Guide to the Papers of Lionel S. Reiss
(1894-1987) 1921-1952

RG 1160

Processed by Donna Davis.  Finding aid edited by Rivka Schiller with the assistance of a grant from the Gruss Lipper Family Foundation.

YIVO Institute for Jewish Research

Center for Jewish History

15 West 16th Street

New York, NY 10011

Phone: (212) 246-6080

Fax: (212) 292-1892

Email: archives@yivo.cjh.org

URL: http://www.yivoinstitute.org

© 2006 YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. All rights reserved.
Center for Jewish History, Publisher.
Electronic finding aid was converted to EAD version 2002 by yakov Sklyar in October 2006. Description is in English.

Descriptive Summary

Creator: Reiss, Lionel S.
Title: Lionel S. Reiss Collection
Dates:1921-1952
Abstract: Lionel S. Reiss was a Polish-American artist. Traveled abroad in the 1920s to study different Jewish communities. The collection consists of 111 drawings, sketches, charcoals and watercolors included in 3 albums. In additional, there is a large framed drawing exhibited in the archives. There are also three large drawings stored in the flat file cabinet, drawer B10. The images are numbered consecutively from 1 to 111 in the collection inventory. Reiss’ own spelling of locality names and other expressions in the titles has been retained (e.g. “klessmer,” “Motelle,” “stetle,” “Lemberg”). The media include pastel and woodcut drawings, charcoal and pen and ink sketches, and watercolor paintings.
Languages: The collection is in English.
Quantity: 2.2 linear feet.
Record Group Number: RG 1160
Repository: YIVO Archives
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Biographical Note

Lionel Reiss was born in 1894 in Jarosław, Poland. His family immigrated to the U.S. in 1899 and settled in New York. Reiss began his career as a commercial artist working for advertising industry. In 1919 he traveled abroad for the first time, with the purpose of making “an ethnic study of the Jew”. This trip resulted in exhibitions in major American cities. In 1922, Reiss made a series of travels throughout Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, and recorded the everyday life that he encountered in the Jewish ghettos of the aforementioned regions.

By 1930, Reiss had made a career-altering decision to leave the world of commercial art and devote his time to fine art. His first portfolio, My Models Were Jews: A Painter’s Pilgrimage to Many Lands was published in 1938. In 1952, when Reiss’ reputation as a genre painter was well established, the Reconstructionist movement, under the tutelage of Rabbi Mordecai Kaplan and Rabbi Ira Eisenstein, provided him with an artistic mission grant that enabled him to spend six months traveling throughout Israel. In 1954 Reiss’ second book, New Lights and Old Shadows: New Lights of an Israel Reborn, Old Shadows of a Vanished World, which highlights 210 of his paintings, watercolors, drawings, and etchings from his 1952 trip to Israel, was published.

As immigrants to the United States, Reiss’ parents joined the ranks of other Eastern European Jews who were fleeing their native countries at the turn of the 20th century. Lionel Reiss settled on New York’s Lower East Side neighborhood and spent the majority of his life in the city. In the early 1920s he became a successful illustrator in the advertising industry. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, for whom he created the famous MGM lion, was one of his clients. Here, Reiss found himself among a cadre of Jewish immigrant artists: Max Weber (1881-1961), Mark Rothko (1903-1970), Louise Nevelson (1899-1988), Ben Shahn (1899-1969), Raphael Soyer (1899-1987), Moses Soyer (1899-1974), Isaac Soyer (1902-1981), and Chaim Gross (1904-1991). Nonetheless, Reiss’ work and documentation methods stand out as unique among this group, because he alone chose to return to his homeland for the purpose of bringing an awareness of Jewish shtetl life to a U.S. audience.

In the tradition of the Polish and Russian born Jewish photographers, Alter Kacyzne and Roman Vishniac, Reiss depicted Jewish communal life in Poland (and elsewhere) prior to World War II. The devastating effects of World War I could still be felt in the 1920s in the old Jewish quarters of Warsaw, Lodz, Krakow, Lublin, Vilna, Kovno, Paris, and Prague—all of which factor heavily in Reiss’ artwork. Reiss’ premonition that European Jewish culture was in jeopardy of vanishing led him to document and immortalize on paper that which he witnessed during his travels throughout Europe.

One of the central themes of Reiss’ art was that of every day street life, replete with its class distinctions and social strata. Later on in life Reiss’ themes drew more heavily from life in the United States, New York in particular. However, although the subject matter may have changed, the people and the street essentially remained the same. Among his more memorable works stand: “The Ghetto Gate of Lublin, 1922,” “Blessing of the New Moon, 1922,” “59th Street Series” (1946) of oil paintings, watercolors, and pen and ink drawings, his still lifes of Bucks County, Pennsylvania in the 1930s, seascapes of Gloucester, Massachusetts, a series of ink drawings that illustrated the poetry of Hayim Nahman Bialik (1873-1934), and a series of large murals, entitled “Genesis,” depicting biblical scenes. Reiss spent more than twenty years at work on these murals, and was still creating them at age 92.

During World War II, even prior to the time when anyone in the United States understood the real facts about the Nazi brutalities, Reiss created a composite of eight watercolors called “In Memoriam: The Millions of Innocent Victims of Nazi Warfare.” These images were published in The Menorah Journal in 1944, and in retrospect, appear mild in comparison to the truth of the day.

The collection is only a partial representation of Reiss’ greater body of work. Reiss’ work has appeared in exhibitions at venues across America: The Carnegie Institute, The Art Institute of Chicago, Los Angeles Museum Association, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Baltimore Museum of Fine Arts, Audubon Artists, American Watercolor Society, Museum of Modern Art, among others. His permanent collections may be viewed at Columbia University, The Jewish Museum (New York), the Jewish Theological Seminary (New York), the New York Historical Society, the Sinai Center of Chicago, the Skirball Center (Los Angeles), the Brooklyn Museum, the Bezalel Museum (Israel), Tel Aviv Museum, the Ain Harod Museum (Israel), and other such venues. Mr. Reiss died in 1988.

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Scope and Content Note

The collection consists of 111 drawings, sketches, charcoals and watercolors included in 3 albums. In additional, there is a large framed drawing exhibited in the archives. There are also three large drawings stored in the flat file cabinet, drawer B10. The images are numbered consecutively from 1 to 111 in the collection inventory. Reiss’ own spelling of locality names and other expressions in the titles has been retained (e.g. “klessmer,” “Motelle,” “stetle,” “Lemberg”).

The media include pastel and woodcut drawings, charcoal and pen and ink sketches, and watercolor paintings. The works range in size from 9 x 9 to 15 x 6 and depict scenes of Jewish life in various cities and shtetls of Europe, the Middle East, and the United States in the inter-war period. Among the towns and cities represented in Reiss’ artwork are: Amsterdam, Bialystok, Chelm, Frankfurt a/M, Jerusalem, Krakow, Lemberg, Lodz, Lublin, Paris, Safed, Tarnopol, Vilna, and Warsaw.

Themes include: individuals engaged in professional work or vocational trades (e.g., shopkeepers, shoe makers, knife grinders, tailors, carpenters, vegetable saleswomen, peddlers, water carriers, street fiddlers, klezmer musicians), religious settings and ritual contexts (e.g., men engaged in prayer and learning, in mitzvah dances, in handling the Torah scrolls), portraits (e.g., artist’s self-portrait, artist’s wife, children, elderly individuals, Chasidim, Talmud students, rabbinic figures), architectural structures and outdoor scenes (e.g., alleyways, courtyards, shop buildings, marketplaces, gates of Jewish quarter, synagogues, remains of Jewish quarter). Also included are depictions of life in Palestine and Israel: Sephardic, Yemenite, Kurdish, Iraqi, and kibbutz Jews.

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Access and Use

Open to researchers.

For more information, contact:
Chief Archivist
YIVO Institute for Jewish Research
Center for Jewish History, 15 West 16th Street
New York, NY 10011
email: archives@yivo.cjh.org

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Preferred Citation

Published citations should read as followes:

Identification of item, date (if known); YIVO Archives; Lionel S. Reiss Collection; RG 1160; folder number.

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Acquisition Information

Collection was donated by Mr. And Mrs. Socolow and Mr. And Mrs. Jacques Stone in the 1980s.

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Container List

 

Lionel S. Reiss Collection, 1921-1952

BoxFolderTitleDate
11Sunless Alley-Lublin1922
  

folder, pencil and paper. Four people walking through narrow alley. 13 ½ x 10. Lublin

 
12Old Shoes-Wilno1921
  

folder, black pastel. Older man sitting on a flight of steps with legs crossed. Two pairs of shoes are on ground nearby. 14 ½ x 11. Wilno

 
13Resting Jew1921
  

folder, pencil and paper. Elderly man sitting in chair with both hands resting on cane. 13 x 10

 
14Prayer Shawls and Books1921
  

Drawing, black pastel. Man sitting at table with books. Prayer shawls hanging above table. 9 ½ x 9 ½

 
15Waiting 1921
  

Drawing, pen and ink. Person sitting on step near table covered with boxes and scale. Signed with initials. 11 x 9 ½

 
16Carpenter Waiting for Job-Wilnoundated
  

Drawing, black pastel. Man with cane, hat, and bag hanging from shoulder. 13 x 9. Wilno

 
17Knife Grinderundated
  

Drawing, pencil and paper. Man with peaked hat standing under umbrella working at wheel. 10 x 9 ½

 
18Shop-Wilnoundated
  

Drawing, pencil and paper. Elderly man with cane sitting looking out doorway at person sitting on ground near large basket. 1 ½ x 10. Wilno

 
19Vegetablesundated
  

Drawing, pencil and paper. Woman with scarf on head and long skirt sitting near many baskets. Scale in background. 13 x 10 ½

 
110Patchesundated
  

Drawing, black pastel. Man holding boy’s hand. Boy’s other hand has cup outstretched. Both wearing patched long coats. Signed with initials. 12 x 9

 
111Tired Peddlerundated
  

Drawing, black pastel. Man with cap resting head on basket. “Reproduced in book.” Signed with initials. 11 x 9 ½

 
112Curb Gossips1921
  

Drawing, black pastel. Two women sitting on ground wearing scarves on heads and long skirts. 7 ½ x 11 ¾

 
113Shop in Lemberg 1921
  

Drawing, pencil and paper. Man standing in doorway of shop. Two boys and man standing outside. All wearing hats and earlocks. 14 x 11. Krakow

 
114Vilno Courtyard 1921
  

Drawing, pencil and paper. Courtyard with stairway, arch, and windows. 14 x 10

 
115Yadkowa, Wilno 1921
  

Drawing, black pastel. Street surrounded by small houses. Women sitting in front of a house. 14 ½ x 10 ½. Yadkowa, Wilno

 
116Palisades of the Poor-Chelm 1921
  

Drawing, black pastel. Long wooden stairway leading up to apartments. Children sitting on steps, old man walking down. 14 ½ x 12. Chelm

 
117Borne Strasse-Frankfurt a. Main 1921
  

Watercolor. Street lined with substantial buildings and handcarts. Old House of the Synagogue in Judengasse of Frankfurt a. Main

 
118Jewish Quarter-Paris 1921
  

Drawing, pen and ink. Courtyard—man pushing cart through archway, woman working at a table. 12 ½ x 9 ½

 
119Ulica Josefa-Warsaw 1921
  

Painting, watercolor. Arched hallway with staircase and light fixture hanging from ceiling. 9 x 9. Warsaw

 
120Village Bal Agalah 1921
  

Drawing, portrait, black pastel. Large man sitting with cheek resting on his hand, wearing hat and coat with large buttons. 12 ¼ x 11

 
121Locksmith’s Apprentice-Kovna1921
  

Drawing, portrait, black pastel. Boy with hat and overly large coat. 16 x 10 ½

 
122 Reb Motelle 1921
  

Drawing, portrait, black pastel. Elderly man with kippah under large hat, overcoat and cane. 14 ½ x 10

 
123Ghetto Corner-Paris 1921
  

Drawing, pen and ink. Street surrounded by buildings. People walking in street and on sidewalks. 11 x 9

 
124Rue Eginhart-Paris 1921
  

Drawing, pen and ink. Street surrounded by buildings. People walking through archway. 12 ½ x 9 ½

 
125Study-Mother and Child-Lodz1921
  

Drawing, black pastel. Woman with scarf on head holding baby. 12 ½ x 10

 
126Exodus 1921
  

Drawing, black pastel. Crowd of people in foreground diminishing to solid black and then light in background. 9 ½ x 15

 
127Curb Merchandise-Radom 1921
  

Drawing, pencil and paper. Two women with full baskets. Man with overcoat and cap sitting in background. 12 ½ x 9

 
128Mourners 1921
  

Drawing, black pastel. Woman with children huddled around her on left. Sketchy figure crouched on right. In center, on a low stool, a lighted candle from which emanates the only source of light. 9 ½ x 13 ½

 
129Rag Alley-Vilno 1921
  

Drawing, black pastel. Group of people crowded around open doorway, holding articles of clothing. 9 ¾ x 15

 
130Market Transaction 1921
  

Drawing, pencil and paper. Six people buying or/and selling merchandise in arm or baskets. Live ducks in a basket on ground. 9 ¾ x 15 ½

 
131Before a Lemberger Synagogue 1921
  

Drawing, pencil and paper. Group of men (wearing shtraymlekh) and boys. One woman in background. 9 ½ x 14 ½. Lemberg

 
132Breadline-Warsaw 1921
  

Sketch, pencil and paper. Throng of people (and a dog) on a line outside shop. “Sketch for an oil painting.” 8 ½ x 15

 
133Two Studies of a Bialystoker Jew 1921
  

Drawings, black pastel. a) Elderly bearded man, with cap sitting on bench. One arm on a cane, the other holding a parcel. b) Same man standing. 11 ¾ x 14

 
134Market Types1921
  

Drawing, black pastel. Four women and two men conversing. 10 ½ x 15 ¼

 
135Alley in Chelm 1921
  

Drawing, black pastel. Person walking through archway-surrounded by buildings. 11 x 15

 
136Wilno Courtyard 1921
  

Drawing, black pastel. Elderly man sitting on step, resting on cane. People walking through archway in background. 11 x 15

 
137Two Men of Chelm 1921
  

Drawing, pen and ink. Two elderly bearded men walking, hunched over. Street is cobblestone, buildings in background. “Drawing for woodcut.” 13 x 9

 
138Stetle Water Carrier 1921
  

Drawing, pen and ink. Elderly bearded man carrying two buckets over his shoulders. “Drawing for woodcut.” 13 x 9 ½

 
139Peasant and Jew-Poland 1921
  

Drawing, pen and ink. Two men, Jew in plain long black coat, peasant in coat with fur collar and sword. “Drawing for woodcut.” 13 ½ x 9 ½

 
140Lublin Glasier 1921
  

Drawing, pen and ink. Elderly man with panes of glass strapped to his back. Clock tower in background. “Drawing for woodcut.” 13 ½ x 10

 
141At the End of the Road 1931
  

Drawing, pencil and watercolor. Elderly bearded man with turban, resting head on cane. 13 ½ x 11 ½

 
142Gravestone Carver-Poland 1922
  

Drawings, ink and watercolor. Man sitting on box using hammer and chisel on a partially carved stone. 12 x 10

 
143 aGhetto Entrance-Venice 1922
  

Drawing, pencil and ink. Canal with bridge. People lining canal and crossing bridge surrounded by tall buildings. 14 x 9 ½. Missing

 
143 bReproduction of elderly woman with scarf on her head. Missingundated
144Ghetto Gate-Lublin 1922
  

Drawing, pen and ink. People milling about archway. 10 x 9 ½

 
145Mitzvah Dance #1 1922
  

Drawing, black pastel. Woman and man dancing with hands on hips. 10 ½ x 11 ½

 
146Mitzvah Dance #2 1922
  

Drawing, black pastel. Two men dancing holding each other by the arms. One wearing a shtrayml, the other wearing a kippah. 1 ¾ x 11 ½

 
BoxFolderTitleDate
247Ukrainian Jew1922
  

Portrait, black pastel on paper. Elderly full white bearded man with hat. 15 x 11

 
248Jew from Chelm 1922
  

Portrait, black pastel on paper. Man with long beard, heavy eyes wearing hat. 13 ½ x 11

 
249Jew from Warsaw 1922
  

Portrait, profile, black pastel on paper. Long bearded elderly man with knitted watch hat. 15 x 11

 
250Jewish Girl-Cracow 1921
  

Portrait, black pastel on paper. Full-faced girl with curly hair. 12 ½ x 9

 
251Jew from Brody 1922
  

Portrait, ¾ black pastel on paper. Man with full bear wearing hat with brim. 14 x 11

 
252Jew from Lublin 1922
  

Portrait, black pastel on paper. Bearded man with hat looking off to his right. 15 ¼ x 11

 
253Hasidic Boyundated
  

Portrait, profile, amber pastel on paper. Young boy with earlocks. 15 x 11

 
254Belgian Boy 1921
  

Portrait, profile, black pastel on paper. Teenager with peaked cap. 12 ½ x 9 ½

 
255Jewish Boy-Parisundated
  

Portrait, black pastel on paper. Boy with almond shaped eyes, wearing a cap. 12 ½ x 9. Paris

 
256Talmud Student-Kovna 1921
  

Portrait, amber pastel on paper. Long wavy haired teenager with peaked hat. 15 x 11

 
257 Polish Jew-Lodz 1922
  

Portrait, black pastel on paper. Bearded elderly man with peaked cap and overcoat. 15 x 11

 
258Russian Jew-Refugee from Minsk 1922
  

Portrait, black pastel on paper. Full faced, short bearded man with peaked cap. 15 x 11

 
259Talmud Student-Bialystok 1922
  

Portrait, pastel. Young man with earlocks wearing peaked cap, shirt, tie and jacket. 13 ¾ x 11

 
260Hasid from Pelnatich-Galicia 1922
  

Portrait, ¾ black pastel on paper. Elderly bearded man, with small eyeglasses and shtrayml. 12 x 10 ½

 
261Street Fiddler 1922
  

Drawing, black pastel on paper. Man with round eyeglasses and peaked cap playing violin. 12 x 10

 
262Sephardic Jew-Safed 1931
  

Painting, watercolor. Elderly man with turban leaning on a staff. 11 x 14 ½

 
263Kibbutz Jewess 1952
  

Drawing, pen and ink. Elderly woman with eyeglasses. 12 ½ x 9 ½

 
264Yemenite Jew-Israel 1952
  

Drawing, pen and ink. Man with beard and earlocks, with small turban type headwear. 15 x 11. Israel

 
265Kibbutz Artist-Ain Harod-Israel 1952
  

Portrait, drawing, pen and ink. Man with short, curly hair. Contains the Hebrew name “Chaim Atar.” 13 x 11. Ain Harod, Israel

 
266Kibbutz Child-Ain Harod 1952
  

Drawing, amber pastel. Beautiful young girl with long, wavy hair. 13 x 11. Ain Harod, Israel

 
267Kibbutz Woman-Ain Harod 1952
  

Portrait, drawing in pastel. ¾ view of woman with hair pulled back in a bun. 12 x 9 ½. Ain Harod

 
268Kurdish Jew-Jerusalem 1952
  

Portrait, drawing in pastel. Profile of elderly, bearded man with earlocks, wearing turban. 14 ½ x 11. Jerusalem

 
269Bohkaren Jew1952
  

Portrait, drawing in pastel. Man with eyes quite close together, prominent nose, wearing a hat with rolled up brim

 
270 Hassid 1921
  

Portrait, drawing, side of pastel crayon. Bearded man with earlocks, wearing shtrayml. 14 x 10

 
271Prayer 1921
  

Painting, watercolor. Man wearing talit, kippah, reading from a book held in both hands. 12 ½ x 9 ½

 
272Worker Resting-Israel 1952
  

Drawing, amber pastel. Man in repose with both arms thrown back. 11 x 5. Israel

 
273Lifting the Scrolls 1921
  

Painting, watercolor. Elderly man with very long beard, holding scrolls with both hands. 12 x 15

 
274Four Jewish Types-Americanundated
  

Four individual portraits, pencil drawings. a) ¾ view of man with wavy hair, wearing eyeglasses, b) ¾ view of man with mustache and thinning hair, c) ¾ view of man with sloping forehead, wearing eyeglasses, d) ¾ view of man with receding hairline. Each portrait measures 4 x 5 ½

 
275Four Jewish Types-American undated
  

Four individual portraits. a) ¾ view, pencil. Elderly woman with hair pulled back. 5 ¼ x 6 ¼. b) Front view-elderly man with white hair parted in center, wearing jacket and tie. 5 ¼ x 6 ¼. c) Pastel, ¾ view of woman. 4 ¼ x 5 ½. d) Pencil, young woman with long neck and head tilted to side. 4 ¼ x 5 ½

 
276English Jewess 1932
  

Drawing, portrait, pastel and pencil. ¾ view of beautiful young woman with curly hair and long neck. 15 x 11

 
277Jewish Woman-Tarnapol 1932
  

Drawing, portrait, pencil and paper. ¾ view of older woman, smiling, wearing earring and broach at collar. 14 x 11. Tarnopol, Galicia

 
278Frances Reiss 1950
  

Portrait, drawing in amber pastel. Woman with hooded eyelids and short curly hair. Wearing earring and pin at collar. 14 ½ x 11

 
279 Self-Portrait 1924
  

Drawing, amber pastel. Man with wavy hair, mustache above full lips, wearing eyeglasses, tie, and jacket. 15 x 11

 
BoxFolderTitleDate
380The Klessmer undated
  

Drawing, black pastel and paper. 6 musicians posed in a pyramid. 15 ½ x 11

 
381Orchard Street-N.Y.C 1924
  

Painting, watercolor. Crowded streets of shoppers and peddlers among tenements. 14 x 16 ¾. New York

 
382Wood Turner undated
  

Drawing, pastel (black, yellow, orange). Man sitting at bench working at a machine. 17 ½ x 14

 
383 The Load 1921
  

Sketch, black pastel. Man, bent with strain, pulling a loaded cart through busy street. 12 ½ x 17. Warsaw

 
384Lublin Ghetto Arch #1 undated
  

Drawing, pastel. Man with package under arm going through arch. Men, woman and children are milling about. 16 ¾ x 12 ½

 
385 Lublin Ghetto Arch #2 undated
  

Drawing, pastel

 
386 Glasser Gass-Wilno-#1 undated
  

Drawing, pastel. Man coming through arch, with cane and package under arm. People standing on sidewalk. 15 x 12 ½. Wilno, Poland

 
387Glasser Gass-Wilno-#2undated
  

Drawing, pastel. Woman with basket coming through arch. Few people on sidewalk. 12 x 14. Wilno, Poland

 
388Glasser Gass-Wilno-#3 undated
  

Drawing, pastel. Two bearded men speaking amid passersby. Second arch in background, larger arch in foreground. 17 x 12 ½. Wilno, Poland

 
389Glasser Gass-Wilno-#4 undated
  

Drawing, pastel. Woman coming through arch, bearded man with cane on sidewalk. 12 x 17. Wilno, Poland

 
390Wilno Synagogue undated
  

Drawing, pastel. Woman coming through narrow street carrying two buckets over shoulders, other woman on sidewalk carrying buckets and pitchers. 12 x 17. Wilno, Poland

 
391 Lublin Courtyardundated
  

Drawing, pastel. Woman looking at courtyard from top of stairway. 15 x 11 ½

 
392Chelm Courtyard undated
  

Drawing, pastel. Small boy looking into lower floor window. Woman leaning out of top floor window, old man coming into courtyard through arch. 16 ¾ x 11 ¾

 
393Backstairs-Kolomyia-Galicia 1921
  

Drawing, pastel. Woman and children going up and down four-flight stairway. 17 ½ x 11 ¼. Kolomyia

 
394Prague Jewish Old Quarter undated
  

Drawing, pastel. Woman with red head covering, leaning out of second story window. An ornate gas lamp attached to another building. 16 ½ x 11 ½

 
395Prague Canal undated
  

Drawing, pastel. Waterway-lined on one side by retaining wall and the other by buildings, rowboats are on either side of canal. 16 ¾ x 12 ½

 
396Ghetto St. in Worms-Germany undated
  

Drawing, pen and ink. People walking up and down narrow street lined with houses

 
397Cluny Museum-Paris1923
  

Painting, watercolor. Entranceway leading to sunny room with stone columns displayed. Plaque on front of building with Hebrew letters. 13 ½ x 10 ½. Paris

 
398Jewish Quarter-Paris 1921
  

Drawing, pen and ink. Man pulling large handcart. Street lined with people and shops. 16 ¾ x 9 ½. Paris

 
399Frankfurt a/M-Ghetto Remains 1922
  

Painting, ink and yellow watercolor. Woman and children in village square. Bent old man with cane walking by. 16 1/2 x 10. Frankfurt

 
3100Ghetto in Amsterdam 1922
  

Painting, ink and yellow watercolor. People crowding around pushcarts and shops. 12 x 17 ¼. Amsterdam

 
3101Music-Warsaw 1921
  

Painting, watercolor. People gathered in courtyard and others watching from windows an organ grinder and man with drum strapped to his back. 15 ½ x 12. Warsaw

 
3102Memory of Cracow 1922
  

Painting, watercolor. Man praying in crowded synagogue, wearing talit. One young boy in front row. Text-From memory. 12 x 16. Krakow

 
3103Artist’s Sketch Sheet 1923
  

Sketch, pen and ink, watercolor. Individual people involved in various activities. Sketch of the artist painting at easel. 15 x 12

 
3104Lublin Ghetto undated
  

Drawing, black pastel on paper. People walking through archway to street lined with three story buildings. Framed 26 x 20. Missing

 
3105Klezmorim undated
  

Drawing, black pastel on paper. Six musicians posed in a pyramid standing on steps. 30 x 22. Missing

 
3106Hassidic Fantasy undated
  

Drawing, black and lavender pastel. Nine Hassidic men dancing and playing instruments high in the sky above a town. The synagogue is the most prominent building. 30 x 22. Missing

 
3107Hassidic Spirit undated
  

Drawing, blue, orange and black pastel. Nine Hassidic men dancing and playing musical instruments surrounded and amid orange flame. 30 x 22. Missing

 
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