 Oct.
908Monats-Chronik, monthly review of Oct., 1941, 4 p., German.1941 Oct.
Folder TitleDate
 Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej (Bulletin of the Daily Chronicle), 17 p., Polish. Includes a report on the deportation of Jews from Austria, Germany and Luxembourg to the Lódz ghetto. Added to the report is a list of all transports, with the number of deportees in each transport.1941 Nov.
909Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej (Bulletin of the Daily Chronicle), 17 p., Polish. Includes a report on the deportation of Jews from Austria, Germany and Luxembourg to the Lódz ghetto. Added to the report is a list of all transports, with the number of deportees in each transport.1941 Nov.
Folder TitleDate
 Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej. Twenty-one issues, 30 p., Polish.1941 Dec. 1-1941 Dec. 31
910Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej. Twenty-one issues, 30 p., Polish.1941 Dec. 1-1941 Dec. 31
Folder TitleDate
 Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej, 1 p., Polish. Situation in the ghetto after Rumkowski’s announcement No. 380 about the deportation of resettled German and Czech Jews.1942 Apr. 30
911Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej, 1 p., Polish. Situation in the ghetto after Rumkowski’s announcement No. 380 about the deportation of resettled German and Czech Jews.1942 Apr. 30
Folder TitleDate
 Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej, 37 p., Polish. Includes a summary of the most important events in May, which were: deportations from the ghetto of resettled German and Czech Jews; deportations to the ghetto of Jews from the towns of Pabianice, Brzeziny [Breziny] and Stryków [Strykov]; the tragic situation with respect to the food supply.1942 May 1-1942 May 13, 1942 May 18, 1942 May 28, 1942 May 30
912Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej, 37 p., Polish. Includes a summary of the most important events in May, which were: deportations from the ghetto of resettled German and Czech Jews; deportations to the ghetto of Jews from the towns of Pabianice, Brzeziny [Breziny] and Stryków [Strykov]; the tragic situation with respect to the food supply.1942 May 1-1942 May 13, 1942 May 18, 1942 May 28, 1942 May 30
Folder TitleDate
 Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej, 64 p., Polish. Two complete sets and a partial copy.1942 June 1-1942 June 30
913Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej, 64 p., Polish. Two complete sets and a partial copy.1942 June 1-1942 June 30
Folder TitleDate
 Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej, 43 p., statistical charts, Polish. Includes testimonies of deportees from towns in Warthegau about the liquidation of the Jewish communities in Western Poland. Two complete sets and a partial copy.1942 July 1-1942 July 31
914Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej, 43 p., statistical charts, Polish. Includes testimonies of deportees from towns in Warthegau about the liquidation of the Jewish communities in Western Poland. Two complete sets and a partial copy.1942 July 1-1942 July 31
Folder TitleDate
 Draft of several chronicle entries for July 21, 1942, which were not included in the final version of the issue. Among the subjects: vicissitudes of food distribution, vacation in the ghetto. Also handwritten notes for the chronicle in Russian, 7/20/1942.1942 July 20-1942 July 21
915Draft of several chronicle entries for July 21, 1942, which were not included in the final version of the issue. Among the subjects: vicissitudes of food distribution, vacation in the ghetto. Also handwritten notes for the chronicle in Russian, 7/20/1942.1942 July 20-1942 July 21
Folder TitleDate
 Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej 31 p., statistics, Polish. Includes reports of further resettlements to the ghetto from Warthegau, and more testimonies by the deportees on the fate of their communities.1942 Aug. 4-1942 Aug. 12, 1942, 1942 Aug. 14-1942 Aug. 28, 1942 Aug. 30
916Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej 31 p., statistics, Polish. Includes reports of further resettlements to the ghetto from Warthegau, and more testimonies by the deportees on the fate of their communities.1942 Aug. 4-1942 Aug. 12, 1942, 1942 Aug. 14-1942 Aug. 28, 1942 Aug. 30
Folder TitleDate
 Yiddish version of the chronicle’s special report of 10/28/1942 about a wedding ceremony which was conducted by Rumkowski for the first time since the liquidation of the rabbinate and the abolition of Jewish religious weddings. 3 p.1942 Oct. 28
917Yiddish version of the chronicle’s special report of 10/28/1942 about a wedding ceremony which was conducted by Rumkowski for the first time since the liquidation of the rabbinate and the abolition of Jewish religious weddings. 3 p.1942 Oct. 28
Folder TitleDate
 Tageschronik (Daily Chronicle), 9 p., German. Nos. 21 to 29.1943 Jan. 6-1943 Jan. 11
918Tageschronik (Daily Chronicle), 9 p., German. Nos. 21 to 29.1943 Jan. 6-1943 Jan. 11
Folder TitleDate
  Tageschronik , 38 p., German. Seventeen issues. Includes reports of deportations from the ghetto.1944 July 12, 1944 July 13, 1944 July 16-1944 July 30
919 Tageschronik , 38 p., German. Seventeen issues. Includes reports of deportations from the ghetto.1944 July 12, 1944 July 13, 1944 July 16-1944 July 30

Subseries 3: Speeches by Chaim Mordecai Rumkowski,  1940-1942

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 3 includes transcripts of speeches given by Rumkowski on various occasions (all were reported and excerpted in the Chronicle). They convey a striking psychological portrait of the man who stubbornly led the ghetto on the road to destruction, deceiving his subordinates as well as himself.

Folder TitleDate
 Minutes of a meeting between administration, workshop managers and Rumkowski about delays in provisioning for winter, and about the strike situation in ghetto hospitals, 4 p., Polish.1940 Dec. 2
920Minutes of a meeting between administration, workshop managers and Rumkowski about delays in provisioning for winter, and about the strike situation in ghetto hospitals, 4 p., Polish.1940 Dec. 2
Folder TitleDate
 Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej, 11 p., Polish. Contains a speech (“Exposé”) by Rumkowski to the department heads of the ghetto administration in connection with reduction of the ghetto area. Other subjects: theft, corruption and social anarchy, accomplishments in social welfare, child care and jobs for all, strikes in the carpentry workshops.1941 Feb. 1
921Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej, 11 p., Polish. Contains a speech (“Exposé”) by Rumkowski to the department heads of the ghetto administration in connection with reduction of the ghetto area. Other subjects: theft, corruption and social anarchy, accomplishments in social welfare, child care and jobs for all, strikes in the carpentry workshops.1941 Feb. 1
Folder TitleDate
 Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej, 4 p., Polish. Rumkowski’s public speech before a crowd of 15,000. Topics: availability of jobs in the ghetto workshops for all who are capable of working, reduction of relief aid, incompetence of the ghetto courts in fighting criminality.1941 Aug. 30
922Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej, 4 p., Polish. Rumkowski’s public speech before a crowd of 15,000. Topics: availability of jobs in the ghetto workshops for all who are capable of working, reduction of relief aid, incompetence of the ghetto courts in fighting criminality.1941 Aug. 30
Folder TitleDate
 [Bulletin], 12 p., Polish. Report about Rumkowski’s speech of October 7 about the resettlement of Jews from the Reich to the ghetto.1941 Nov.
923[Bulletin], 12 p., Polish. Report about Rumkowski’s speech of October 7 about the resettlement of Jews from the Reich to the ghetto.1941 Nov.
Folder TitleDate
 [Bulletin], 12 p., Polish. Report of Rumkowski’s speech of November 1 to 400 representatives of the deportees from Germany, Bohemia and Luxembourg.1941 Nov.
924[Bulletin], 12 p., Polish. Report of Rumkowski’s speech of November 1 to 400 representatives of the deportees from Germany, Bohemia and Luxembourg.1941 Nov.
Folder TitleDate
 “Persons of good will need not worry about their fate. Only the unwelcome element will leave the ghetto.” Report of Rumkowski’s speech during a concert in the Culture House, 5 p., Polish. Announcement of an impending deportation of 10,000 persons from the ghetto, which is portrayed as an attempt to rid the ghetto of criminals. Other subjects: public kitchens versus home cooking, resettled Western Jews and their negative attitude towards the ghetto.1941 Dec. 20
925“Persons of good will need not worry about their fate. Only the unwelcome element will leave the ghetto.” Report of Rumkowski’s speech during a concert in the Culture House, 5 p., Polish. Announcement of an impending deportation of 10,000 persons from the ghetto, which is portrayed as an attempt to rid the ghetto of criminals. Other subjects: public kitchens versus home cooking, resettled Western Jews and their negative attitude towards the ghetto.1941 Dec. 20
Folder TitleDate
 Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej, 9 p., Polish. Includes two speeches delivered by Rumkowski: on the eve of the New Year, January 3, and at the exhibition in “Glazer’s factory” of exemplary products by the linen and garment division, January 17. Both speeches centered on the deportation of 10,000 people from the ghetto. Also, separate copies of both reports, titled respectively, “Work for Everyone,” and “Work Is Our Guiding Light.”1942 Jan. 3, 1942 Jan. 14-1942 Jan. 31
926Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej, 9 p., Polish. Includes two speeches delivered by Rumkowski: on the eve of the New Year, January 3, and at the exhibition in “Glazer’s factory” of exemplary products by the linen and garment division, January 17. Both speeches centered on the deportation of 10,000 people from the ghetto. Also, separate copies of both reports, titled respectively, “Work for Everyone,” and “Work Is Our Guiding Light.”1942 Jan. 3, 1942 Jan. 14-1942 Jan. 31
Folder TitleDate
 Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej, 8 p., Polish. A report about Rumkowski’s meeting with the representatives of resettled Jews on February 1. Statements by the representatives and reply by Rumkowski.1942 Feb. 1
927Biuletyn Kroniki Codziennej, 8 p., Polish. A report about Rumkowski’s meeting with the representatives of resettled Jews on February 1. Statements by the representatives and reply by Rumkowski.1942 Feb. 1
Folder TitleDate
 [Bulletin]. Report of a meeting by Rumkowski with the heads of ghetto institutions and workshops. The meeting was held following the deportation of the first contingent of 10,000 persons.1942 Mar.
928[Bulletin]. Report of a meeting by Rumkowski with the heads of ghetto institutions and workshops. The meeting was held following the deportation of the first contingent of 10,000 persons.1942 Mar.
Folder TitleDate
 Report of Rumkowski’s speech to 5,000 people on June 6, 1942, 2p., Polish. Subjects: curtailing the wearing of beards and long, black garb by religious Jews; adolescents in ghetto factories.1942 June 6
929Report of Rumkowski’s speech to 5,000 people on June 6, 1942, 2p., Polish. Subjects: curtailing the wearing of beards and long, black garb by religious Jews; adolescents in ghetto factories.1942 June 6
Folder TitleDate
 “Significant role of Chairman Rumkowski’s speeches. Notes for a monograph,” no author, 1 p., Polish.1942 Mar.
930“Significant role of Chairman Rumkowski’s speeches. Notes for a monograph,” no author, 1 p., Polish.1942 Mar.
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C: PROVISIONING, 1940-1944

Arrangement:

Comprised of one series, Series IX: Provisioning Departments.

Series IX: Provisioning Departments, n.d., 1940-1944

This series is in German.
0.5 linear foot
Arrangement:

Series IX is divided into 5 subseries:

Scope and Content:

The departments of the provisioning branch are grouped in Series IX. This series consists of materials pertaining to the distribution of food and fuel, the ration card system, the work of ghetto bakeries and public kitchens.

Further information about rationing and the food available in the ghetto may also be found among Rumkowski's announcements in Series III.

Subseries 1: Grocery and Bread Departments: Circulars to Distribution Stores,  n.d., 1941-1944

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 1 holds many announcements pertaining to the distribution of food in the ghetto. Two announcements (located in folders 938 and 939) also deal with the handling and accounting of food shortages. A few other folders also contain information on an inspection of a store where the manager was removed and a sample of a cash receipt.

Folder TitleDate
 N.N.: Distribution of 50 g. candy and 80 g. sausage per person.1941 Oct. 25
931N.N.: Distribution of 50 g. candy and 80 g. sausage per person.1941 Oct. 25
Folder TitleDate
 N.N.: About orders from departments and labor divisions for saccharin, soda, soap, coffee, etc.1941 Dec. 7
932N.N.: About orders from departments and labor divisions for saccharin, soda, soap, coffee, etc.1941 Dec. 7
Folder TitleDate
 N.N.: Distribution of 50 g. candy per person.1942 May 21, 1942 May 27
933N.N.: Distribution of 50 g. candy per person.1942 May 21, 1942 May 27
Folder TitleDate
 No. 216: Food and bread distribution; reporting department workers who were deported.1942 Sept. 17
934No. 216: Food and bread distribution; reporting department workers who were deported.1942 Sept. 17
Folder TitleDate
 No. 217: Distribution of bread.1942 Sept. 20
935No. 217: Distribution of bread.1942 Sept. 20
Folder TitleDate
 No. 218: Distribution of vegetables and potatoes.1942 Sept. 23
936No. 218: Distribution of vegetables and potatoes.1942 Sept. 23
Folder TitleDate
 No. 231: Distribution of bread, registration for vegetables.1942 Oct. 23
937No. 231: Distribution of bread, registration for vegetables.1942 Oct. 23
Folder TitleDate
 No. 232: Handling vegetable shortages; distribution of clothing for ten percent of employees in each department.1942 Oct. 26
938No. 232: Handling vegetable shortages; distribution of clothing for ten percent of employees in each department.1942 Oct. 26
Folder TitleDate
 No. 20: Food distribution; accounting for shortages and surpluses; registration for ration cards. Also, a price list for groceries.1943 Feb. 26
939No. 20: Food distribution; accounting for shortages and surpluses; registration for ration cards. Also, a price list for groceries.1943 Feb. 26
Folder TitleDate
 No. 98: Distribution of bread and groceries.1944 July 8
940No. 98: Distribution of bread and groceries.1944 July 8
Folder TitleDate
 No. 100: Distribution of flour and margarine.1944 July 10
941No. 100: Distribution of flour and margarine.1944 July 10
Folder TitleDate
 No. 101: Distribution of green beans.1944 July 10
942No. 101: Distribution of green beans.1944 July 10
Folder TitleDate
 No. 102: Distribution of carrots.1944 July 11
943No. 102: Distribution of carrots.1944 July 11
Folder TitleDate
 N.N.: New hours at the distribution store on Steinmetz Street.1944 July 12
944N.N.: New hours at the distribution store on Steinmetz Street.1944 July 12
Folder TitleDate
 No. 103: “E” ration cards will be blocked.1944 July 13
945No. 103: “E” ration cards will be blocked.1944 July 13
Folder TitleDate
 No. 107: Distribution of vegetables.1944 July 17
946No. 107: Distribution of vegetables.1944 July 17
Folder TitleDate
 No. 110: Distribution of groceries; price list of groceries.1944 July 22
947No. 110: Distribution of groceries; price list of groceries.1944 July 22
Folder TitleDate
 No. 111: Distribution of cabbage.1944 July 23
948No. 111: Distribution of cabbage.1944 July 23
Folder TitleDate
 No. 112: Distribution of bread, potatoes and cabbage.1944 July 24
949No. 112: Distribution of bread, potatoes and cabbage.1944 July 24
Folder TitleDate
 No. 113: Distribution of vegetables.1944 Feb. 25
950No. 113: Distribution of vegetables.1944 Feb. 25
Folder TitleDate
 No. 116: Distribution of supplementary rations.1944 July 28
951No. 116: Distribution of supplementary rations.1944 July 28
Folder TitleDate
 No. 117: Distribution of potatoes.1944 July 30
952No. 117: Distribution of potatoes.1944 July 30
Folder TitleDate
 No. 118: Request for end-of-the-month inventories from the distribution stores.1944 July 31
953No. 118: Request for end-of-the-month inventories from the distribution stores.1944 July 31
Folder TitleDate
 No. 119: Distribution of bread and kohlrabi.1944 Aug. 1
954No. 119: Distribution of bread and kohlrabi.1944 Aug. 1
Folder TitleDate
 Report about an inspection of baked goods store No. 135. Because of “criminal negligence,” the store manager was removed.1941 Jan. 12
955Report about an inspection of baked goods store No. 135. Because of “criminal negligence,” the store manager was removed.1941 Jan. 12
Folder TitleDate
 Sample of a cash receipt.[n.d.?]
956Sample of a cash receipt.[n.d.?]

Subseries 2: Ration Cards Department, n.d., 1942-1944

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 2 holds notices and circulars pertaining to the ration system. Several folders contain documents with information on supplemental rations and on the use of ration cards. Of particular interest to researchers may be the circular issued in July 1944 by Henryk Neftalin concerning the use of ration cards to register ghetto inhabitants’ addresses (folder 967).

Folder TitleDate
 Last call to register for home cooking.[1942 Jan. 30]
957Last call to register for home cooking.[1942 Jan. 30]
Folder TitleDate
 Circular No. 63 of the Ration Cards Department, about distribution of the cards for supplemental rations.1942 Mar. 27
958Circular No. 63 of the Ration Cards Department, about distribution of the cards for supplemental rations.1942 Mar. 27
Folder TitleDate
 Warning to the recipients of supplemental rations not to use more ration coupons than they are entitled.1942 June 3
959Warning to the recipients of supplemental rations not to use more ration coupons than they are entitled.1942 June 3
Folder TitleDate
 Circular No. 116 about the distribution of cigarette cards.1942 Nov. 17
960Circular No. 116 about the distribution of cigarette cards.1942 Nov. 17
Folder TitleDate
 Notice about the distribution of a new issue of supplemental ration cards.1942 Nov. 23
961Notice about the distribution of a new issue of supplemental ration cards.1942 Nov. 23
Folder TitleDate
 Notice about the distribution of a new issue of supplemental ration cards.1942 Dec. 23
962Notice about the distribution of a new issue of supplemental ration cards.1942 Dec. 23
Folder TitleDate
 Notice about the new address of the office.1943 July 27
963Notice about the new address of the office.1943 July 27
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about documents needed to receive the new bread and vegetable ration card. Signed by Henryk Neftalin.1943 July 7
964Circular about documents needed to receive the new bread and vegetable ration card. Signed by Henryk Neftalin.1943 July 7
Folder TitleDate
 Circular No. 166 about blocking certain categories of vegetable cards.1944 July 12
965Circular No. 166 about blocking certain categories of vegetable cards.1944 July 12
Folder TitleDate
 Circular No. 167 about reinstating certain categories of cards which were previously blocked.1944 July 15
966Circular No. 167 about reinstating certain categories of cards which were previously blocked.1944 July 15
Folder TitleDate
 Circular to all ghetto inhabitants about the distribution of new cards with the simultaneous control of ghetto residents’ addresses, “so that not one person in the Ghetto is left unregistered.” Signed by Henryk Neftalin.1944 July 21
967Circular to all ghetto inhabitants about the distribution of new cards with the simultaneous control of ghetto residents’ addresses, “so that not one person in the Ghetto is left unregistered.” Signed by Henryk Neftalin.1944 July 21
Folder TitleDate
 Samples of ration cards.n.d., 1942
968Samples of ration cards.n.d., 1942

Subseries 3: Department of Bakeries,  1940-1944

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

This subseries contains documents, including announcements and circulars, about the work of the bakeries in the ghetto and issues involved in the daily administration of the bakeries. A description of the working of one bakery can be found here ( folder 969) as well as information on the quality and types of flours used in baking.

Folder TitleDate
 “Report by Alexander Szyffer, M.E., about the work and production of the Communal Bakery at 14 Dworska Street,” 5p., Polish. Description of the bakery. Information about management, personnel, production output, customers, control.1940 Nov. 6
969“Report by Alexander Szyffer, M.E., about the work and production of the Communal Bakery at 14 Dworska Street,” 5p., Polish. Description of the bakery. Information about management, personnel, production output, customers, control.1940 Nov. 6
Folder TitleDate
 Announcement about not accepting cholent for overnight baking because of the low supply of coal.1940 Dec. 13
970Announcement about not accepting cholent for overnight baking because of the low supply of coal.1940 Dec. 13
Folder TitleDate
 List of hourly wages for bakery workers who are assigned to matzoh baking.1941 Mar. 26
971List of hourly wages for bakery workers who are assigned to matzoh baking.1941 Mar. 26
Folder TitleDate
 Circular to all bakeries from the department. End-of-week closing time; quality control; requirement to include worker’s age in the salary lists; distribution of cholent.1942 June 6
972Circular to all bakeries from the department. End-of-week closing time; quality control; requirement to include worker’s age in the salary lists; distribution of cholent.1942 June 6
Folder TitleDate
 Circular. New office managers in the bakeries; weekly closing time; reporting on the types of flour used for baking.1942 May 21
973Circular. New office managers in the bakeries; weekly closing time; reporting on the types of flour used for baking.1942 May 21
Folder TitleDate
 Circular No. 89: About family supplement rations for bakery workers. 1942 Apr. 6
974Circular No. 89: About family supplement rations for bakery workers. 1942 Apr. 6
Folder TitleDate
 Circular Nos. 44 and 45: Weekly closing; sending selected apprentices to the construction work brigade.1944 June 8, 1944 June 15
975Circular Nos. 44 and 45: Weekly closing; sending selected apprentices to the construction work brigade.1944 June 8, 1944 June 15
Folder TitleDate
 Letters to the Provisioning Department regarding the low quality of flour the ghetto receives.1942 June 11-1942 June 13
976Letters to the Provisioning Department regarding the low quality of flour the ghetto receives.1942 June 11-1942 June 13
Folder TitleDate
 Circular No. 46: Weekly closing time.1944 June 22
977Circular No. 46: Weekly closing time.1944 June 22
Folder TitleDate
 Circular No. 47: Types of flour to be used for baking.1944 June 25
978Circular No. 47: Types of flour to be used for baking.1944 June 25
Folder TitleDate
 Circular No. 48: Instructions on periodic reporting by bakeries.1944 June 29
979Circular No. 48: Instructions on periodic reporting by bakeries.1944 June 29

Subseries 4: Department of Kitchens,  n.d., 1942-1944

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 4 documents the Department of kitchens, and holds seven folders with records on the distribution of meals, daily soup and meal coupons. The main focus of most documents is the distribution of food and the use of ration coupons or cards. Two folders contain circulars on the issuing of meal coupons, and one folder has a sample of a kitchen consumer card.

Folder TitleDate
 Circular No. 144: to all heads of labor divisions and administration departments, regulating distribution of daily soup to employees.1942 Mar. 26
980Circular No. 144: to all heads of labor divisions and administration departments, regulating distribution of daily soup to employees.1942 Mar. 26
Folder TitleDate
 Circular No. 3 by the gas kitchens unit about keeping order in the kitchens. Also, notice about the price per hour for cooking on a gas range.1942 May 14
981Circular No. 3 by the gas kitchens unit about keeping order in the kitchens. Also, notice about the price per hour for cooking on a gas range.1942 May 14
Folder TitleDate
 Circular No. 155 about the distribution of meals.1942 Dec. 29
982Circular No. 155 about the distribution of meals.1942 Dec. 29
Folder TitleDate
 Circular No. 199 about issuing new meal coupons.1944 July 17
983Circular No. 199 about issuing new meal coupons.1944 July 17
Folder TitleDate
 Circular No. 200 about new coupons for supplementary meals.1944 July 26
984Circular No. 200 about new coupons for supplementary meals.1944 July 26
Folder TitleDate
 Instructions on cooperation between the Department of Kitchens and other provisioning departments regarding proper registration of kitchen users.n.d.
985Instructions on cooperation between the Department of Kitchens and other provisioning departments regarding proper registration of kitchen users.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Sample of a kitchen consumer card.n.d.
986Sample of a kitchen consumer card.n.d.

Subseries 5: Department of Dairy Products,  1942 May 20,  1943 Feb. 19

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 5 is comprised of two folders of documents concerning this Department. One folder holds documents about the distribution of salad, the other holds an announce concerning the chaning of the dpartment’s address.

Folder TitleDate
 Request for lists of employees in connection with the distribution of salad.1942 May 20
987Request for lists of employees in connection with the distribution of salad.1942 May 20
Folder TitleDate
 Announcement about changing the department’s address.1943 Feb. 19
988Announcement about changing the department’s address.1943 Feb. 19
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D: LABOR, 1940-1944

Arrangement:

Contains one series, Series X: Labor Departments and Divisions.

Series X: Labor Departments and Divisions,  n.d., 1940-1944

Series X is in German and Polish.
0.25 linear foot
Arrangement:

This Series has 2 subseries: Labor Assignments Division (Arbeitseinsatz) and Labor Divisions and Workshops.

Scope and Content:

This series holds documents concerning labor issues. Papers found here include information on the Arbeitseinsatz division, including information on personnel changes and the deportations of workers. Material on the ghetto workshops includes documents on wages and food rations. A large amount of the records of both series are circulars. Statistical information is available on male employees of the Arbeitseinsatz and on employees of the Linen and Clothing workshop.

Subseries 1: Labor Assignments Division (Arbeitseinsatz),  n.d., 1940-1944

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

The majority of documents found here consist of circulars and instructions from the ghetto administration to workers. Topics documented here include personnel changes and the documentation of new employees. The first folder consists of letters from tailors to Rumkowski concerning the return of their sewing machines. This subseries also contains statistical information and a list of employees.

Folder TitleDate
 Letter from thirty-five tailors to Rumkowski asking that he intercede with the military so that their sewing machines be returned and that they be paid for work done for the military while on Arbeitseinsatz assignment.1940 May 9-1940 June 6
989Letter from thirty-five tailors to Rumkowski asking that he intercede with the military so that their sewing machines be returned and that they be paid for work done for the military while on Arbeitseinsatz assignment.1940 May 9-1940 June 6
Folder TitleDate
 Summons to report for work outside the ghetto.1940 Dec.
990Summons to report for work outside the ghetto.1940 Dec.
Folder TitleDate
 Circular to all administration departments and labor divisions requesting information about persons who are not working at the jobs to which they were assigned.1942 Mar. 24
991Circular to all administration departments and labor divisions requesting information about persons who are not working at the jobs to which they were assigned.1942 Mar. 24
Folder TitleDate
 Circular requesting that reports on personnel changes be submitted to the department by the fifth of each month.1942 Apr. 9
992Circular requesting that reports on personnel changes be submitted to the department by the fifth of each month.1942 Apr. 9
Folder TitleDate
 Circulars requesting weekly reports from the departments about personnel changes.1942 June 8, 1942 June 15
993Circulars requesting weekly reports from the departments about personnel changes.1942 June 8, 1942 June 15
Folder TitleDate
 Instructions about leaving a job without permission.1942 Aug. 5
994Instructions about leaving a job without permission.1942 Aug. 5
Folder TitleDate
 Instructions regarding workers who were deported.1942 Apr. 10
995Instructions regarding workers who were deported.1942 Apr. 10
Folder TitleDate
 Circulars about weekly reports on personnel changes.1943 Jan. 3, 1943 Jan. 7
996Circulars about weekly reports on personnel changes.1943 Jan. 3, 1943 Jan. 7
Folder TitleDate
 Circular listing the offices of the Labor Department. Also a sign for the office of Public Works.1943 Apr. 5
997Circular listing the offices of the Labor Department. Also a sign for the office of Public Works.1943 Apr. 5
Folder TitleDate
 Circulars about providing proper papers to new employees. 1943 May 3, 1943 May 28
998Circulars about providing proper papers to new employees. 1943 May 3, 1943 May 28
Folder TitleDate
 Statistics of male employees eighteen to forty years of age.1944 Feb. 7
999Statistics of male employees eighteen to forty years of age.1944 Feb. 7
Folder TitleDate
 List of the employees of the Arbeitseinsatz.n.d.
1000List of the employees of the Arbeitseinsatz.n.d.

Subseries 2: Labor Divisions and Workshops,  n.d., 1940-1943

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 2 consists of documents focusing on the labor situation in the workshops of the ghetto. Many of the documents here are circulars from the Trade and Control Office of the Central Bureau of Labor Divisions. The circulars often discuss such topics as wages and food rations for employees. Documents from the workshops themselves come from the Textile, Linen and Clothing, Paper Products, Print and Stamp, Book Printers, Metal Works, and Metal and Iron Storage workshops. Of interest to researchers may be the statistics available on the Linen and Clothing Divisions' employees and instructions on the making of denim clothes.

Folder TitleDate
 Trade and Control Office of the Central Bureau of Labor Divisions (Zentralbüro des Arbeits-Ressorts, Fach-und-Kontrollreferat). Circular reiterating Rumkowski’s announcement No. 360 of 1/29/1942 about fire protection in workshops.1942 Nov. 30
1001Trade and Control Office of the Central Bureau of Labor Divisions (Zentralbüro des Arbeits-Ressorts, Fach-und-Kontrollreferat). Circular reiterating Rumkowski’s announcement No. 360 of 1/29/1942 about fire protection in workshops.1942 Nov. 30
Folder TitleDate
 Trade and Control Office of the Central Bureau of Labor Divisions (Zentralbüro des Arbeits-Ressorts, Fach-und-Kontrollreferat). Circular about withholding meal rations and health care from employees who do not show up for work.1942 Dec. 3
1002Trade and Control Office of the Central Bureau of Labor Divisions (Zentralbüro des Arbeits-Ressorts, Fach-und-Kontrollreferat). Circular about withholding meal rations and health care from employees who do not show up for work.1942 Dec. 3
Folder TitleDate
 Trade and Control Office of the Central Bureau of Labor Divisions (Zentralbüro des Arbeits-Ressorts, Fach-und-Kontrollreferat). Circular about various aspects of wages and daily meals.1943 Dec. 7
1003Trade and Control Office of the Central Bureau of Labor Divisions (Zentralbüro des Arbeits-Ressorts, Fach-und-Kontrollreferat). Circular about various aspects of wages and daily meals.1943 Dec. 7
Folder TitleDate
 Trade and Control Office of the Central Bureau of Labor Divisions (Zentralbüro des Arbeits-Ressorts, Fach-und-Kontrollreferat). Circular about office employees who are transferred to workshops.1943 May 6
1004Trade and Control Office of the Central Bureau of Labor Divisions (Zentralbüro des Arbeits-Ressorts, Fach-und-Kontrollreferat). Circular about office employees who are transferred to workshops.1943 May 6
Folder TitleDate
 Trade and Control Office of the Central Bureau of Labor Divisions (Zentralbüro des Arbeits-Ressorts, Fach-und-Kontrollreferat). Norms for setting hourly wages for skilled and unskilled workers.1943 May 18
1005Trade and Control Office of the Central Bureau of Labor Divisions (Zentralbüro des Arbeits-Ressorts, Fach-und-Kontrollreferat). Norms for setting hourly wages for skilled and unskilled workers.1943 May 18
Folder TitleDate
 Trade and Control Office of the Central Bureau of Labor Divisions (Zentralbüro des Arbeits-Ressorts, Fach-und-Kontrollreferat). Circular about wages and supplemental meals for adolescent employees.1943 June 26
1006Trade and Control Office of the Central Bureau of Labor Divisions (Zentralbüro des Arbeits-Ressorts, Fach-und-Kontrollreferat). Circular about wages and supplemental meals for adolescent employees.1943 June 26
Folder TitleDate
 Trade and Control Office of the Central Bureau of Labor Divisions (Zentralbüro des Arbeits-Ressorts, Fach-und-Kontrollreferat). A letter to the woodworking shop stating that the organization of work in the shop is exemplary.1943 Dec. 12
1007Trade and Control Office of the Central Bureau of Labor Divisions (Zentralbüro des Arbeits-Ressorts, Fach-und-Kontrollreferat). A letter to the woodworking shop stating that the organization of work in the shop is exemplary.1943 Dec. 12
Folder TitleDate
 Textile Division. Samples of I.D. cards.n.d.
1008Textile Division. Samples of I.D. cards.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Linen and Clothing Division. Statistics on workers and their wages.1941 Apr.-1940 Oct.
1009Linen and Clothing Division. Statistics on workers and their wages.1941 Apr.-1940 Oct.
Folder TitleDate
 Linen and Clothing Division. Instructions for tailors how to make denim pants and jackets.n.d.
1010Linen and Clothing Division. Instructions for tailors how to make denim pants and jackets.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Paper Products Division. Circular about orders for paper.1942 Sept. 1
1011Paper Products Division. Circular about orders for paper.1942 Sept. 1
Folder TitleDate
 Print and Stamp Shop. Circular about orders for printed matter, stamps and paper.1942 Dec. 1
1012Print and Stamp Shop. Circular about orders for printed matter, stamps and paper.1942 Dec. 1
Folder TitleDate
 Print and Stamp Shop. Letter to Rumkowski on the occasion of the shop’s second anniversary.n.d.
1013Print and Stamp Shop. Letter to Rumkowski on the occasion of the shop’s second anniversary.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Book Printers’ Cooperative. Letter to the Provisioning Department requesting 20 kg. wood in order to make matrices for meal coupons.1940 Dec. 23
1014Book Printers’ Cooperative. Letter to the Provisioning Department requesting 20 kg. wood in order to make matrices for meal coupons.1940 Dec. 23
Folder TitleDate
 Metal Works Division. Sample of a job report card.n.d.
1015Metal Works Division. Sample of a job report card.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Metal and Iron Storage. Circular about submitting orders.1943 May 1
1016Metal and Iron Storage. Circular about submitting orders.1943 May 1
Folder TitleDate
 Sample of a work and bread card.n.d.
1017Sample of a work and bread card.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Blank of a certificate of completion of a vocational course.1943
1018Blank of a certificate of completion of a vocational course.1943
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E: VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS,  1940-1944

Arrangement:

Comprised of one series, Series XI: Various Departments.

Series XI: Various Departments,  n.d., 1940-1944

This series is in Yiddish, Polish, and German.
0.25 linear foot
Arrangement:

This series has 5 subseries:

Scope and Content:

Series XI is composed of several small subseries holding records from different ghetto departments. The largest of the five subseries represented here is Performing Arts and Sports. Documents concerning activities undertaken by young people may be found mainly in Subseries 4 and 5. Subseries 3 holds material on the health situation in the ghetto, especially concerning outbreaks of disease.

Subseries 1: Department of Agriculture,  n.d., 1940 June-1941 Jan., 1943 July 2

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 1 is comprised of four folders which have to do with the Department of Agriculture. Notable is folder 1019, with information on the vocational and agricultural kibbutzim that operated in the area of the ghetto.

Of special interest is the file on the hakhsharot, vocational and agricultural groups of pioneers who organized kibbutzim in the Marysin area during the second half of the year 1940. The file contains correspondence of the Vaad Hakibbutzim, the council in which all existing kibbutzim were included ( folder 1019).

Folder TitleDate
 Vaad Hakibbutzim, correspondence. Pertains to the activities of the hakhsharot - vocational and agricultural groups of halutzim (pioneers) - organized in kibbutzim in the Marysin II area. Mainly letters from the officials of the Ordnungsdienst precincts in Marysin, requesting assignment of work groups to various jobs in the ghetto; correspondence with workshops; letters and appeals by young people to be admitted to the hakhshara; correspondence with the Department of Agriculture, which was officially in charge of the hakhshara.1940 June-1941 Jan.
1019Vaad Hakibbutzim, correspondence. Pertains to the activities of the hakhsharot - vocational and agricultural groups of halutzim (pioneers) - organized in kibbutzim in the Marysin II area. Mainly letters from the officials of the Ordnungsdienst precincts in Marysin, requesting assignment of work groups to various jobs in the ghetto; correspondence with workshops; letters and appeals by young people to be admitted to the hakhshara; correspondence with the Department of Agriculture, which was officially in charge of the hakhshara.1940 June-1941 Jan.
Folder TitleDate
 Information brochures for gardeners, Nos. 1 - 3, n.d.; No. 47, 7/2/1943.n.d., 1943 July 2
1020Information brochures for gardeners, Nos. 1 - 3, n.d.; No. 47, 7/2/1943.n.d., 1943 July 2
Folder TitleDate
 A questionnaire for gardeners.n.d.
1021A questionnaire for gardeners.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about planting on garden plots.n.d.
1022Circular about planting on garden plots.n.d.

Subseries 2: Welfare Department, 1941-1942

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Documents to be found in the three folders of this subseries have to do with the relief aid given some families in the ghetto. Also included here in folder 1023 are papers on the Marysin Rest Home.

Folder TitleDate
 Expenditures for food at the Marysin Rest Home. Also, rules for the home guests.1941 July 25-1941 Aug. 24
1023Expenditures for food at the Marysin Rest Home. Also, rules for the home guests.1941 July 25-1941 Aug. 24
Folder TitleDate
 Circular about submitting employment reports.1942 May 1
1024Circular about submitting employment reports.1942 May 1
Folder TitleDate
 Announcement about a “special speech” which Rumkowski will deliver on the subject of relief. Printed leaflet.1942 Aug. 29
1025Announcement about a “special speech” which Rumkowski will deliver on the subject of relief. Printed leaflet.1942 Aug. 29

Subseries 3: Health and Sanitation Department,  n.d., 1940-1944

Arrangement:

Mostly chronological.

Scope and Content:

Documents from the Health and Sanitation Department of the ghetto contain information on the health situation in the ghetto. Several of the documents focus on deaths and outbreaks of disease in the ghetto such as tuberculosis, diptheria, and typhoid.

Folder TitleDate
 Statistics on deaths in 1940, grouped by cause.[1940?]
1026Statistics on deaths in 1940, grouped by cause.[1940?]
Folder TitleDate
 Request for a disinfection container.1942 Feb. 12
1027Request for a disinfection container.1942 Feb. 12
Folder TitleDate
 Instructions about registration of deaths in the hospitals.1942 May 8
1028Instructions about registration of deaths in the hospitals.1942 May 8
Folder TitleDate
 Instructions about reporting cases of typhoid to the department.1942 Feb. 14
1029Instructions about reporting cases of typhoid to the department.1942 Feb. 14
Folder TitleDate
 Circular to physicians about issuing sick day permits.1942 Oct. 15
1030Circular to physicians about issuing sick day permits.1942 Oct. 15
Folder TitleDate
 “Causes of the recent tuberculosis tragedy in the ghetto and ways to overcome it.” Fragment of a memorandum to Rumkowski by an unidentified physician.1944 June 16
1031“Causes of the recent tuberculosis tragedy in the ghetto and ways to overcome it.” Fragment of a memorandum to Rumkowski by an unidentified physician.1944 June 16
Folder TitleDate
 Announcement about the hours of the public bath.1944 July 2
1032Announcement about the hours of the public bath.1944 July 2
Folder TitleDate
 Blank of a report card about diphtheria cases.n.d.
1033Blank of a report card about diphtheria cases.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 List of equipment in a medical office.n.d.
1034List of equipment in a medical office.n.d.

Subseries 4: Performing Arts and Sports,  n.d., 1940-1941

Arrangement:

Partially chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 4 holds folders pertaining to performing arts and sports events that took place in the ghetto. Several folders hold documents concerning events for children. Most documents contain information about concert performances, but there is also information on a puppet theatre, a children’s camp, and soccer games.

This subseries also documents the cultural life of the ghetto, mainly by numerous programs of concerts and stage productions. Included are handwritten programs of twenty-nine symphony concerts which were performed by a sizeable orchestra and soloists in the ghetto auditorium called the Culture House (folder 1037-1039).

Folder TitleDate
 Music Circle at the Agricultural Group Slonce (Sun). Poster of a concert by the circle’s orchestra.1940 July 27
1035Music Circle at the Agricultural Group Slonce (Sun). Poster of a concert by the circle’s orchestra.1940 July 27
Folder TitleDate
 The Hazomir Society. Posters of three symphonic concerts by the orchestra and choruses of the society conducted by M. Darguzanski and T. Rydel.1940 Oct.-1940 Dec.
1036The Hazomir Society. Posters of three symphonic concerts by the orchestra and choruses of the society conducted by M. Darguzanski and T. Rydel.1940 Oct.-1940 Dec.
Folder TitleDate
 Culture House. Programs of twenty-nine symphonic concerts performed between March 26, 1941 and August 12, 1942, handwritten, Yiddish, German. Performers include: a symphony orchestra, conductors David Beigelman and Teodor Rydel, soloists Bronislawa Rotsztadt, S. Senior (violinists), A. Brin, G. Berliner, Mina Ber, Herbert Walters (singers), H. Frajlich, Leopold Birkenfeld, Kurt Behr, Lily Brandler (pianists), 0. Reske, N. Lobosicky, E. Wachtel, A. Spielman (string quartet). The programs consisted of the basic concert repertoire including symphonies by Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Tchaikovsky and Brahms, piano concertos by Mozart, orchestral and vocal fragments from operas by Halevy, Puccini, Moniuszko, Rossini, Verdi, music of the Jewish composers Achron, Ajzenman, Beigelman and Jablon, instrumental and chamber music.1941 Mar. 26-1942 Aug. 12
1037Culture House. Programs of twenty-nine symphonic concerts performed between March 26, 1941 and August 12, 1942, handwritten, Yiddish, German. Performers include: a symphony orchestra, conductors David Beigelman and Teodor Rydel, soloists Bronislawa Rotsztadt, S. Senior (violinists), A. Brin, G. Berliner, Mina Ber, Herbert Walters (singers), H. Frajlich, Leopold Birkenfeld, Kurt Behr, Lily Brandler (pianists), 0. Reske, N. Lobosicky, E. Wachtel, A. Spielman (string quartet). The programs consisted of the basic concert repertoire including symphonies by Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Tchaikovsky and Brahms, piano concertos by Mozart, orchestral and vocal fragments from operas by Halevy, Puccini, Moniuszko, Rossini, Verdi, music of the Jewish composers Achron, Ajzenman, Beigelman and Jablon, instrumental and chamber music.1941 Mar. 26-1942 Aug. 12
Folder TitleDate
 Culture House. Handwritten poster for a symphonic concert.[1941] Apr. 23
1038Culture House. Handwritten poster for a symphonic concert.[1941] Apr. 23
Folder TitleDate
 Culture House. Handwritten program for a revue performance, directed by M. Pulawer. Texts by Broderson, Mani Leib, Joachimowicz and Janowski. Music by Beigelman.1941 Oct. 8
1039Culture House. Handwritten program for a revue performance, directed by M. Pulawer. Texts by Broderson, Mani Leib, Joachimowicz and Janowski. Music by Beigelman.1941 Oct. 8
Folder TitleDate
 Studio Avangard. A handwritten program of the revue performance Yjdn shmidn, directed by M. Pulawer.1940
1040Studio Avangard. A handwritten program of the revue performance Yjdn shmidn, directed by M. Pulawer.1940
Folder TitleDate
 Narrator’s notes for an unidentified revue performance. Includes jokes about ghetto life.[n.d.?]
1041Narrator’s notes for an unidentified revue performance. Includes jokes about ghetto life.[n.d.?]
Folder TitleDate
 Children’s camp in Marysin. Handwritten program of an artistic performance on the first anniversary of the camp’s existence.1941 Aug. 15
1042Children’s camp in Marysin. Handwritten program of an artistic performance on the first anniversary of the camp’s existence.1941 Aug. 15
Folder TitleDate
 Program of an unidentified children’s performance, handwritten and illustrated.[n.d.?]
1043Program of an unidentified children’s performance, handwritten and illustrated.[n.d.?]
Folder TitleDate
 Puppet theatre “Hadgadyo,” directed by W. Brauner. Invitation to the premiere of Tsigedrikt, a variety show.n.d.
1044Puppet theatre “Hadgadyo,” directed by W. Brauner. Invitation to the premiere of Tsigedrikt, a variety show.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
 Poster about scheduled games by ten soccer teams in the ghetto.1940 Sept.
1045Poster about scheduled games by ten soccer teams in the ghetto.1940 Sept.

Subseries 5: Department of Schools,  1939-1941

Arrangement:

Chronological.

Scope and Content:

Subseries 5 is comprised of two folders, one of which lists statistics on the student population in the ghetto, the other is a sample of a summons sent to parents to encourage them to send their children to school.

Folder TitleDate
 Statistics of students in all types of schools in the Lódz ghetto.1939-1941
1046Statistics of students in all types of schools in the Lódz ghetto.1939-1941
Folder TitleDate
 Sample of a summons for parents to send their children to school.1941
1047Sample of a summons for parents to send their children to school.1941
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F: ICONOGRAPHY, 1939-1947

Arrangement:

Divided into the following series:

Series XII: Albums, undated, 1939-1942

Series XII is in Yiddish, German, and Hebrew.
1.8 linear foot
Scope and Content:

The seven albums of Series 12 were prepared by the Department of Statistics. They glorify the work of the ghetto administration and especially the good deeds of Rumkowski. However, despite their obvious function as aggrandizement of Rumkowski’s regime, these albums implicitly tell another story of ghetto life. Children’s drawings in one album depict school kitchens, plates, spoons and children carrying a bowl of soup. Rumkowski is lauded by these children for the “schoolmeals” which “give us strength” and “sweeten our lot” ( folder 1049). Many photographs about the work of the Department of Health show patients suffering from edema (folder 1050). The album devoted to the Relief Department contains vivid photographs of poverty in the ghetto. There is a very interesting album of contact prints, which contains 3,000 images arranged in groups by subject. Most probably this album (which is marked “vol. 3”) was part of the control file of all pictures taken by ghetto photographers in the employ of the Department of Statistics.

Folder TitleDate
1048“Relief Department,” 23 p., end missing, Yiddish. Text occupies the right half of each page. It describes the situation of the needy in the ghetto prior to the establishment of the Relief Department on 9/20/1940, the receipt of a German loan of two million Marks and the work of the department. On the left-hand side of each page are photographs and watercolor illustrations. Twenty-five photographs show the department’s offices on Dworska Street, the staff at work, applicants lined up on the street, allowances being paid at the post office and a postal worker delivering an allowance to a mother surrounded by her children. The watercolors illustrate the Jewish ethic of tsedaka (charity) and the meaning of relief in the ghetto. Images include: a plate, a fork and a pot of hot soup, an envelope containing the relief allowance and marked with the Star of David, a dove in flight bringing an envelope, a four-wheeled cart being unloaded, a cart loaded with boxes being pushed by an old women and a barefoot boy, an old man eating soup, seamstresses bent over their sewing machines, an ornate menorah with burning candles for Chanukkah, 1940, people waiting at the Relief Department. All the people are painted wearing a yellow star on their clothes.n.d. [1940?]
Folder TitleDate
1049Album presented to Rumkowski by the Schools Department on the eve of Rosh Hashanah 5702 (September 1941). Elaborately bound in wood-reinforced leather. A metal Star of David is fastened to the wood cover. Page two is made of parchment and contains a calligraphed dedication in Hebrew with signatures of the department officials S. Lev, A. Tabaksblat, M. Karo, A. S. Kamieniecki and S. Bunin. The album contains signatures of 14,587 students and 715 teachers from all the elementary and high schools “which were established by you in the Litzmannstadt Ghetto.” New Year wishes are expressed separately by each of the forty-three elementary schools, two high schools and one vocational school. The dedications are written in black and red ink and are decorated with vignettes or drawings made by the children themselves. Rumkowski is addressed as “our father,” “provider,” and is thanked for the “school meals” which “give us strength” and “sweeten our lot.” Many of the drawings show school kitchens, plates, spoons, and children carrying a bowl of soup. The elaborate dedication from elementary school No. 19B shows a large Star of David surrounded by a graphic representation of twelve ghetto departments or institutions: police, milk store, post office, fire brigade, etc. The dedication from the Talmud Torah in Marysin II is ornamented with a watercolor of poroykhes (curtains of the Holy Ark) and two menorahs; below, an angel is carrying the scales on which Rumkowski’s deeds are weighed (the good deeds being the Talmud Torah, the meals, etc.). Each dedication is followed by signatures of students and teachers. NOTE: While the dedication on p. 2 refers to 14,587 signatures, the cumulative figure shown on the last page of the album is 13,963.1941 Sept.
Folder TitleDate
1050Das Erizehungswerk in Marysin, Litzmannstadt Ghetto, 1940- 1941 (Education Work In Marysin), 60 p., bound. Contains diagrams, photographs and photo collages. Captions in German. Prepared by the Statistics Department, the album depicts the activities of various institutions at the children’s colony in Marysin The introduction states that the album shows the light-heartedness of the children at the colony, “where they live a different kind of life.” The photographs show children at their daily chores, at play, in class-rooms, doing calisthenics, receiving medical treatment, as well as a performance, an exhibition of toys, Rumkowski with the children, and a visiting day at the colony. The statistical diagrams contain data on students, housing, education, medical assistance and expenditures.1940-1941
Folder TitleDate
1051Das Erziehungswerk in Litzmannstadt Ghetto. I band: das Schulwesen (Education in the Litzmannstadt Ghetto. Volume I: The School System), 1942, 86 p. (after p. 30 the next page number is 40; last page number is 95), bound in heavy linen. A bronze emblem depicting an open book crowned by the flame from an oil-burning vessel, is affixed to the lower right-hand side of the cover. All calligraphed text is in German. The album was prepared by the Statistical Department. It contains photographs, collages, photostats of announcements, clippings from the Geto-tsaytung, school diplomas, statistical diagrams, maps, etc. Describes the development of the ghetto school system from the beginning of the school year 1939-1940 until September 1941. The statistical and visual material is arranged as follows:
Introduction
Photo-collage of a boy drawing a chalk portrait of Rumkowski (p. 6)
Jewish schools at the beginning of the German occupation of Lódz (pp. 8,9)
Schools in the ghetto at the time of its being sealed off, May 1940 (pp. 15 - 19)
The children’s colony in Marysin and the day camps, 1940 (pp. 21 -43)
Children’s physical exercises (pp. 49 - 52)
A map of the ghetto showing school locations in August 1940 with attendance statistics (pp. 53-55)
Supplemental feeding program (pp. 56, 57)
Students who graduated (p. 60)
Rumkowski’s reforms (the introduction of Yiddish as the language of instruction and an increase of Judaic subjects in the curriculum, pp. 62- 67)
Attendance and graduating (pp. 69- 78)
Teachers (p. 79)
Cleanliness and health (pp. 80 - 85)
Rumkowski with the children at a Lag B’omer and a Chanukkah celebration (pp. 90 - 95).
1939-1942
Folder TitleDate
1052Gesundheits Abteilung, Mai 1940 – 3 Marz 1942 (Health Department), 52 p., bound in blue linen. Captions in Yiddish and German. Photographs and photo-montages of: ghetto hospitals II, III and IV and children’s hospital VII in Marysin; dispensaries; bacteriology and analysis laboratory. Pictures on page 14 show medical examination of patients suffering from edema. Statistics and diagrams on the movement of patients. Clippings from the Geto-tsaytung.1940-1942
Folder TitleDate
1053The Textiles Division. Album (fragment) presented to Rumkowski probably during the division’s anniversary celebration on January 17, 1942, 6 p. Photographs, text in German. Includes photographs of David Warszawski, head of the division, and members of his staff. Photographs of rags, of finished products made from rags, of the workshops.[1942?]
Folder TitleDate
1054Album of contact photos, [vol.] III, signed “Baum Juda,” 106 p. (numbered 1 -101, including 25a, 43a, 73a, 83a). It contains 3000 images, each one identified by a reel and exposure number. Arranged as follows:
Registration offices (pp. 1 - 9)
Secretariat (p. 10)
Post Office, (p. 11)
Children’s camps (pp. 12 - 24)
Management (Vorstand) of Marysin II (pp. 25 - 25a)
Kitchens Department (p. 26)
Ration Cards Department (pp. 27 - 28)
Dietetic stores (p. 29)
Transportation Department (p. 30)
Relief Department (p. 31)
Old-Age Home (p. 32)
Central Prison (p. 33)
Health Department (pp. 34-45)
Milk kitchen for children (p. 46)
Resettlement Department (p. 47)
Employment Commission (p. 48)
Textiles Division (pp.49-67)
Clothing and Linen Division (pp. 67 - 70)
Paper Products Division (p. 71)
Metal Division (pp. 72, 86)
Electrical Division (pp., 73, 73a)
Rag Shoe and Slipper Division (pp. 74, 88)
Printing Division (p. 75)
Biebow with three other German officials (p. 75a)
Individuals and groups (pp. 83, 83a)
Corpses (pp. 84-85)
Rumkowski’s offices on the Balut Ring (p. 87)
Furs Division (p. 89)
Tailors’ Division (pp. 90-91)
Hatters’ Division (p. 92)
Corset and Brassiere Division (p. 93)
Applied Arts workshops (p. 94)
Quilted Blanket Division (p. 95)
Chemical Laundry (p. 96)
Rubber Products Division (p. 97)
Leather Division (p. 98)
Knitting Division (p. 99)
Art Works (pp. 100, 101)
n.d.

Series XIII: Photographs,  undated, 1940-1947

1.25 linear feet
Arrangement:

The numbers of images are in parentheses.

Scope and Content:

Series 13 contains several hundred photographic images made by ghetto photographers Mendel Grossman, Henryk Ross, Maliniak (“Foto Kasprowy”) and Nachman Zonabend. There are also photographs taken by Nazis. Although the photographers (except for Zonabend) officially worked for the Department of Statistics, they took many photographs on their own without submitting them to their superiors. These photographs provide a stunning illustration of the ghetto’s history from its beginning to the day when Rumkowski and his family boarded the train which took them to their deaths in Auschwitz.

Folder TitleDate
1055Establishment of the ghetto (13).
Poles leaving the ghetto area; Jews entering the ghetto.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1056 Ordnungsdienst (2).
Includes the watch at the Baluty Market, a meeting point for Jewish and German police.
1940 Nov.
Folder TitleDate
1057Firemen and chimney sweeps (6).
Including chimney sweeps at a roll call; a fire at the communal bath.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1058Transportation Department (7).
The tramway crew; men hauling wagons.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1059Sewage removal (10).
Excrement haulers (“fecalists”) at work: a family hauling a cart children pulling a cart.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1060The ghetto Post Office Office (7).
Includes a group photo of the postal workers; customers waiting in line to have their letters written in German; censors at work.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1061The ghetto court (3).
Includes the inauguration of the ghetto court: Rabbi Yosef Feiner and Rumkowski as the judges.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1062Statistics Department (1).n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1063Relief distribution (4).
Nachman Zonabend delivering monthly relief payment to the recipients.
1941
Folder TitleDate
1064Health care (27).
Photographs of medical personnel. Men standing outside a quarantined house.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1065Old age home (6).n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1066Communal bath (1).
Emaciated men taking a shower.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1067Labor divisions and workshops (27).
Includes shoe factory, carpet shop, metal shops, tailor shop, hatters' shop, sewing repair workshop, electrical works division, textile factory, leather shop.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1068Forced labor (4).
Conscripted workers paving a street in the ghetto.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1069Exhibits about ghetto industry (7).n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1070Food provisioning: distribution stores (6).
Bread line at the bakery; a distribution store, diet store, vegetable store; a group of the “white guard,” i.e., ghetto bakers.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1071Food provisioning: distribution of soup (2).
Waiting in line at the soup kitchens; eating soup in the street.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1072Food provisioning: potatoes and vegetables (5).
Includes women looking for potato peels.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1073Agriculture (3).
Includes hakhsara group.
1940
Folder TitleDate
1074Fuel provision (12).
Children, known as “coal miners,” searching for bits of coal; children hauling home sacks of coal rations; people taking apart a wooden house.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1075Street trading (13).
Includes trading in the early days of the ghetto; selling bread; children selling homemade candy; trading in ration coupons.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1076People of the ghetto (30).
Images of individuals and groups.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1077Children (6).
Includes a boy fainting from hunger on the street, children going to work.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1078Child care (25).
Includes the ghetto orphanage, summer camps, “Yankele has received a Chanukkah gift - sweets from Rumkowski.”
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1079Ghetto street scenes (22).
Includes the bridges, crossing points and street performances.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1080Performing arts (4).
Includes a performance of Yidn shmidn, a variety show; the first musical society Slonce; Theodor Rydel conducting the symphony orchestra.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1081Schools (2).n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1082Sports (1).n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1083Religious life (9).
Includes praying during the High Holy Days; the remains of the Baluty synagogue; baking matzos; a ghetto wedding.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1084Plunder of Jewish property (7).n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1085Mortality (8).
Includes the ghetto cemetery and a cart loaded with corpses.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1086Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski (33).
Includes Rumkowski’s portraits; a visit to the Warsaw ghetto; with Moniek Merin of Sosnowiec on the occasion of Merin’s visit to Lódz; with German officials including Biebow; at various events; delivering speeches; entering the train to Auschwitz in August, 1944; artistic renditions of Rumkowski.
n.d., 1944
Folder TitleDate
1087Hans Biebow (2).
In the ghetto; at his trial in Lódz.
1947
Folder TitleDate
1088Persecutions and killings (8).
Including public executions in the ghetto.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1089Resettlement to the ghetto of “Western” Jews (5).
Includes transports from Prague arriving in the ghetto and a conference of representatives of the “new arrivals” with Rumkowski.
n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1090Resettlement from the town of Brzeziny [Breziny] (1).1942 May 24
Folder TitleDate
1091Deportations to the Chelmno death camp, January - May, 1942 (18).
Assembling at the Central Prison (assembly center) and the march to the train.
1942 Jan.-1942 May
Folder TitleDate
1092The Gesperre: deportation of children, elderly and infirm, September, 1942 (17).
Includes scenes of attempted escape and capture, as well as bodies of the victims killed during the action.
1942 Sept.
Folder TitleDate
1093Deportations of 1944 (6).
Includes deportation to Czestochowa, February 15, for forced labor, and deportations to Chelmno in June.
[1944?]
Folder TitleDate
1094Deportations, undated (22).n.d. [1942]
Folder TitleDate
1095Lódz after liberation (9).1945
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G: MISCELLANEOUS, undated, 1940-1944

Arrangement:

Divided into two series:

Series XIV: Personal Documents, n.d., 1940-1944

This series is in Yiddish, German, Polish, and English.
0.16 linear foot
Arrangement:

Alphabetical by last name of individual.

Scope and Content:

This series holds items of a personal nature from various ghetto inhabitants. Several folders contain permits or appeals for permission for such requests as apartment changes, to take photographs, denial of permission to leave the ghetto, and permission for Nachman Zonabend to retain his fur coat. Other items include graduation certificates for several graduates of the Lyceum for the Humanities and employment ID cards.

Folder TitleDate
1096Ajlenberg. New Year’s wishes on a telegram blank of the ghetto post officen.d.
Folder TitleDate
1097Bajn, Sura Rojza and Miriam, seamstresses. Employment I.D. cardsn.d.
Folder TitleDate
1098Berlinski, N. Postcard received from Sokolow Maloposki in the General Governmentn.d.
Folder TitleDate
1099Berman, Majer. Permission to change his apartment, signed by Rumkowski; employment I.D. card from the Construction Department; letter from the Personnel Department about promotion; letter awarding one week’s vacation in the Marysin Rest Home; letter allowing Majer Berman to retain his fur coat, signed by Rumkowski; statement about Majer Berman’s wages; letters from various departments requesting assistance in construction matters; invitations to the following: variety show by the Special Unit (Sonderabteilung), variety show by the Ordnungsdienst, performance by apprentices in the shoe factory, anniversary celebration of the Textile Division, exhibition of the Sorting Division; New Year’s wishes typed on the telegram blanks of the ghetto post office; receipts for rent and firewood; also, employment I.D. card of Samuel Berman.[n.d.?]
Folder TitleDate
1100Blumenfeld, Chaim. Letter of transmittal of 16 Mk sent by a relative from Zawiercie. Also an English translation of the letter.1940 Aug. 30
Folder TitleDate
1101Bornstein, Mieczyslaw. Graduation diploma from the Lyceum for the Humanities.1941 Sept. 26
Folder TitleDate
1102Dubner, Izrael. Certificate of graduation to second grade in the Lyceum for the Humanities during the school year 1940-1941.[1940-1941]
Folder TitleDate
1103Eliasberg, Roman. Certificate of graduation to second grade in the Lyceum for the Humanities during the school year 1940-1941.[1940-1941]
Folder TitleDate
1104Epstein, Reisel. Correspondence regarding her request for permission to leave the Lódz ghetto for Jaslo in the General Government where her family resides. Correspondents include: her family in Jaslo; Department of Internal Administration, Kraków (Cracow) district; Police in Litzmannstadt; Labor Department, Litzmannstadt. The request was refused.1940 Dec. 6-1941 May 3
Folder TitleDate
1105Grossman, Mendel. Permit to take photographs in the ghetto streets for the Department of Statistics.1944 Jan. 21
Folder TitleDate
1106Kliger, S. Permission to occupy a room, signed by Rumkowski.1940 June 24
Folder TitleDate
1107Morawiecka, Rajzla and Fiszman, Dawid. Decision about assigning an apartment, letter from the Personnel Department about employment in the Felt Shoe Division; invitation to the anniversary celebration of the Hatters’ Division; invitation to the anniversary celebration of the Textile Division; letter awarding one week’s vacation in the Marysin Rest Home; permit to walk in the ghetto streets during the Gesperre.1942 Sept. 4
Folder TitleDate
1108Praszkier, Boruch. Authorization by Rumkowski to pick up “unnecessary” items which may be of use to the Community.1940 June 26
Folder TitleDate
1109Rotszajn, Jakob, wagon driver. I.D. card.1943 Dec. 12
Folder TitleDate
1110Sonnabend (Zonabend), Nachman. Permit to retain his fur coat as ghetto letter carrier, signed by Rumkowski.[n.d.?]
Folder TitleDate
1111Staw, Brajndla. Certificate of graduation to second grade in the Lyceum for the Humanities during the school year 1940-1941.[1940-1941]
Folder TitleDate
1112Zelkowicz, Josef. Authorization to secure the library of Rabbi Treistmann and put it in order, signed by H. Neftalin.1942 June 16
Folder TitleDate
1113Zylberberg, Estera. Employee I.D. card from the corset workshop.1943

Series XV: Miscellaneous, n.d

This series is in German and Yiddish.
0.8 linear foot
Scope and Content:

Series XV contains various items such as armbands and patches, a membership card, advertisements, a pharmacy label, and a sign. Armbands and patches include those worn by residents, Ordnungdienst, and Fire Brigade members.

Folder TitleDate
1114Pharmacy, S. Kon & Co. Blank prescription label.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1115Accounting Courses, Henryk Lubinski. Advertisement about new courses.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1116Application preparation, correspondence, etc. A private advertisement.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1117Kadimah Jewish Sports Club. Blank membership card.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1118“Keep clean,” a sign on a wooden board, in Yiddish and German.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1119Armbands and yellow patches worn in the Lódz ghetto: Ordnungsdienst armband, white and yellow with a dark blue Star of David; Ordnungsdienst patch, yellow and blue Star of David; Fire Brigade armband, white and yellow divided by a red line, a brass Star of David on a red background superimposed on the armband, firemen’s tools are cut out in a circle in the middle of the star, yellow star with black inscription Jude.n.d.
Folder TitleDate
1120Miscellaneous.n.d.
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