Guide to the Records of the American Jewish Committee - Office of Jewish War Records, undated, 1918-1921, 1962

*I-9

Processed by David Solomon

American Jewish Historical Society

Center for Jewish History

15 West 16th Street

New York, N.Y. 10011

Phone: (212) 294-6160

Fax: (212) 294-6161

Email: reference@ajhs.org

URL: http://www.ajhs.org

© 2014, American Jewish Historical Society, Boston, MA and New York, NY. All Rights Reserved.
Machine-readable finding aid created by David Solomon as MS Word document, November 2001. Electronic finding aid converted to EAD 1.0 by Dianne Ritchey Oummia, November 2001. Description is in English.
Oct. 22, 2002. New stylesheet AJHSsaxon_ead07.xsl.April 2005. Converted to EAD 2002. Revised as AJC-OJWR02.xml by Tanya Elder. Removed deprecated elements and attributes, updated repository codes, added language codes, changed doctype declaration, removed boilerplate entities, etc.January 2006. Entities removed from EAD finding aid.20130809 Added link to database

Descriptive summary

Creator: American Jewish Committee - Office of Jewish War
Title: American Jewish Committee - Office of Jewish War Records
Dates:undated, 1918-1921, 1962
Abstract: The records consist of documentation of the American Jewish Committee's project to describe Jewish participation in the United States Armed Forces during World War I. The bulk of the material consists of questionnaires that the AJC sent to servicemen to determine Jewish identity, which contain information on personal identification and details of military service. Responses to the questionnaire come from both Jews and non-Jews. In addition, the collection contains office papers concerning the project and a ledger of manuscripts. The manuscripts document the distribution of records the Office of Jewish War Records collected, as well as list Jews who died or were given military honors.
Languages: The collection is in English and Spanish.
Quantity: 11 linear feet (22 manuscript boxes, 1 oversized OS2 folder)
Accession number: I-9
Repository: American Jewish Historical Society
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Historical Note

The United States Congress declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. At the 11th Annual Meeting of the American Jewish Committee (AJC) on 11 November 1917, the first held after the declaration of war, members discussed "The matter of collecting complete and accurate statistics of Jews in the military and naval service of the United States..." and resolved that "...the Bureau of Statistics be directed to make every effort to secure data of this character." 1

The longstanding concern of Jewish leadership to document and publicize the patriotic contribution of Jews in military service to the United States had resulted in several studies of Jewish participation in past wars:

The American Jew as Patriot, Soldier and Citizen (Simon Wolf,1895), covering the American Revolution through the Civil War;

"Preliminary List of Jews Serving in the Spanish American War", (American Jewish Year Book, 5661 ( 1900-01);

"Jews in the United States Army and Navy", (American Jewish Year Book, 5677 (1916-17)). 2

The AJC’s project was intended to document Jewish participation in the U.S. armed forces contemporaneously with American participation in World War I.

At the 12th Annual Meeting, 10 November 1918, the Executive Committee of the AJC reported that during its meeting on 9 December 1917, it had directed the AJC's Bureau of Statistics to undertake the task of data collection. The Committee authorized the Bureau of Statistics to open an office in Washington, D.C. to gather information directly from federal records and appointed Julian Leavitt as its director. With the war underway, government offices had little time to spare and the Bureau’s Washington office closed in June of 1918, unable to gain access to military service records. Since military records did not contain religious affilation, the Washington liaison had been undertaken only to gather service details; in order to identify Jews serving in the military, the Bureau turned to Jewish organizations for assistance. The Executive Committee’s report mentioned rabbis, national Jewish organizations, and the Jewish Welfare Board (JWB), founded in 1917 to provide for the social and religious welfare of Jews serving in American armed force, as particularly helpful in supplying names of Jewish servicemen. 3

The 12th Annual Report of the AJC, issued in 1919 for the year 1918, contains the First Report of the Office of Jewish War Records.. 4 The AJC also issued the reports separately as a pamphlet, The War Record of American Jews, First Report of the Office of War Records, January 1, 1919. 5

The First Report documented the creation of 100,000 records of individuals identified as Jews and estimated that a total of 150,000 to 200,000 Jews had served in the American armed forces. The report emphasized that the percentage of Jews serving in the military exceeded their percentage of the U.S. population, especially in the combat arms. Leavitt concluded that “The Jews of America have contributed their full quota to the winning of the war, and a generous margin beyond their quota; that they have enlisted cheerfully, fought gallantly and died bravely for the United States." 6

The 13th Annual Report of the AJC contained the Second Report of the OJWR, 7dated 19 October 1919, less than a month before the Armistice was signed on 11 November 1919. The number of records of individuals collected had increased to 175,000, of which 150,000 were unduplicated. Quoting from the report: "... The present figures tend to strongly confirm the estimate...that the Jews of America have probably contributed, numerically, from thirty-three to fifty per cent more than their quota.” 8

The Second Report estimated that if funds were available to complete the full project, the results of which when published, it would comprise three volumes of text and analysis and 12-15 volumes of individual war records. Data collection for the full report was to include community surveys, systematic collection of the war records of civilians who had served in war-related activities, and verification of service data by access to military records. 9

The names and service data of individual Jewish servicemen were obtained from various sources: the JWB; national Jewish organizations; local congregations, fraternal organizations, labor unions, and Zionist organizations; newspaper reports; information solicited from servicemen, their families and relatives; and War Department and Draft Board lists.

In addition to the collection of basic service data on Jews in the military from these sources, the OJWR sent out 16,000 detailed questionnaires to Jews whom it believed had served as Commissioned Officers and to servicemen, both Officer and the Ranks, or their next of kin, whom it believed had been wounded or killed, and/or were cited for honors. As of the Second Report, 5000 replies had been received. 10

The 14th Annual Report of the AJC contained the Third Report of the OJWR, dated 14 November 1920. The Third Report was brief, anticipating the publication of a Fourth and final report, "now in preparation." 11

The Third Report increased the total number of Jews who had served from 200,000 to 225,000. The Report also confirmed a 4 per cent Jewish participation in military service in comparison to the 3 per cent Jewish population of the U.S., and a volunteer rate of 20 per cent, "...unexcelled, as far as known, by any other element of the American population.” The OJWR estimated that approximately 2,800 Jews had died in service. 12

No further report was ever made. The OJWR closed on 31 July 1921. Leavitt had remained director throughout its existence.

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Scope and Content Note

Box 1 contains mainly inter-office correspondence of the AJC concerning the project. Box 22 contains three typewritten manuscripts, bound together, and dated 15 June 1921. The other 20 boxes contain questionnaires. Boxes 2-17 contain the responses of Jews; Boxes 18-21, of non-Jews.

There were two versions of the questionnaires: two and four page in length. The longer one was typically sent to officers and those thought to have been wounded or to the next-of-kin of those killed in service. The two-page form was send to non-commissioned servicemen.

Some four page questionnaires were printed with a heading: “Commissioner Officer,” “Casualties,” or “Citations”; some of the short form were printed with a city name, e.g. “Cleveland,” but this is not always the case for either form.

In spite of the difference in length, both questionnaires asked for the same information: name and address, parents’ place of birth, education, pre-military career, details of service – how entered, where served, promotions and awards – and the names and addresses of Jews whom the respondent knew in service so that they might be contacted.

The questionnaires accompanied a cover letter, which explained the data collection mission of the OJWR and asked that the form be completed and returned. A postscript in the letter was addressed to non-Jews asking them to return the form indicating if they were not Jewish, so that OJWR’s records could be corrected and follow up inquiry prevented. Boxes 18 through 21 contained the replies of non-Jews.

Both the cover letter and the questionnaire itself asked that copies of official documents such as citations or casualty records be provided whenever possible and also solicited contemporaneous material documenting the service experience, like letters, photos and diaries, and news clippings. Some furnished this material and it is included with the questionnaire in the file. Attached to some questionnaires are letters, some of which are written on letterhead stationery.

The names of Casualties came from War Department records; other names came from a variety of sources explained in the historical note, or as a referral from another questionnaire. In late 1919, based upon surname, the OJWR sent a questionnaire to every serving staff officer that it felt might be Jewish.

Among the notables completing questionnaires are Herbert H. Lehman, future New York State governor and senator; the brothers Joel E. and Arthur B. Spingarn, co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Jacob Rader Marcus, future historian of American Judaism; two members of long established Jewish families, Dr. Myer Solis-Cohen of Philadelphia, and Samuel W. Augenstein, of Washington, D.C.; and Rabbi Elkan Voorsanger, chief Jewish chaplain in World War I, and later an officer of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.

A sample of a cover letter, a 2-page, and a 4-page questionnaire are included in the paper finding aid.

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Arrangement

The boxes of questionnaires are arranged alphabetically: within city, for non-officers; within service, for officers; casualties are separated from non-causalities for both categories. Boxes 2-17 (excluding Box 5) contain the responses of Jews; Boxes 18-21, of non-Jews.

Collection is organized into four series:

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Access and Use

Access Restrictions

The collection is open to all researchers by permission of the Director of Library and Archives of the American Jewish Historical Society, except items that are restricted due to their fragility.

Use Restrictions

There may be some restrictions on the use of the collection. For more information, contact:
American Jewish Historical Society, Center for Jewish History, 15 West 16th Street, New York, NY 10011.

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Databases

In 2000, three databases were created from the OJWR records in Microsoft Access 2000, version 9.0. Questionnaires contains 5 fields: name: last, first, middle name(s) or initial(s), and title (Dr., Rabbi, or PhD.); city; state; box number; folder number. Deaths and Honors each contain 3 fields: name (same definition as in Questionnaires); city; and state. Since all the entries for Deaths and Honors come from the bound volume that is the single content of Box 22, location is superfluous in the database itself.

The databases can be searched on-line.

In entering the data, considering all the evidence in the questionnaire and accompanying material, the “best” version of name and address was determined and used. The respondent’s handwritten version was always preferred to the name and address typed on the cover letter or the name frequently typed by the OJWR on the top of the questionnaire after it was returned. When known, full middle name(s) are used. Since OJWR used the typewritten name in alphabetizing the folders, and original order has been preserved, the questionnaires are sometimes out of order within a folder when searched using the name from the database.

All questionnaires (Boxes 2-21) have been input as well as all names in the rosters in Box 22. Box 4, Folder 4, contains three typewritten manuscripts from 1918: “wounded”; “dead”; and “list of casualties,” with lists of names, addresses and, in some cases, next-of-kin. Names from these manuscripts have not been input, as they predate the manuscripts in Box 22.

Questionnaires contains 6363 entries; Honors, 937; and Deaths, 2298.

*The creation of the databases was generously funded through a grant from The Jewish Genealogical Society of New York.

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Custodial History

In the 14th Annual Report of the AJC issued in 1921, the Executive Committee stated that plans had been adopted for concluding the work of the OJWR by 1 February 1921 after which a comprehensive report would be issued. The data collected by the OJWR would be “confided to the custody of the American Jewish Historical Commission.” 13

In the 15th Annual Report, the AJC Executive Committee reported that the OJWR had closed on 31 July 1921. Having consulted a statistician whose opinion was that further efforts to collect and process data would not bring results commensurate with the cost, the Executive Committee and the JWB 14 agreed to discontinue the efforts of the OJWR. The Executive Committee further reported that a complete report based upon the data already collected was to be prepared by Leavitt. Also it reported that arrangements would be made to store the records so that, "They will be easily accessible whenever it is found useful to consult them…." 15 No mention of a storage site, the AJHS, or any custodian was made. No subsequent annual report mentioned the OJWR or its data.

On 19 October 1921 Harry Schneiderman, Assistant Secretary of the AJC, wrote to Dr. Cyrus Adler - at that time, Chairman of both the JWB and of the Executive Committee of the AJC, and President of the AJHS - asking him to decide the ownership of the records collected by the OJWR and consequently which organization would pay for storing and providing access to the records. The letter informed Adler that the AJC was in the process of "storing the records ... in the vault of the Montefiore Home...” Both Schneiderman and his counterpart at the JWB disclaimed ownership. 16

A 1950 entry in the accession register of the AJHS records the donation of the questionnaires by the AJC "per Morris Fine," assistant editor and then editor from the early 1940’s through to the late 1960’s of the American Jewish Year Book, which was published by the AJC. 17 In March 2000, he stated he could not recall the donation nor remember anything about the questionnaires.18

The questionnaires have remained in the AJHS archives since their transfer in 1950.

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Preferred Citation

Published citations should take the following form:
Identification of item, date (if known); American Jewish Committee - Office of Jewish War Records; I-9; box number; folder number; American Jewish Historical Society, Boston, MA and New York, NY.

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Acquisition

The Society acquired the records by gift from the American Jewish Committee (AJC).

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Footnotes

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Access Points

Click on a subject to search that term in the Center's catalog. Return to the Top of Page

Container List

The following section contains a detailed listing of the materials in the collection.

 

Series I: Office Correspondence and Reports, undated, 1918-1921

0.5 linear foot
Arrangement:

Material is arranged by type and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

This series primarily contains inter-office correspondence concerning the administration of the record keeping and statistics gathering. Additional material includes preliminary statistics, a preliminary list of Jewish casualties, correspondence clarifying individual’s rank and faith, a list of Jamaican Jewish soldiers, newspaper clippings and registration cards. Correspondence also consists of questionnaires returned where the writer denies Jewishness or disapproves of the project.

BoxFolderTitleDate
11Community Survey Report
12Cyrus AdlerJanuary 1918 to March 1919
13Cyrus AdlerAugust 1919 to December 1919
14Office Correspondence1920
15Requests for Information, etc.
16Office Correspondence1920-1921
17Reports on Filing
18Reports on Circulation
1977th Division Reports, Clippings, etc.
110Maranchos
111Preliminary List of Jewish Casualties
112D1 West Indies, Jamaica
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Series II: Questionnaires: Jews, undated, 1918 - circa 1921

7.5 linear feet
Arrangement:

The boxes of questionnaires are arranged alphabetically: within city, for non-officers; within service, for officers. Casualties are separated and organized by officer, non-officer, and civilian worker. Please note that throughout this general organization, questionnaires of different military branches and casualty may be misfiled within boxes. Boxes are arranged as follows:

Boxes 2-4: General Files, Army and Navy

Boxes 6-9: Casualties

Box 10: Casualties-Air Force, Navy. Citations

Boxes 11-14 (folder 10): Officers-Army (Box 14 includes the Air Force)

Box 14 (folder 11)-15 (folder 2): Officers-Air Force

Box 15 (folder 3-13): Officers-Navy

Box 16: Officers-Citations, Casualties

Box 17: Officers-Citations, Casualties. Civilian Workers. Pre and Post War Servicemen

Scope and Content:

Questionnaires in this series include non-commissioned and commissioned officers from the Army, Navy and Air Force, as well as civilian workers.

Of interest, is Box 4, folder 4, which contains 3 rosters of casualties and deaths of New York City servicemen, usually with addresses and next-of-kin.

In the case of servicemen the OJWR believed dead, questionnaires were sent to their next of kin. The names of Casualties came from War Department records; other names came from a variety of sources explained in the historical note, or as a referral from another questionnaire.

BoxFolderTitleDate
21Privates and Non Coms, Navy
22Privates, A-B
23Privates, C-G
24Privates, H-L
25Privates, M-R
26Privates, S-Z
BoxFolderTitleDate
31Baltimore: Privates and Non Commisioned Officers, Navy
32Baltimore: Privates, A-F, Army
33Baltimore: G-K
34Baltimore: L-R
35Baltimore: S-Z
36Baltimore: Pvts & Non Coms, S.A.T.C.
37Canton, O – Privates, A-Z, Army
38Cleveland: Privates, A-G, Army
39Cleveland: Privates, H-P
BoxFolderTitleDate
41Cleveland: Privates, Q-Z
42Cleveland: Pvts & Non Coms – Navy
43Cleveland: Pvts & Non Coms, S.A.T.C.
44New York1918
45Pittsburgh, Pa: Privates, A-G
46Pittsburgh, Pa: Privates, H-Z
47Pittsburgh, Pa: Pvts & Non Coms – Navy
48Pittsburgh, Pa: Pvts & Non Coms, S.A.T.C.
49St. Paul: Pvts & Non Coms, Navy
410St. Paul: Pvts & Non Coms, S.A.T.C.
411St. Paul: Privates, A-Z
412Washington, D.C.: Privates, A-Z
413Washington, D.C.: Pvts & Non Coms, Navy
414Washington, D.C.: Pvts & Non Coms, S.A.T.C.
BoxFolderTitleDate
61Wounded: Pvts & Non Coms, E
62Goldste-Gon
63Goo-Goz
64GR-Grn
65Gro-GZ
66H-Hez
67HI-HZ
68I-J
69K-Kap
610Kar-KH
611Jules Klausner
BoxFolderTitleDate
71KI-KQ
72KR-KZ
73L-Leh
74Lei-Levind
75LH-LZ
76M-Mar
77Mas-Mim
78Min-MZ
79N
710O-Perlb
BoxFolderTitleDate
81Perlm-PZ
82R-RI
83RO-Rosenberg, I.
84Rosenberg, J.-R
85Rot-Rubenstein, L.
86Rubenstein, M.-RZ
87S-SB
88SC-Scht
89Schu-SG
810SH
811SI-Sil
BoxFolderTitleDate
91Sim-Sol
92Som-Stein, G.
93Stein, H.-Stn
94Sto-TD
95TE-V
96W-Weim
97Wein-Weir
98Weis-WH
99WI-WZ
910X, Y, Z
BoxFolderTitleDate
101Wounded: Privates & Non Commissioned Officers – AV, A-Z
102Wounded: Privates & Non Commissioned Officers - Navy, A-Z
103Wounded: Privates & Non Commissioned Officers - Cit, A-B
104C-D
105E-F
106G
107H-J
108K
109L
1010M-O
1011P-R
1012S
1013T-Z
BoxFolderTitleDate
111Commissioned Officers, A-Ans
112Ant-Ax
113B-Bay
114Bea-Ben
115Ber-Bez
116Bi-Blo
117Blu-Bo
118Bra-Bro
119Bru-By
1110C-Cl
1111Cohen, A.-Cohen, J.
1112Cohen, L.-Cohn, L.
1113Cohn, R.-Cz
1114D-Deg
BoxFolderTitleDate
121Army, Commissioned Officers, Dei-Dvz
122E-El
123Em-Ez
124G-Ge
125Goldberg-Goldinger
126Goldstick-Goodman
127Goon-Greenbaum
128Greenberg-Gus, Hoch
129Ki-Kl
1210Ko-Kow
1211Kr-Ku
1212L-Laz
1213Leb-Let
BoxFolderTitleDate
131Army, Commisioned Officers, Lev-Levin
132Levine-Levy, D.
133Levy, E- Levy, W.
134Lew-Li
135Lo-Ly
136M-Mal
137Man-Mark
138Mars-Mei
139Mel-Mey
1310Mic-Mit
1311Mo-My, Senior
1312Sir-Sol
1313Son-Sta
BoxFolderTitleDate
141Army, Commisioned Officers, Ste-Sh
142T-Te
143Thu-Tu
144U
145V
146W-Wax
147We-Wei
148Wen-Wur
149Y
1410Z
1411Commisioned Officers, Aviation, A-C
1412D-G
1413H-J
1414K-M
BoxFolderTitleDate
151P-R
152S-Z
153Commisioned Officers- Navy, A-B
154C-D
155E-F
156G
157H-J
158K-L
159M
1510N-Q
1511R
1512S
1513T-Z
BoxFolderTitleDate
161Commissioned Officers – Cited, A-C
162D-F
163G-H
164I-L
165M-R
166S-Z
167Commissioned Officers - Casualty-Cited, A-J
168K-Z
169Commissioned Officers – Wounded, A-C
1610D-F
1611G-J
1612K-L
1613M-R
1614S-Z
BoxFolderTitleDate
171Dead – Commissioned Officers, A-F
172Commissioned Officers – Avia – Cited, A-Z
173Commissioned Officers – Avia – Cit – Cas, A-Z
174Commissioned Officers – Navy – Cited, A-Z
175Commissioned Officers – Avia – Wounded, A-Z
176Commissioned Officers – Navy – Wounded, A-Z
177Civilian War Workers
178Ante- and Post- Bellum
179Circ. Incorrectly, A-K
1710L-R
1711S-Z
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Series III: Questionnaires: Non-Jews, undated, [1918-1921]

2 linear feet
Arrangement:

This series is arranged by commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers, casualties and deaths. There is no differentiation between military branches.

Scope and Content:

A postscript in the cover letters that accompanied questionnaires was addressed to non-Jews asking them to return the form indicating if they were not Jewish, so that the OJWR’s records could be corrected and follow up inquiry prevented. The names of Casualties came from War Department records; other names came from a variety of sources explained in the historical note, or as a referral from another questionnaire. In the case of servicemen the OJWR believed dead, questionnaires were sent to their next of kin.

BoxFolderTitleDate
181Non-Jews: Commissioned Officers, A
182B
183C-E
184F
185G
186H
187I-K
188L
189M
1810N-R
1811S-T
1812U-Z
BoxFolderTitleDate
191Non-Jews: Privates, A-Z
192Non-Jews: Casualty, Wounded, A-Beq
193Ber-Bz
194C-E
195F
196G
197H
198I-J
199K
1910L
1911M
1912N-P
1913R
BoxFolderTitleDate
201Non-Jews: Casualty, Wounded, S-Sik
202Sil-SZ
203T-Z
204Non-Jews: Dead, A
205B
206C-D
207E
208F
209G
2010H
BoxFolderTitleDate
211Non-Jews: Dead, I-J
212K
213L
214M
215N-Q
216R
217S-Schl
218Schm-SH
219Si-Sz
2110T-W
2111X-Z
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Series IV: Questionnaires: Jews and Non-Jews: Non-Tabulated Data, undated, [1918-1921]

0.5 linear foot
Scope and Content:

Series IV consists of questionnaires that were received by the OWJR after the tabulation was completed. These questionnaires include Jews and non-Jews, officers, non-officers, and non-servicemen, and casualties and deaths. Material is categorized by officer, wounded, non-officer, non-Jew, non-service, and dead.

BoxFolderTitleDate
51Acted Upon: Received since Tabulation: Commisioned Officers
52Acted Upon: Received since Tabulation: Commissioned Officers
53Not Tabulated: Received since Tabulation: Wounded, Straight Citations
54Not Tabulated: Received since Tabulation: Wounded, Straight Citations
55Privates – Non-Jews – Non Service – etc., Not Tabulated
56Privates – Non-Jews – Non Service – etc., Not Tabulated
57Not Tabulated: Dead
58Not Tabulated: Dead
BoxFolderTitleDate
1712To be Tabulated
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Series V: WWI Record of American Jews: Statistics and List of Names, June 15, 1921

0.5 linear foot
Scope and Content:

Contains three typewritten manuscripts, dated 15 June 1921. The information included in this series has also been entered in a MS Access 2000 database. The first manuscript consists of four tables giving the distribution of the 146,346 records collected by the OJWR by state, city, branch of service, and rank of officers. The second lists Jews of any rank who were killed in U.S. military service in World War I; the third lists those Jews who received military honors with a description of the award. As a key at the first page of the list of dead indicates, the names in the manuscript rosters in Box 22 were complied largely from sources other than the questionnaires.

Box TitleDate
22 Ledger: “The War Record of American Jews: Count of Records, List of Dead, List of Honors”June 15, 1921
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Oversized Material, 1962

Spanish.
OS2F Folder 1 of 1.
BoxFolderTitleDate
OS2F1Comité Judio Americano, 2 posters1962
  (contains Spanish)   
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