Guide to the Papers of Louis Lipsky (1876-1963), undated, 1898-1976


Processed by Louise Sandberg

American Jewish Historical Society

Center for Jewish History

15 West 16th Street

New York, N.Y. 10011

Phone: (212) 294-6160



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Machine-readable finding aid created by Adina Wachman as MicrosoftWord document, September 2001. Finding aid converted to EAD 1.0 by Inna Giter, September 2001. Description is in English.
April 2005. Converted to EAD 2002. Revised as LouisLipsky02.xml by Tanya Elder. Removed deprecated elements and attributes, updated repository codes, added language codes, changed doctype declaration, removed boilerplate entities, etc. January 2006. Entities removed from EAD finding aid.

Descriptive summary

Creator: Lipsky, Louis, 1876-1963
Title: Louis Lipsky Papers
Abstract: Louis Lipsky (1876-1963) was a noted Zionist leader, journalist and writer. The collection contains personal correspondence, memoranda, speeches, magazine and newspaper articles, manuscripts, drafts of books, and organizational materials concerning the Zionist movement and various Jewish organizations.
Languages: The collection is in English, Yiddish, Hebrew and German.
Quantity: 22 boxes (10.5 linear feet)
Accession number: P- 672
Repository: American Jewish Historical Society
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Biographical Note

Louis Lipsky, noted Zionist leader, journalist and author, was born in Rochester, N.Y. in 1876 one of 11 children to Polish immigrant parents. The family came from a town called Philipova, a village near Suwalk. The Jewish community was almost entirely made up of landsmen from this area of Poland and much of the gentile Polish immigrants were also from the same area. Louis' father, Jacob Lipsky, came to America in 1874 to join his brother Isaac and two sisters. He was the second shochet (kosher butcher) in the community. Louis' mother came in 1875 with his older brother Abram. Louis was the first child born in America.

When brother Abram left for college, Louis took over his job as a freelance reporter for The Herald, a Rochester Newspaper. During this time he also worked as a law clerk with intention of becoming an attorney. In 1899, with the help of a well-to-do friend of his father's he acquired $300 to start a weekly periodical in his hometown, called The Shofar. Abram wrote sermons and Louis wrote the stories. Philip Cowen, publisher of The American Hebrew, saw a copy of The Shofar and brought Louis to New York City in March of 1900. The Shofar lasted for 13 months until the money ran out. That same year, 1900, LL became the managing editor of The American Hebrew. He also registered at Columbia University as a special student taking an eclectic course without a fixed curriculum. He would have been a member of the class of 1902 if he had graduated. LL remained with The American Hebrew for 14 years. During those years he was fascinated by the Yiddish theater and was caught up in a literary circle that included Mary Antin, Harry Scherman, Rita Scherman, and Charlotte Schacht (his future wife). When he married Charlotte in 1906 these friendships seem to be supplanted entirely by Zionist colleagues. In 1901 Dr. Stephen Wise asked LL to edit an new magazine called The Maccabean (later The New Palestine) under the aegis of the Federation of American Zionists. LL was chosen for the post because he had written an account of the Zionist Convention in The American Hebrew that was the first time Zionism made the American press. This was the first Zionist publication in the English language. He remained editor for one year and passed the position on to Jacob de Haas who was also secretary of the FAZ. His association continued with the FAZ and to a large degree he set the pattern of Zionist policy in the United States in these early years. When de Haas retired LL became editor again.

During these years he also served on the Campaign Committee chaired by Oscar Straus for Teddy Roosevelt, he was a press agent for Harry Scherman and Herman Bernstein, and was commissioned to write a play by Louis Mann. He was also editor of The Jewish Herald for 3 months. He was secretary for Leo N. Levi, then National President of B'nai B’rith. He started writing for the secular press including pieces in The Reader, The Sunday Morning Telegraph, and The New York Daily Press. He translated the stories of Isaac Leib Peretz. In 1914 he became Secretary, a salaried position, of the Federation of American Zionists.

He was secretary then chairman of the Federation of American Zionists that became ZOA in 1917. Involved in the Brandeis-Weizmann rift, Lipsky supported Weizmann concerning financial support and control of Jewish Palestine. From 1922-1930 LL was President of ZOA.

From 1930-1959 he was President of the Eastern Life Insurance Co.

He was a founder of Keren HaYesod, also called the Palestine Foundation Fund and later incorporated into the Jewish Agency for Palestine. He was active in the United Palestine Appeal, and the American Zionist Council, in 1915 he advocated the establishment of the American Jewish Congress, in 1918 the American Jewish Congress became a reality. He later served as Vice President and Chairman.

During the years 1934-1945 LL channeled his energies to save Europe's Jews. Collaborating with Stephen Wise in the American Jewish Congress LL worked diligently trying to save Jewish lives. He wrote the rules and supervised the operation. He was keynote speaker at the first session of the World Jewish Congress in 1936. During this period he served as Vice President and later, Chairman of the Administrative Committee and Chairman of the Executive Committee.

After the war he fought the British over the partition of Palestine, against Arab interests in the United Nations, and against divisive elements in American Judaism. In 1954 he chaired the Committee For Public Affairs of the American Jewish Congress. In the 1950s he retired from the American Jewish Congress. In 1955 he formulated the idea of an organization to offer support to Israel but have no part in politics. This viewpoint found some expression in the League for Israel. He retired from active participation in any organization except for the Weizmann Institute of Science in 1956. That same year he delivered the address on the occasion of the 4th anniversary of Weizmann's death.

In 1906 he married Charlotte Schacht, who was herself a founding member of the American Women’s Division of the Organization for Rehabilitation through Training (ORT). His sons were: Eleazar Lipsky, 1912- , head of the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, NYC ; Joel Carmichael, 1915- , author of The Shaping of the Arabs (1967), A Short History of the Russian Revolution (1964), and Death of Jesus (1962); and David.

Lipsky authored books, short stories, essays, plays, book reviews, and drama criticism. Among his works are: 30 Years of American Zionism, Stories of Jewish Life, Shields of Honor (1927), A Gallery of Zionist Profiles (1956), and Tales of the Yiddish Realto.


1876, November 30 Born, Rochester, N.Y.
1899 Began producing The Shofar. 13 issues
1900-1914 Became manager of The American Hebrew in New York City
1900 Took courses at Columbia University
1901-1918 Editor of The Maccabean with brief intermissions. First Zionist publication in the U.S. in English
1902-1913 Wrote short stories, essays, plays, book reviews and drama critiques. Translated I.L Peretz from Yiddish. Contributed material to the New York Morning Telegraph.
1903 Secretary to Leo N. Levi, President of B'nai B'rith; ran a Boys Club on the Lower East Side
1906 Married Charlotte Schach
1912 Became Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Federation of American Zionists (in 1917 to become Zionist Organization of America)
1913 Attended World Zionist Congress in Vienna; visited London and made contact with English Zionists
1913-1946 Attended all Congresses with the exception of the one in 1939
1914 Accepted the first paid position in Zionist movement-Secretary of FAZ. Resigned his post as editor of The American Hebrew. Called for Extraordinary Conference of Zionists. Brandeis entered the movement at this time
1915 Named Chairman of the Executive Committee of FAZ.
1915-1921 Served as Chairman of FAZ to become ZOA in 1917
1915-1949 Led struggle for Jews to organize locally and nationally and to elect their own spokesmen
1915-1917 Active participant to secure American support for the Balfour Declaration
1916 Attended preliminary meeting of AJC in Philadelphia
1920 With Chaim Weizmann established the Keren Hayesod as the fund raising instrument of WZO. Split with Brandeis over Keren Hayesod. Brandeis favored independent organizations
1921 Defeated Brandeis at the Cleveland Convention causing a split in the movement. Founded The New Palestine as an instrument to support the Keren Hayesod. He was its first editor
1922 Elected chairman of National Executive Committee of ZOA at its convention
1922-1930 Chairman of ZOA
1923 Served on Executive Committee of WZO
1924 Founded in London The New Judea as official organ of WZO. J. Hodess was the editor. Visited Palestine for the first time
1926-1930 Elected President of ZOA
1926 Brought Habimah to the U.S
1927 As President of ZOA paid expenses of Habimah to go to Palestine where they established Israel's national theater. This created a furor in the U.S. that nearly cost him the presidency. Collected writings were published in three volumes
1930-1954 Left ZOA as paid official, but served, on call, without pay, as propagandist, speaker, planner, and organizer traveling throughout the U.S. and Europe
1930-1959 President of Judean Insurance Co. (later to become the Eastern Life Insurance Co.)
1933-1946 Served as a member of the Executive Committee of the Jewish Agency for Palestine
1934 Elected Vice President of AJC; served also as Chairman of its Governing Council and head of its National Administrative Council
1934-1945 Actively worked with Stephen Wise with the American Jewish Council to organize America against Hitler. Worked to open doors for Jewish immigration into Palestine
1936 With Wise and Goldman founded the World Jewish Congress. Co-Chairman of UFA
1940Co-Chair with Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver of UPA; Co-Chair of Keren HaYesod; Chairman of the General Council of the American Jewish Congress
1941 Fought to have Palestine secure a place in the rescuing of Jews
1943 Named Chairman of the Board of Elections for the American Jewish Congress, devising rules of procedure whereby Jewish communities through democratic elections to form the AJC as the spokesman for a united Jewish community to aid in the up building of post war Jewish Palestine. Served as the Chairman of the Committee of Five Session supervising the conduct of 3 day sessions
1943-1947 Principal factor in mobilizing American opinion to open the doors of Palestine to survivors of the Holocaust
1944 Elected Co-Chair of the Interim Committee of the American Jewish Congress together with Henry Monsky and Dr. Israel Goldstein
1945 Made two trips to London to confer with Weizmann and other Zionist leaders to help bring survivors to Palestine. Headed AJC delegation to the organizing conference of the UN in San Francisco to press for the creation of a Jewish state
1945-1949 Served as Co-Chairman of the Interim Committee and Chairman of the Executive Committee of the American Jewish Congress
1947-1949 Headed movement, through the American Jewish Congress, to prevent rescinding of American support for partition
1949-1954 Chairman of the American Zionist Council, representing all branches of the Zionist movement in the US to mobilize with US help to protect the new state of Israel
1950 Visited Israel for first time
1954 Chairman of American Zionist Committee for Public Affairs later American Israel Committee for Public Affairs, an instrument to build a viable state
1956, November 12Principle speaker at the Chaim Weizmann Memorial Lecture: “Herzl, Weizmann and the Jewish State.” Made an Honorary Fellow of the Institute
1956 Published A Gallery of Zionist Portraits
1959 Retired as President of The Eastern Life Insurance Company
1960 Became Honorary Chairman of the Board of the Eastern Life Insurance Company
1962 Published Tales of the Yiddish Realto stories of the Yiddish theater at the turn of century
1963 Died, New York City.
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Scope and Content Note

The papers of Louis Lipsky (LL) contain correspondence, memoranda, speeches, articles in magazines and newspapers, manuscripts, and organizational materials concerning the Zionist movement and various Jewish organizations. The collection is primarily in English, but there is some material in Yiddish, Hebrew, and German. The papers chronicle LL's commitment to Zionism and Jewish life from the end of the 19th century until his death in 1963.

Lipsky's early career as writer and journalist is portrayed in many articles and pamphlets published throughout his life. There are also drafts of the books A Gallery of Zionist Profiles and Yiddish Realto as well as published articles and unpublished plays. These manuscripts in addition to his early personal correspondence show a continuing interest throughout his career in the Yiddish theater and press.

Lipsky's personal life is documented by his correspondence covering the years 1898 to 1959. The early correspondence presents a picture of the intellectual and social life of the East European Jewish community in New York City in the early years of the century. His courtship of Rita Scherman and eventual marriage to Charlotte Schacht is chronicled. As he became more involved in Zionism there was extensive correspondence between Lipsky and his family when he was traveling on behalf of the cause. There are many letters concerning Lipsky's efforts to help fellow Jews all over the world during the turbulent 1930s. Other biographical information is contained in his memoirs, obituaries, tributes, and material from his years as president of Eastern Life Insurance Co.

His son, Eleazar Lipsky (EL), interlaces the collection with notes and comments on accompanying pages. EL had already started to index his father's personal correspondence and his index is included in the collection. The original order, where possible, has been maintained. The division into seven series is a consequence of that order. A list of organizations Lipsky was involved in and some of the people with whom he corresponded follow.

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The collection is organized in 7 series:

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Access and Use

Access Restrictions

The collection is open to all researchers by permission of the Director of Collections and Engagement of the American Jewish Historical Society, except items that are restricted due to their fragility.

Use Restrictions

There may be some restrictions on the use of the collection. For more information, contact: American Jewish Historical Society, Center for Jewish History, 15 West 16th Street, New York, NY 10011
email: .

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Related Material

Related materials can be found in the Papers of Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Papers of Rabbis Jacob X. Cohen, the Records of the American Jewish Congress and the Papers of Philip Cowen. Additional material can be located in the Central Zionist Archives in Jerusalem, Israel and in the Records of the Zionist Organization of America in New York, New York.

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The Papers of Louis Lipsky were donated to AJHS by Eleazar and Hannah Lipsky and Joel Carmichael in 1993.

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Preferred Citation

Published citations should take the following form:
Identification of item, date (if known); Louis Lipsky Papers; P- 672; box number; folder number; American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY.

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Access Points

Click on a subject to search that term in the Center's catalog. Return to the Top of Page


Click the box in the request column to open the form that allows you to request a box for onsite viewing in the reading room at the Center for Jewish History, New York, NY.


Series I: Zionist Correspondence, undated, 1901-1920

3 linear feet

Materials are arranged chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Correspondence, memoranda, and various inserts to and from a variety of Zionist and Jewish organizations. Also includes the manuscripts of memoirs written by other Zionist figures.

12Federation of American Zionists, Harriet Szold1901request_box
13Society of Jewish Art1908request_box
14Federation of American Zionists1915request_box
15Letters from Weizmann to Balfour and Brandeis1917-1918request_box
16Zionist Organization of America1919-1920request_box
17Zionist Organization of America, Judge Mack1921request_box
18Zionist Organization of America, Judge Mack1922request_box
19Photocopies of ZOA correspondence from the National Zionist Archives 1924request_box
110Shekel Campaign1925request_box
111Shekel Campaign1926request_box
115Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt1930request_box
21Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt1931request_box
22Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt1932request_box
23Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt1933request_box
24Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt (1 of 2)1934request_box
25Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt (2 of 2)1934request_box
26Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt1935request_box
31American Jewish Congress (1 of 2)1935request_box
32American Jewish Congress (2 of 2)1935request_box
33American Jewish Congress1936request_box
34Order of the Sons of Zion (1 of 5)1936request_box
35Order of the Sons of Zion (2 of 5)1936request_box
36Order of the Sons of Zion (3 of 5)1936request_box
37Order of the Sons of Zion (4 of 5)1936request_box
38Order of the Sons of Zion (5 of 5)1936request_box
41Jewish National Fund "Night of Stars"1937request_box
42"Land of Promise" (film) (1 of 2)1937request_box
43"Land of Promise" (film) (2 of 2)1937request_box
44Draft "New Dominion and World Peace" Hyman R. Segal1937request_box
45Shekel Campaign (1 of 3)1937request_box
46Shekel Campaign (2 of 3)1937request_box
47Shekel Campaign (3 of 3)1937request_box
48Letter (with copy) from Weizmann December 4, 1937request_box
49Letter (with copy) from Weizmann1937request_box
410-11Pamphlet "Fight Partition"1937request_box
412Pamphlet "Fight Partition"1938request_box
51British Guiana, Letter from Lewis Zikman Harbin, China1939request_box
52HaBima, Louis Nizer, Louise Rainer1939request_box
53HaBima (1 of 3)1939request_box
54HaBima (2 of 3)1939request_box
55HaBima (3 of 3)1939request_box
56Jewish Palestine’s Pavilion at the World’s Fair1939request_box
57Includes play by H.J. Rahfish “Kibbuz”1939request_box
58General Jewish Council1939request_box
61General Jewish Council (1 of 2)1939request_box
62General Jewish Council (2 of 2)1939request_box
63Zionist Organization of AmericaFebruary 4, 1944request_box
64Zionist Organization of America1944-45request_box
65Includes draft of A.B. Cohen’s “Zionism and Forty-fort” 1950-59request_box
66Includes draft of Harry Sachar’s “A Small Memoir”; 4 rolls of stenorette recording tape; 2 rolls of stenorette tape magazine1960-63request_box
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Series II: Organizational Materials, undated, 1924-1964

1.25 linear feet

Materials are arranged chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Minutes, lists of officers and members, pamphlets, printed letters to members, memoranda, and budgets from various Zionist and Jewish organizations.

71Youth Zionist Organizationundatedrequest_box
72Achooza Alephundatedrequest_box
73Mizrachi undatedrequest_box
75Organization of American Jews in PalestineNovember 20, 1924request_box
76New Palestine1929, 1932request_box
77Zionist Organization of America1929request_box
78Zionist Convention1930request_box
79Jewish Agency of Palestine1930, 1936request_box
710Zionist Organization of America 1930request_box
711Palestine Immigration Bureau1931request_box
712National Avukah Agency1934, 1935request_box
713Women’s Emergency Council 1934request_box
714National Conference in Palestine1935request_box
715World Jewish Congress1935request_box
716American Jewish Congress1935, 1936request_box
717World Zionist Organization 1935-1964request_box
718Council for German Jewry1936request_box
719Palestine Economic Corporation1936request_box
720United Palestine AppealMay 1936request_box
81Talpioth Palestine Agency 1936request_box
8220th Zionist ConferenceJune 20, 1937request_box
83Palestine Foundation Fund 1937-1939request_box
84United Palestine Appeal1937request_box
85Jewish Palestine Exhibit at the World’s Fair1937request_box
86Joint Distribution Committee1939request_box
87National Refugee Service1939request_box
89United Jewish Appeal1939request_box
810American Jewish Committee1944request_box
811American Anglo Committee1944request_box
91National Council for the Weizmann InstituteNovember 29, 1951request_box
92American Zionist AssemblyDecember 5-7, 1953request_box
93Zionist Executive1956-1964request_box
94Palestine Appeal1961request_box
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Series III: Speeches, undated, 1923-1962

0.5 linear foot

Speeches are arranged chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Speeches that Louis Lipsky presented both live and on radio. Most of these speeches are concerned with Jewish and Zionist themes. There are two interviews included.

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Series IV: Publications, undated, 1901-1976

2 linear feet

Articles and correspondence arranged chronologically. Other materials are mixed.

Scope and Content:

Newspaper clippings, magazine articles, some photocopies, indexes, handwritten notes, drafts of both published and unpublished material, correspondence, and reviews. There are a number of drafts of unpublished plays. Listed below are publications represented in this series:

The American Hebrew. New York Jewish Weekly, 1879.

The Conservator

The Day. Yiddish Daily, 1914.

The Day.

Free World.

Jewish American.

Jewish Daily Forward. Yiddish Daily, 1897.

The Jewish Home for Boys and Girls. (formerly Helpful Thoughts.)

The Maccabean.

National Jewish Ledger.The New Palestine, periodical of the ZOA.

The Reader Magazine.

The Telegraph.

Yiddisher Arbeiter.

World Jewry, independent weekly journal, London.


Zionist Issues.

111Index (by EL?)1901-1962request_box
113Drafts - Day of Reckoning 1958-1962request_box
114Drafts of articles1936-1944request_box
115Drafts of articles1932-1936request_box
116Drafts of articles1926-1933request_box
117Drafts (Yiddish Rialto?)undatedrequest_box
118Draft - The Faded Rose, play typed and bound1910request_box
119Draft - Vengeance: A Drama in One act1911request_box
1110The Darnado Film Co.: A Prospectus1914request_box
121Drafts - Yiddish Theater and Pressundatedrequest_box
123Articles1908 (7)request_box
125Articles1908 (8)request_box
126Articles1909 (3)request_box
1211-14Drafts - Profiles (published in 1956)undatedrequest_box
1320Herzl, Weizmann, and the Jewish State1956request_box
141Drafts for memoirs1962request_box
142Drafts of articles1940-1959request_box
143Drafts of articles undatedrequest_box
144Drafts of articles1936request_box
145A Record of Stewardship: 16 Years of the Palestine Foundation Fund1937request_box
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Series V: Clippings, 1919-1971

0.5 linear foot

Clippings arranged chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Newspaper clippings and pamphlets with Zionist and Jewish interest not necessarily written by Louis Lipsky.

151New York Times, Jerusalem Post, New Palestine1919-1971request_box
152The IndexJune 1922request_box
153PalestineOctober 14, 1936request_box
154Rosenblatt, Bernard. The American Solution to the Palestine ProblemApril 1937request_box
155The ReconstructionistMay 5, 1939request_box
156The Day1940-1944request_box
157Jewish Journal1952request_box
158YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Science1965request_box
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Series VI: Biographical Information, undated, 1917-1976

1 linear foot

Arrangement is mixed: topical and chronological.

Scope and Content:

Copy of memoirs written by Louis Lipsky in 1962 with the table of contents form his book Profiles. The memoirs contain information on Louis Lipsky’s early life and his passion of the Yiddish theater. There are also clippings from newspapers and magazines honoring Louis Lipsky both before and after his death. There is a correspondence of condolences to his family. Funeral arrangements include schedule, readings, eulogies, tributes, honorary pallbearers, and messages from notables. There is business information from Eastern Life Insurance Co. There are also a few war ration books, name cards, and financial information. There is a small amount of correspondence concerning a PhD thesis by D. Lipstadt.

161Memoirs written by LL. Includes table of contents of his book Profiles1962request_box
162Clippings from honoring LL1960srequest_box
163Letters of Condolence (1 of 4)1963request_box
164Letters of Condolence (2 of 4)1963request_box
165Letters of Condolence (3 of 4)1963request_box
166Letters of Condolence (4 of 4)1963request_box
168Tributes, memorials, and eulogies1963request_box
169Funeral Arrangements1963request_box
1610Honors, post death1960s and 1970srequest_box
1611Correspondence with Deborah E. LipstadtOctober 1976request_box
1612War ration books[1943]request_box
173Biographical informationundatedrequest_box
174Memorandum from the UJA concerning LL’s estate1963request_box
17585th birthday1961request_box
17686th birthday1962request_box
177Picture, membership card in ZOA 1947, 1952request_box
1710Condolences to LL on the event of his wife’s death1959request_box
1711Biographical notes by ELundatedrequest_box
1712Eastern Life Insurance Co.1932-1939request_box
1713Eastern Life Insurance Co.1956-1959request_box
1714Outgoing telephone calls for Easter Life Insurance Co.1931-1932request_box
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Series VII: Personal Correspondence, undated, 1898, 1901-1924

2.25 linear feet

Correspondence is arranged chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Letters to and from family members and friends. Before his marriage in 1906 there were many letters from a literary circle that included Mary Antin, Rita Scherman, Harry Scherman (he was called LL Chames or Jimmir), and others. After his marriage these correspondents taper off. Within the files there are occasional newspaper clippings and drafts that the letters refer to. Principal family members are his wife Charlotte (referred to as Heddah or Eddie), his sons Daivd, Eleazar (Lazar), and Joel (Joey), sister Lena, and brother Julius (Julian). Other correspondents are Bernard Richards, Prof. Richard Gottheil, A.J. Solomon, Mayer Sulzberger, and Aimee Lemalie. Louis Lipsky writes a bibliography of Bayard Taylor and EL composed a “chronological analysis: of the personal correspondence for 1902-1905 which is within a blue binder.

181Personal correspondenceundatedrequest_box
182Personal correspondence1898request_box
183Personal correspondence1901request_box
184-5Personal correspondence1902request_box
186-8Personal correspondence1903request_box
189-12Personal correspondence1904request_box
191-2Personal correspondence1905request_box
193Personal correspondence1906request_box
194Personal correspondence (Includes a shekel receipt December 12, 1907)1907request_box
195Personal correspondence 1908request_box
196Personal correspondence1909request_box
201Personal correspondence1910request_box
202Personal correspondence1911request_box
203Personal correspondence1912request_box
204Personal correspondence1913-1914request_box
205Personal correspondence1915request_box
206Personal correspondence1916request_box
207Personal correspondence1917request_box
208Personal correspondence1918request_box
209Personal correspondence1919-1920request_box
2010Personal correspondence1921request_box
2011Personal correspondence1922request_box
2012Personal correspondence1923request_box
2013Personal correspondence1924request_box
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