Guide to the Records of the National Jewish Welfare Board, undated, 1889-1995 (bulk 1917-1990)
 
*I-337

Processed by Dominic Grandinetti, Susan Earle, Cat Lea Holbrook, and Judi Garner (May 2001-February 2004), and Marvin Rusinek (November 2006-May 2007)

American Jewish Historical Society

Center for Jewish History

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Email: reference@ajhs.org

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© 2014, American Jewish Historical Society, Boston, MA and New York, NY. All Rights Reserved.
Microsoft Excel database created by Marvin Rusinek from November 2006-May 2007. Finding aid was encoded by Marvin Rusinek in May 2007. Description is in English.

Descriptive Summary

Creator: National Jewish Welfare Board
Title: National Jewish Welfare Board, Records
Dates:undated, 1889-1995 (bulk 1917-1990)
Abstract: The collection documents the National Jewish Welfare Board's (JWB) evolution from an organization founded in 1917 to provide support for soldiers in times of war to an agency involved in all aspects of Jewish life both in the United States and abroad. In 1990 JWB recreated itself as the Jewish Community Centers Association of North America.
Languages: The collection is in English, Hebrew, Yiddish, Spanish, French, Italian, Swedish, German, Latin, Hungarian and Afrikaans.
Quantity: 1535.8 linear feet (1527 Hollinger boxes; 4 [16 x 20"] oversized boxes; 1 [20 x 24"] oversized box; 71 MAP folders, 4 film cans)
Identification: I-337
Repository: American Jewish Historical Society
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Historical Note

Origins of the National Jewish Welfare Board (1913-1919)

Organized in 1917 to meet the needs of Jewish servicemen in the Armed Forces, the National Jewish Welfare Board (JWB) became a national federation of local agencies and social service institutions dedicated to meeting the social, cultural, intellectual, physical and spiritual needs of the American Jewish community.

The roots of JWB can be traced to the founding of the Council of Young Men's Hebrew and Kindred Associations (YMHA-KA) in November 1913. This benevolent organization was established to promote and help coordinate the programs of the various Young Men's Hebrew Associations (YMHAs) and Jewish Community Centers (JCCs) throughout the United States. In 1916 the Council created a special Army and Navy Committee to attend to the religious and welfare needs of Jewish soldiers participating in military activities along the Mexican border. During World War I the Council decided to expand its services and aid rabbis serving near military posts. Unfortunately, the activities of the Council were hampered by its inability to speak for the entire American Jewish community. Furthermore, the absence of a unified coordinating agency led to a duplication of services and a scattering of limited resources.

Hence, in April 1917, representatives of five major Jewish religious bodies (the United Synagogue, the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, the Central Conference of American Rabbis, the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations, and the Agudath Ha-Rabbanim) joined with members of the Council to form the Jewish Board for Welfare Work in the United States Army and Navy. This new organization, however, was also deemed unsatisfactory since it relied primarily on the sponsorship of its member organizations. Therefore, in July 1917, the Jewish Board for Welfare Work was reorganized with control centralized in a small committee of three to five members. The close ties of the new Jewish Board to the Council of Young Men's Hebrew and Kindred Associations were severed and field secretaries were chosen to conduct new programs. In September 1917, the Commission on Training Camp Activities recognized the Board as the official agency for Jewish welfare work in military camps. In the summer of 1918, the name of the Board was changed to the Jewish Welfare Board, United States Army and Navy (shortened to Jewish Welfare Board in 1919) and the first by-laws and terms of office and membership were decided at a public meeting. JWB was now prepared to act as the representative agency for American Jewish servicemen in the United States military.

The program activities of JWB during World War I included the enlistment of rabbis to serve as chaplains and the recruitment and training of lay workers. JWB created an abridged prayer book, reconciling the religious views of the Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform branches of Judaism, and distributed this to the soldiers. Prayer shawls, mezuzah scrolls, Jewish calendars, and many other items were also distributed. In addition, to meet the dietary needs of Jewish personnel, kosher food was provided in canteens and barracks. Non-religious activities sponsored by JWB included dances, literary clubs, classes in the English language and American history, and musical entertainment. Personal services included home visits to relatives of servicemen and a hospital visiting service to cheer the sick and wounded. In 1918, the programs and services of JWB were extended overseas, as workers were sent to Europe to assist Jewish Servicemen.

By the war's end, JWB had developed a cadre of 638 field representatives, 178 of whom had served overseas. The new agency had an established staff made up of chaplains and lay workers, known as the "Star of David Men," who acted as personal councilors, teachers, spiritual leaders, and directors of religious services. Under the direction of JWB, the American Jewish community had mobilized to support the war effort and during this time, many organizations such as the B'nai B'rith, the National Council of Jewish Women, and the YMHA-KA became JWB affiliates. Thus, the Jewish Welfare Board had firmly established itself as one of the leading Jewish organizations in the United States.

Merger of JWB and the Council of YMHA-KA (1919-1921)

The desire for a common meeting place for American Jews to promote their social, educational, and recreational development was widespread at the end of World War I. Consequently in the spring of 1920, at a special meeting of the JWB Executive Committee, it was determined that besides assisting military personnel, JWB would begin to support, advance, and serve the Jewish Community Center movement. It was further decided that JWB would merge with and assume the functions of the Council of YMHA-KA. By January 1921, a draft constitution was approved by the two organizations and in July 1921, the reorganized JWB was launched.

The Inter-War Years (1921-1940)

The mission of the newly reorganized JWB was threefold. First, the Board hoped to promote the social welfare of American Jewish servicemen by providing them with adequate opportunities for worship, education, devotion, solace and improvement. Second, the religious, intellectual, physical, and social well being of young Jewish men and women was to be supported. Finally, JWB dedicated itself to the development of JCCs, YMHAs, Young Women's Hebrew Associations (YWHAs), and other kindred societies.

Membership in the new JWB consisted of local agencies such as JCCs, YM-YWHAs, regional federations of YMHAs and JCCs, and affiliated national organizations such as B'nai B'rith. As a result of this varied membership, JWB gained the authority to represent all American Jewish organizations.

JWB was organized into two sections - Army and Navy services and Jewish Community Center services. Sixteen full time and part time JWB workers, community volunteers, and soldier representatives provided Army and Navy services. As the officially recognized Jewish religious and welfare agency for Jewish military personnel, these staffers covered 250 military establishments, Veterans hospitals, and naval stations.

Services to JCCs were provided by a national office staff of three-a director and two assistants-and eight field secretaries. These field secretaries made hundreds of annual field visits and provided various consultation services to the JCCs in their sections. In addition, they prepared or supervised the development of Center publications and wrote community surveys and studies, which described and analyzed the local Jewish population, examined the condition of existing JCCs and summer camps, assessed the needs of Jewish students, studied general citywide problems and reviewed the needs for recreational and vocational activities. Finally, the authors drew conclusions and made recommendations that they hoped would improve the JCCs.

The JCC's overall goal was to provide an element of unity, purpose and service to the Jewish community. To achieve this goal, JWB provided a multitude of services to the JCCs and supported and developed numerous programs during the 1930s that stressed the development of Jewish culture and the spirit of Judaism within the overall American context. These included youth programs, which were intended to emphasize the building of character. In addition, program activities focusing on Jewish holiday celebrations, Jewish history and problems, Jewish themes, and Jewish survival were developed. In 1922 JWB's Lecture and Concert Bureau assumed the direct management of selecting lecturers to participate in forums at local JCCs. Plays, pageants, bulletins, and brochures were developed and distributed to celebrate Jewish and civic holidays. Camping services were expanded in the 1930s and training for camp counselors was offered by JWB. JWB staff also organized educational conferences and conventions, prepared Jewish bibliographies and other publications, encouraged group insurance plans for Center workers, and devoted considerable resources to assisting JCCs in finding qualified staff. By these and other means, JWB attempted to develop balanced programs that would meet the cultural, social, intellectual, and physical needs of the Jewish community.

Between 1937 and 1940 JWB staff grew, new regional federations were developed, and the field services division was expanded. Annual meetings were attended by hundreds of delegates and lay committees took an active part in promoting JWB programs. The National Health Advisory Board provided consultation and guidance in the improvement of health programs and standards at JCCs while the National Association of Jewish Center Workers provided JWB with an intimate knowledge of the Center worker field, and the National Finance Council provided a permanent base of financial support for JWB by helping it secure much-needed funds. By the end of 1940, JWB had developed close contact with both Jewish and non-Jewish social work agencies and continued to solidify its role as the Jewish body concerned with Jewish social work.

Dynamic Growth and World War II (1940-1946)

In 1939, as the officially approved agency for Jewish religious and welfare work for Jewish military personnel, JWB began making preparations for a possible American involvement in the war in Europe. At the request of the United States Navy, JWB outlined the service personnel programs that they would be implementing in the event of war. In 1940 a national survey was conducted that reviewed service requirements, personnel needs, and local committee organization. By January 1941, JWB field men were working in the vicinity of training camps while Jewish chaplains were being commissioned into the armed forces in increasing numbers. Lastly, JWB's cooperative relationships with the YMCA, YWCA, National Travelers Aid Association, Salvation Army, and National Catholic Community Service, led to the establishment of the United Service Organization for National Defense, or USO, in 1941.

When America became involved in World War II, JWB was ready to meet the needs of Jewish military personnel. At the beginning of the war fifteen national Jewish organizations were represented by JWB; by war's end that number had increased to thirty-eight.

During the war, many new JWB committees and divisions were created to meet the wartime emergency. The Bureau of War Records was established to gather and preserve the war records of Jewish military personnel. Local war record committees were organized around the country to compile the war records of Jewish soldiers. As a result, a full account describing the activities of the Jewish soldier was published at the end of the war. In 1942, five national women's organizations affiliated with JWB began the Women's Organizations' Division. (The Division later expanded and become known as Women's Organizations' Services.) This division initiated projects to assist military personnel, organized and publicized work related to the war effort, and coordinated the efforts of women in local communities. In addition, the Committee on Personal Service was created to supervise and guide the work of field personnel servicing Jews in the military. By the end of the war, there were 626 Army and Navy Committees organized throughout the United States serving Jewish servicemen.

JWB's war activities also reached around the globe. Chaplains could be found in the West Indies, India, Burma, China, North Africa, the Pacific Islands, Europe and the Middle East. They served on hospital and transport ships, on the ground with the infantry, and were among the first to reach the concentration camps and assist survivors. By the end of the war, a total of 311 JWB chaplains had served in the military.

One of the main activities and tasks of JWB during the war was providing chaplains with the necessary supplies to meet the needs of Jewish soldiers. Enormous amounts of festival accessories, troop comforts, and kosher food were transported around the world and given to chaplains. Similarly, the recreational needs of soldiers were met by JWB at various USO buildings at home and abroad. In 1943, JWB helped organize Jewish Hospitality Committees in Great Britain to aid Jewish servicemen. Religious hospitality centers, containing synagogues, social rooms, snack bars, and kosher kitchens, were set up by field representatives in Europe, Australia, India, and China. JWB also assisted in refugee work by providing religious services, parties, reading materials and textbooks for the displaced of Europe.

The Women's Organizations' Division supplemented the work of the USO and the Jewish Chaplaincy. Through the efforts of Serve-a-Chaplain Committees the ladies helped gather supplies for chaplains. Members of the Serve-a-Hospital and Serve-a-Veterans Hospital Committees visited wounded veterans to help improve their morale. Included among the many items provided to Jewish servicemen by the women's division were games, books, records, toilet articles, holiday equipment, knitted goods, holiday material, and food parcels.

The global war effort demanded a great exertion on the part of JWB to send supplies overseas. By 1946, JWB had distributed 900,000 packages of Matzoth, 30,000 gallons of wine, 50,000 cans of kosher meat, and 50,000 pounds of salami. Tons of fish, macaroons, and other holiday delicacies were provided to servicemen around the world. Moreover, 6 million books and pamphlets were produced and distributed by JWB. Two million holiday leaflets and 8.5 million holiday greeting cards were sent overseas. The circulation of religious accessories such as prayer books reached into the tens of thousands.

With guidance provided by JWB, JCCs and YM-YWHAs also played an important role in the war effort. Many community center buildings became USOs and center workers provided servicemen with recreational programs, dances, parties, and hospitality. Center workers participated in Red Cross blood bank drives and the sale of war bonds. Furthermore, many JCCs began to provide nursery services and expanded educational opportunities for families with men in uniform.

New Directions, Goals, and Organization in the Post-World War II Era (1948-1967)

After World War II JWB began to redefine its programs and objectives to meet the needs of the Jewish community in post-World War II America and recast itself into a national social welfare agency helping to expand and develop the JCC movement. In 1947 JWB adopted a Statement of Principles on Jewish Community Center Purposes that became the credo of Center work and a condition of affiliation with JWB. This new credo made clear that Jewish content was fundamental to the JCC program and that the Centers were to become agencies for Jewish identification and integration. Center programs would encourage the development of Jewish culture, and provide educational and recreational opportunities for members. Furthermore, as a democratic institution, the Centers were to help advance democracy and the integration of the American Jew into American society.

Over the next few years, JWB reorganized itself to meet its new responsibilities and as the Cold War began in 1948, JWB was ready to engage in a worldwide service to build and maintain the spiritual and morale life of Jewish GIs and dependents, and to assist Jewish chaplains and Jewish civilian communities.

JWB services to Jewish Community Centers (1948-1967)

JWB developed and provided a multitude of program services for JCCs during the 1950s and 1960s. It offered budgeting and building management advice, training services for center staff and executives, assistance in the purchasing of equipment and supplies, consultation in developing public relations programs, and aid in the establishment of health insurance coverage and retirement plans for center workers.

Young people were an important part of the JCC, and JWB sponsored programs and activities designed to awaken their Jewish heritage. Additionally, JWB sponsored inter-city leadership training conferences, cultural workshops and seminars, study tours of Europe and Israel, exchange visits with families overseas, international Jewish youth assemblies and, in 1965, a national training institute for youth.

During the 1960s both senior citizens and women became increasingly involved with the Center movement. To alleviate the isolation that came with old age, JWB encouraged special cultural, social, and recreational services to seniors. Women also turned to the JCCs for programming aid and leadership, and both regional and national leadership institutes were offered to Jewish women.

JWB continued to provide a great number of services to JCCs. The camping service program was designed to strengthen Jewish identification and community as well as to provide an appreciation for Jewish life. Day and suburban camp participants included children, families, the elderly and the physically handicapped. The evaluation of camping sites, the development of camping programs, and the training and recruitment of staff were tasks that JWB performed for the Centers. The health and physical well being of JCC members also became a concern of JWB. Professional staff assisted center workers in the programming and planning of health activities. Additionally, JWB sponsored basketball, volleyball, golf, handball, and swimming tournaments around the country. It also helped to establish permanent athletic links between American Centers and Jewish youth organizations in Israel and other countries. By the mid-1960s, one million people were participating in the health and physical education programs sponsored by JWB and community centers.

The promotion of Jewish culture also continued to be an integral part of the JWB program. Rich cultural programs were brought to hundreds of JCCs by the Lecture Bureau, exposing Center members to Jewish speakers, artists, thinkers, and exponents of the Jewish way of life. The Jewish Book Council supported and promoted an appreciation for Jewish literature in English, Hebrew, and Yiddish while the Jewish Music Council supported Jewish culture through music. Publications promoting Jewish culture were distributed by JWB to JCCs, synagogues, youth agencies, women's groups, and fraternal organizations.

JWB services to GIs (1948-1967)

In conjunction with the development of the JCC movement during the 1950s and 1960s, JWB continued offering services to American Jewish GIs. Chaplains provided religious literature and services, conducted educational programs, gave pastoral counseling to servicemen, and visited soldiers in hospitals around the world. They were assisted in these tasks by the newly created Military Sisterhoods, organized by Jewish servicemen's wives. These groups planned programs and obtained supplies for GI congregations. The USO also continued its leadership role and helped mobilize local Jewish community resources. Finally, the Women's Organizations' Services established a mail order service that sent items to chaplains and other volunteers serving Jewish servicemen abroad. Books, records, magazines, films, children's texts, classroom supplies, holiday decorations, and arts-and-crafts-materials were some of the items sent by the WOS to military posts around the world.

Jewish Links Abroad (1948-1967)

One of the major goals of JWB after World War II was the establishment of the JCC movement abroad. During the 1950s, JWB program materials were translated into French, Spanish, Italian, Hebrew and Yiddish. Foreign youth councils were assisted and the introduction of Jewish Book and Music Councils overseas was begun. JWB also helped sponsor several international conferences hoping to strengthen the ties of Jews around the world. Among these were the Jewish Community Center World Fellowship Project (1955), the Conference of European and American Center Leaders (1964), the Standing Conference on European Jewish Community Services (1965) and the Commission on Centers and Camps (1965). In 1947 the World Federation of YMHAs and JCCs was created to aid in the revival of Jewish life around the world. (The Jerusalem Y became a major responsibility of the World Federation when it opened in 1950.) Finally, a dual exchange program was established with Israeli social workers that gave both Israeli and American Jews the opportunity to experience each other's Jewish cultures.

Change and Growth in the Post-World War II Era

In the Post-World War II Era, JWB moved away from giving direct program services to the JCCs and instead, became more of a coordinating and consulting agency that provided resources, program materials, and technical guidance to JCCs to make Jewish values and traditions relevant to contemporary life in the United States.

During the 1950s and 1960s JWB was successful in encouraging JCCs to become more family oriented to strengthen Jewish family life in a time of social and economic change. The Centers were recognized as serving important Jewish communal purposes, and became symbols and rallying points for Jewish living. With JWB guidance, JCCs helped to preserve, nourish, and give meaning in America to Jewish heritage and life.

Celebrations, Civil Rights and War (1967-1969)

In 1967, JWB marked its 50th anniversary by sponsoring new Jewish musical compositions and plays. The Jewish Book Council celebrated its 25th anniversary by publishing a 448-page volume dedicated to American Jewish authors. Meanwhile, the Commission on Jewish Chaplaincy (originally founded in 1917 as the Chaplain's Committee) observed its silver jubilee by initiating new programs to provide religious and cultural materials and training to an expanding corps of lay leaders. Finally, the Women's Organizations Services re-dedicated itself on its 25th anniversary by developing innovative programs to help assist military families.

The building of new centers continued at a rapid pace. Between 1945 and 1969, 120 new JCCs were built. These new buildings reflected the changing needs and interests of the local Jewish community. Some of the more modern facilities included homes for the aged, day care centers, fixed seat theatres, practice music rooms, creative art rooms, jogging tracks, and therapy pools for the physically handicapped.

To meet the demand for qualified staff to work in the expanding JCCs, JWB created the Bureau of Careers in Jewish Service to recruit Jewish civil servants and social workers. JWB offered national training services to the JCCs and provided open job listings of all professional vacancies, to encourage workers to stay in the social work field. Twenty-five different training projects were carried out by JWB's Training Services Department to orient new Center workers and to up-grade the skills of those already in the field. By 1969, the recruitment of Center workers had become a function of local Jewish communities with guidance provided by JWB's Personnel Services Department.

Qualified rabbis were also in short supply during the 1960s. As opposition to the war in Vietnam increased, the Commission on Jewish Chaplaincy (CJC) intensified its recruitment efforts and continued to recruit lay leaders to carry on religious and educational programs for Jewish servicemen. To help alleviate the shortage of chaplains, in 1966, JWB developed a retention plan that encouraged rabbis to make the military chaplaincy a career. In 1969 the CJC began recruiting chaplains among rabbis holding civilian positions. JWB also helped organize regional conferences of Jewish chaplains, community leaders, JCC staff, and regional consultants to help develop a better understanding of the needs of servicemen.

At the close of the 1960s JWB offered an energetic program that detected new social work needs, charted new directions, and pioneered new advances in social work practice. JWB's Service to Small Communities program began offering services to small and isolated Jewish communities throughout the country. It developed new programs to serve Jewish college youth and learn more about the attitudes, needs, and interests of the college generation. More intensive programming in Jewish music, drama, graphic arts, theatre, and dance were encouraged. And finally, displays of American Jewish history were developed and viewed by thousands in the Centers.

Many of the programs and policies of JWB were shaped to a large degree by the increasing racial confrontation and social and political turmoil of the 1960s. Rising anti-Semitism in the black community led to an examination of how JCCs could contribute to an improvement in black-white relationships. As a result, the Centers began many social, recreational, and cultural programs in urban areas. These programs included tutorial and remedial reading classes, Center day and resident camps for the poor, head start programs, and child-care centers. Although most of these programs were offered to disadvantaged blacks, Puerto Ricans, Mexican-Americans, and impoverished Jews also participated. Center activities on behalf of the poor and disenfranchised reflected the belief of the majority of the Jewish community that Jews had a moral and economic interest in eliminating the causes of racial disorder and poverty.

The development of links overseas continued to grow, particularly after the Six-Day War in 1967. The fate of Israel found a place in the hearts and minds of the Jewish people and the JCCs were infused with a new energy. They helped organize, direct, and motivate Jewish support for the state of Israel. JWB expertise was used to train staff in Israeli centers.

Overseas links to Europe and other areas around the world were nurtured by JWB's international consultation program. JWB and Center professionals contributed to the planning and workshops of the International Conference of Jewish Communal Service in Jerusalem. Finally, JWB helped support outdoor Center demonstrations in support of Soviet Jewry.

The JCCs respond to a changing Society

Like most of America, the JWB and JCC movement was swept up in the societal changes of the 1970s and 1980s. The Jewish community faced a rise in alternative household arrangements that had little connection to the synagogue or JCC movement. Many Jews were single or divorced with children and a growing number were over the age of fifty. Moreover, the trend of intermarriage, assimilation, and lower births threatened the long-term survival of the Jewish community. As a result of these changes, JWB began to develop new cultural and educational programs to strengthen the Jewish community.

Various counseling, single parent support groups, and recreational activities were started by JWB in response to the changing family environment. Programs were also developed for the homebound elderly, Jewish children unaffiliated with Jewish organizations, and older adults. Children, adults, and families were encouraged to explore their Jewish heritage and culture and to join synagogues and temples.

As the 1980s progressed, fathering programs were designed to assist men as they took on additional parenting responsibilities at home. New day care programs for the elderly and horticultural therapy were offered to senior citizens. A Shalom Newcomers Network was begun to help Jewish families and individuals put down Jewish roots in new communities. By the end of the decade, the JCCs had developed a wide array of programs to deal with such everyday concerns as heart disease prevention, child abuse, and AIDS prevention.

JWB reinforced its long-term commitment to Jewish education during the 1980s. To help the JCCs reach their full educational potential, in 1983 the Commission on Maximizing Jewish Education in Jewish Community Centers was given the task of studying Jewish educational programming. As a result of this study, new programs designed to stimulate Jewish awareness, knowledge, and identification were introduced into the JCCs. A wide range of educational activities for young and old, men and women, were established throughout the JCCs to enrich Jewish life and deepen their sense of Jewish identity and commitment.

Foreign contacts continued and expanded with Jews in Venezuela, Canada, France, Israel, and in the Soviet Union. The JCCs celebrated the 30th anniversary of Israeli's founding with special expos, walk-a-thons, music and dance programs, presentations, and athletic events. By 1979, there were ninety-one community centers in the Jewish State. JWB recognized the importance of its Israel connection when, in 1980, it helped sponsor the Israel Desk Program. This program was developed to encourage North American Jews to go to Israel to work, study, perform voluntary services, or perhaps to settle. It was aimed at making Israel more accessible to American Jewry.

The influx of Russian Jews into the United States propelled the development of special JWB programs to ease the pains of readjustment. New programs in housing, healthcare, and legal rights were developed to help assimilate the new immigrants, and special classes in the reading and writing of English were also offered.

New Directions and Programs

In 1990 JWB, in order to more accurately reflect the organization's mission and goals, and its connection with the Jewish Community Center movement, changed its name to the Jewish Community Centers Association of North America (JCC Association). The JCC Association resolved to become more proactive in anticipating the needs of the Jewish community and in providing the mechanisms and resources to meet those needs.

The 1990s witnessed the introduction of new programs and relationships overseas. A summer teen experience in Israel was launched, which emphasized education and leadership skills. In addition, executive training for Israeli staff was expanded and included graduate level courses focusing on Jewish issues within the context of Israel. An Israeli Fellowship Program and leadership training seminars were also offered. In 1999, the JCC Association began the Birthright Israel program, which sponsored first-time visits to Israel for American Jews. In the same year, the JCC Maccabi Xperience was started for high school and college students and for young professionals up to the age of 33. Maccabi programs included visits to cultural, historical, and geographical sites throughout Israel.

The JCC Association also began to help rebuild Jewish communities in the former Soviet Union. Since most Russian Jews had little or no exposure to the Jewish religion, the JCC movement primarily concentrated on building connections to Jewish communities. JCC programs stressed the promotion of Jewish culture, education, and Jewish life. By 1997 thirty-eight JCCs were in operation in Russia.

At home, the JCC Association continued the development of various programs to meet the needs of the Jewish community. Early childhood programs were promoted in the Centers, Young Judaea Clubs were started, and teen leadership summits, exploring such issues as respect, tolerance, and conflict resolution, were begun. The JCCs continued to stress the development of educational opportunities for its members. Programs to better educate and train lay leaders were started; scholarship and fellowship programs for teenagers were introduced; and an endowment was funded to bring world-class Jewish scholars to JCC conferences. Finally, continental standards to help measure JCC performances in meeting the goals of the movement were developed, covering everything from Jewish education programs to the safe storage of supplies.

With the beginning of the new century, the JCC Association had gone high tech. It launched an online resource for Jewish early childhood educators and created an Internet service so that JCC professionals could interact with each other more efficiently. In addition, the JCC Association continued to develop innovative programming for the Jewish community. For instance, programs were established to educate and train JCC staff in integrating disabled youth into center activities. The JCC Association and the National Foundation of Jewish Culture helped create the Jewish Council for the Arts to promote Jewish art and culture. To reflect the growing needs of adults over fifty years old, a JCC task force began the development of new and modern adult programming. Additionally, a JCC North America Kallah program was begun to provide focused, high profile, and exciting adult Jewish programming. In the year 2000, the JCC Association Center for Jewish Education was started with the goal of providing on-going training and development for JCC professionals. This new educational association serves as a resource for Jewish educators and provides them with guidance in the development of Center education initiatives.

The new century finds the JCC Association continuing to adapt, innovate, and refine its vision of the future. Like its predecessors, the goal of the JCC Association is to strengthen the bonds of the Jewish community. Thus, the theme of the 2000 Biennial was "Building Meaningful Jewish Community" and it found over 1000 lay leaders, board members, presidents and executives from JCCs across North America examining their past, debating plans for the future, and demonstrating the commitment of the JCC movement to American Jewry.

Unfortunately, there are no full-length contemporary studies of the Jewish Welfare Board or the Jewish Community Center movement, and the Board does not seem to have published any annual reports from 1970 to the mid-1990s. Therefore, researchers should consult the JCC Association's website (http://www.jcca.org) and the serial publications The JWB Circle and The JCC Circle for more current information about the Jewish Community Center movement.

Chronology

1917JWB organized in New York City, April 9, to serve religious and welfare needs of Jewish military personnel in World War I. The conference convened by National Council of YMHAs and Kindred Associations names Dr. Cyrus Adler President.
1917United States Government Commission on Training Camp Activities names JWB as Jewish community's instrument for serving military. JWB begins recruiting Rabbis as Chaplains and hundreds of field workers.
1917Commissioning of Jewish chaplains authorized by Congress at JWB's behest.
1917Colonel Harry Cutler succeeds Dr. Adler as JWB President.
1918JWB opens servicemen's Centers for Jewish soldiers at domestic and overseas posts, making extensive use of YM-YWHA buildings.
1918JWB becomes part of United War Work Campaign.
1918200 Jewish communities organized for war service.
1918National Association of Jewish Center Workers founded, with Aaron Robison as first President.
1919Registration and identification of Jewish war graves overseas undertaken by JWB.
1919Welfare needs of demobilized servicemen handled by JWB.
1920War Department asks JWB to continue morale services for peacetime military.
1921Merger with National Council of YMHAs and Kindred Associations, founded in 1913, makes JWB national association of Ys and JCCs and agency for serving Jews in military as of July 1.
1921New England, New Jersey, New York State and Pennsylvania Federations of YM-YWHAs and Metropolitan New York League of Jewish Community Associations, all antedating JWB, become part of new organization.
1921Judge Irving Lehman elected President.
1921Community studies and building fund campaign undertaken for new JCCs.
1921First training course for JCC workers established.
1922JWB begins intensive programming services to JCCs. Lecture Bureau organized and Jewish Center Quarterly Launched.
1922Building Bureau established for JCCs.
1922Welfare and religious services extended to Canal Zone.
1923Jewish Welfare Trust created from surplus of World War I funds.
1925President Coolidge joins JWB leaders in laying cornerstone of Washington, D.C., Center.
1925Veterans' Administration recognizes JWB as agency to present claims of Jewish veterans.
192547 new JCC buildings opened since end of war, bringing total to 120.
1925JWB helps create Graduate School for Jewish Social Work in New York.
1926Religious and welfare services extended to citizen military training camps.
1926JWB cooperates with American Battle Monuments Commission in marking Jewish war graves.
1927JWB convenes first training institute for JCC workers.
1928JWB joins Amateur Athletic Union and U.S. Olympic Committee as representative of Jewish Community in amateur sports.
1929JCCs become rallying points for protests against Arab riots in Palestine.
1929Stock Market crash brings halt to decades of new JCC building construction.
1930JWB helps form National Conference on Jewish Employment.
1931JWB Salon in Pershing World War I Memorial Hall in Paris dedicated.
1932Day Camp programming for JCCs launched by JWB.
1932First National Center Basketball Tournament and Air Mail Track Meet held.
1932JWB joins President Hoover's Welfare and Relief Mobilization.
1932JWB organizes American team for first Maccabiad in Palestine.
1933JWB helps launch mobilization for human needs under National Recovery Administration.
1934Department of Health Education and Camping established. JWB holds first camp counselors training course.
1935JWB and Centers organize American team for Palestine Maccabiad.
1936JWB leads fight to keep United States out of Nazi-controlled Berlin Olympic Games.
1936Personnel Department is organized.
1936Eleven societies on the West Coast organize the Pacific Coast Federation of JCCs, which is admitted into JWB two years later.
1937Expanding Center movement pays tribute to JWB on 20th anniversary at annual convention.
1938JWB spurs Centers to aid in assistance of refugees from Hitlerism.
1938JWB helps organize National Jewish Committee on Scouting.
1939Adoption of Mobilization Day Plan prepares JWB for wartime role.
1940War Department reaffirms JWB role as official representative of Jewish Community in serving military.
1940Expanded Committee on Army and Navy Religious Activities begins recruiting Jewish chaplains to meet mounting needs of Armed Forces.
1940Jewish Community Center Program Aids launched.
1940Frank L. Weil elected President.
1941JWB becomes a founding member of USO.
1941Hundreds of Jewish Communities mobilize for war service under JWB Banner.
1941JWB given responsibility for compiling record of Jewish military participation.
1942Organization of Jewish Community Center Division spurs service to Center field.
1942President Roosevelt lauds JWB on 25th anniversary for service to nation and communities.
1942Women's Organizations' Division created for war service.
1942JWB begins overseas operations for Armed Forces.
1942JWB helps establish Associated Youth Organizations, alliance of six national agencies, to map joint action on youth needs.
1943JWB serves military on five continents through chaplains, field workers, community groups, and USO.
1943JWB becomes constituent of Greater New York United Jewish Appeal.
1944Jewish Chaplains at side of GIs as European invasion begins.
1944Overseas Army and Navy Committees established.
1944JWB becomes sponsor of Jewish Book Council of America.
1944Southern Section of JWB is organized.
1944USO-JWB programs for military help generate Jewish activities in small Jewish communities.
1945War's end finds JWB serving in 588 communities and at 203 USO operations; 311 Jewish chaplains on duty.
1945JWB organizes National Jewish Music Council and launches Jewish Music Festival.
1945Independent survey of JWB to guide postwar programming and service initiated, with Dr. Salo W. Baron as head of survey commission and Dr. Oscar I. Janowsky as survey Director.
1945Jewish chaplains aid liberated concentration camp survivors.
1946President Truman pays tribute to JWB's wartime services.
1946JWB takes initiative in creating World Federation of YMHAs.
1946Women's Organizations' Division launches Serve-a-Hospital Program.
1946JWB Circle is born as Jewish Center Quarterly suspends publication.
1947JWB Survey calls for stressing Jewish goals and programs of Centers. Adoption of survey recommendations ushers in new era for Center movement.
1947"Americans in World War II," story of Jewish wartime heroism, by Dr. Samuel C. Kohs and I. Kaufman, published by JWB.
1947JWB joins in creating Training Bureau for Jewish communal service.
1947Jewish Music Council sponsors international competition for new compositions.
1948JWB becomes sponsor of American Jewish Historical Society.
1948Louis Kraft goes to Israel during Arab siege to set up Jerusalem YMHA.
1948JWB takes part in reconstituted USO, as new selective Service Act becomes law.
1948National Jewish Youth Conference founded under JWB auspices.
1948Centers become focal points of community celebrations hailing birth of State of Israel.
1949Center and Synagogue relationships explored by JWB and Synagogue Council of America.
1949First Jewish History Week is observed.
1949JWB joins Veterans Administration Voluntary Service Program.
1950Rabbis vote self-imposed draft to recruit military chaplains.
1950JWB helps form Associated Services for Armed Forces as USO deactivates.
1950Jerusalem YM-YWHA opened as first center in Israel.
1950Irving Edison elected President as Frank L. Weil retires.
1950JWB creates Frank L. Weil Awards in three areas of service.
1951President Truman tells JWB "Morale is your job, Keep it up!"
1951USO called back into service with JWB representing Jewish community.
1951Center Programs for aged expand under JWB impetus.
1952First JWB Year Book is issued.
1952New GI Haggadah published by Chaplaincy Commission.
1952JWB helps create council on Social Work Education.
1952American Jewish Historical Society again becomes independent society.
1953JWB sponsors observance of Jewish Community Center Centennial.
1953Nationwide drive to recruit Center workers launched by JWB.
1953JWB Servicemen's Club opens in Tokyo.
1953Ford Foundation grant helps train European Center workers in United States.
1954JWB program resources used in American Jewish Tercentenary Celebration.
1954President Eisenhower urges JWB to maintain morale services to military.
1954First book on Center practice published by NAJCW and JWB.
1954Commission on Center-Federation Relationships created.
1954Charles Aaron elected President.
1955Religious school curriculum for GI's children published by Chaplaincy Commission.
1956President Eisenhower hails JWB role in building good citizenship.
1956JWB Associates is launched.
1957Personnel at newly opened missile bases get JWB morale services.
1957Scholarship program expanded for qualified young people seeking careers in Center work.
1957National Jewish Writers Conference sponsored by Jewish Book Council.
1958Sabbath Programming Policy for Centers is adopted.
1958Jewish Chaplains on scene as Middle East crisis erupts.
1958Code to promote Center-Federation ties approved.
1958Lloyd W. Dinkelspiel elected President.
1959Jewish values in Center programming appraised at JWB conference.
1959Chaplaincy Commission prepares Jewish section in Tri-Faith Hymnal.
1959First National Training Institute held for Center women leaders.
1959Solomon Litt elected President on death of Lloyd W. Dinkelspiel.
1960Centers assume role in JWB financing with the adoption of Fair Share Plan at JWB Biennial.
1960JWB joins Council of Cultural Agencies.
1960JWB takes active role in White House Conference on Children and Youth.
1961Broad reappraisal of JWB structure and services is launched.
1961Findings of JWB Study on Teenagers is published.
1961New military buildup spurs call for more Jewish chaplains and JWB service.
1961National Public Affairs Committee established.
1961JWB participates in White House Conference on Aging.
1961JWB Year Book reports that 83 new Centers erected since end of war have cost $80,000,000.
1961S.D. Gershovitz Memorial Young Adult Research Project started.
1962Major JWB structural and service changes begin as reappraisal report is adopted.
1962Centennial of Jewish Military Chaplaincy.
1962Cuban crisis brings swift JWB mobilization.
1962JWB aids Canadian Ys to form National Council.
1962National Conference on Center Programming in the Arts convened.
1963JWB Research Center established in cooperation with NAJCW.
1963Domestic Peace Corps and U.S. Cultural Arts Program endorsed by JWB.
1963Dedication of Air Force Academy Chapel equipped through JWB efforts.
1963JWB enunciates supportive position on Civil Rights and urges Centers to follow suit.
1963Consolidation of regional center and Armed Services work begins.
1963JWB joins in observance of 20th anniversary of Warsaw Ghetto Revolt.
1964Soviet Anti-Semitism protested by JWB.
1964Findings of JWB Young Adult Study made public.
1964JWB Canal Zone Center aids refugees from Panama riots.
1964Jewish chaplain and JWB supplies reach Vietnam.
1964President Johnson says JWB and JCCs enrich American life.
1964Ground broken for new Jerusalem YM-YWHA building.
1964Florence G. Heller elected first woman President of JWB.
1965JWB, Hillel and Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds join forces in Conference on Jewish Young Adults.
1965JWB launches two way exchange program between U.S. and Israeli social workers as 23 American JCC workers attend training seminar in Israel and Israeli workers are placed in American Centers.
1965Jewish chaplain aids wounded as crisis erupts in Dominican Republic.
1965JWB leaders participate in meetings with European Center leaders.
1965Two more Jewish Chaplains reach Vietnam as JWB takes steps to meet increased needs of military personnel.
1965First National Teenage Training Institute convened by JWB.
1966Louis Stern elected President on death of Mrs. Florence G. Heller.
1966Lavanburg-Corner House (New York City) renews grant to spur recruitment of JCC workers.
1966Year long celebration of JWB's 50th anniversary launched at Golden Jubilee Biennial Convention.
1967JWB mobilizes support for Israel during the six-day war.
1967The Women's Organizations' Services celebrates its 25th anniversary.
1967The Montreal YM-YWHA opens the Saidye Bronfman Center as the first Center branch entirely devoted to Jewish education programming and activities.
1967Top priority is given to solving the critical manpower shortage in the Center field.
1967New Jerusalem YM-YWHA building opened.
1968JWB helps JCCs develop social, recreational and cultural projects for the disadvantaged poor as part of an overall Jewish strategy to cope with the crisis in the cities and to help end poverty.
1968Florence G. Heller Award for distinguished contributions to JWB's fields of work established.
1968JWB begins its Service to Small Communities program.
1968JCCs take part in mass demonstrations of solidarity with Soviet Jewry.
1968JWB becomes a full-fledged member in the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations.
1968Israelis' are employed in American Centers as part of a cultural exchange program.
1968JWB Study Committee recommends that the JWB shift its emphasis away from responding to existing problems to detecting new needs, charting new directions, and pioneering advances in social work practice.
1970JWB is joint sponsor of International Israel Youth Festival, which is attended by 100 15-17 year old American boys and girls and 500 youths from South Africa, South America, and Israel.
1970JWB convention focuses on major concerns of American society and Jewish community: drug addiction, student rebellion on college campuses, inner city problems, and needs of the aged.
1970Morton Mandel elected President.
1971CJC announces draft boards will give "favorable consideration" to requests for postponement of physical examination for induction into Armed Forces during Passover.
1971JWB Year Book reports peak JCC memberships of more than 782,000 and total of 34,506,000 participants in activities, reflecting growing role of JCCs and Ys.
1971JWB, in partnership with Israel's Ministry of Education, announces it will send 100 American teen-agers to participate with Jewish youth from other countries in summer pilgrimage to Israel.
1971JWB establishes National Commissions on Jewish Communal Camping and Jewish Cultural Programming.
1971JWB arranges two-week fact-finding mission to Europe for North American center presidents to study problems of Jewish communities in large European cities.
1972JWB receives $100,000 grant earmarked for helping JCCs deal with social change.
1972JWB announces State of Israel 25th Anniversary as theme of Jewish Book Month. Annual Prize for most distinguished book on Jewish History established.
1972JWB issues Voter Registration for Youth, containing suggestions for organizing campaigns for young voters.
1972JWB asks President Nixon to urge freedom for Jewish prisoners of conscience and for right of Jews to immigrate to country of their choice.
1972JCCs hold memorial services for Jewish athletes murdered at Munich Olympics.
1973JWB, Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, Union of American Hebrew Congregations, National Council of Jewish Women, Synagogue Council of America, and Central Conference of American Rabbis all urge Nixon administration not to abandon social programs aiding the poor, the ill, minorities, and children.
1973Number of participants in JCC and Y activities increases to 41,025,933.
1974Daniel Rose elected President.
1974JWB sends U.S. and Canadian Jewish center leaders to Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Panama, and Mexico to study problems and programs of major Jewish communities; Argentinean and Mexican Jewish leaders subsequently visit U.S., to strengthen their connection to JWB and JCC leaders.
1975Rabbi Bertram Korn, member of CJC, is promoted to rank of Rear Admiral, Chaplain Corps, U.S. Naval Reserve, and becomes first Jewish Chaplain to achieve star rank in any branch of military service.
1976JWB sponsors a wide variety of bicentennial events.
1977JWB ushers in 60th year of service, with pledges to continue cooperation between America and Israel, and to take on new social-welfare challenges.
1977JWB research center awards $19,600 grant to Y of Washington Heights in New York City, for evaluation of outreach program for homebound elderly.
1977JWB convention adopts resolution opposing sale of weapons to "countries in confrontation with Israel."
1977Jewish Federations and JCCs throughout North America participate in National Walk-a-Thon for Israel, sponsored by United Jewish Appeal.
1978JWB participates in First World Conference of Jewish Community Centers held in Israel.
1978First JWB Communications Award competition held.
1979Robert Adler elected President.
1982JWB initiates Commission on Maximizing Jewish Educational Effectiveness (COMJEE).
1983Esther Leah Ritz becomes JWB President.
1984COMJEE report released in September.
1986Leonard Rochwarger assumes JWB Presidency.
1987Donald Mintz becomes JWB president.
1990JWB is renamed Jewish Community Centers Association of North America (JCC Association.)
1990Lester Pollack assumes JCC Association Presidency.
1995COMJEE II report released.
1995Ann P. Kaufman assumes JCC Association Presidency.
1996JCC Association establishes a Strategic Planning Commission to chart a course for the future.
1997Over 4,200 teens participate in JCC Maccabi Games, a weeklong athletic competition.
1997Allan Finkelstein, JCC Association Executive Vice-President, visits St. Petersburg and Moscow to advise and assist JCC staff and lay leaders in effort to rebuild Jewish community.
1998Beyond 2000, JCC Association's strategic plan containing steps to maintain the vitality of the JCC movement, is unveiled.
1999JCC Maccabi Xperience Israel Program, formed by merger of JCC Association's Israel Teen Connection with Massada Maccabi Israel Summer program, is founded.
1999Jerome B. Makowsky becomes JCC Association President.
2000JCC Association and National Foundation of Jewish Culture jointly create Jewish Councils for the Arts throughout the country.
2000JCC Association receives annual renewable grant of $500,000 from the Mandel Foundation, for the establishment of the JCC Association Center for Jewish Education.
2000Allen Finkelstein assumes JCC Association Presidency.
2000Implementation of "You Belong Here" program to promote the JCC movement throughout North America.
2000JCC Association web site launched.
2001Theme of JCC Association Leadership Retreat is "Building Partnerships: The Road to Meaningful 21st Century Jewish Community." Over 200 leaders from JCCs and American Jewish institutions attend.
2003Jewish chaplains participate in memorial service at NASA headquarters for seven victims of Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.
2003JCC Maccabi Games receive nomination for best multi-sport or multi-discipline event in the amateur events category of the 2003 SportsTravel Readers' Choice Awards
2004In an effort to improve service to young Jewish adults relocating after college, JCC Association formed a strategic alliance with GesherCity, an initiative which connects young men and women to the Jewish communities in Boston, Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, Chicago, New Jersey, and Baltimore.
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Scope and Content Note

This collection documents the National Jewish Welfare Board's (JWB) evolution from an organization founded in 1917 to provide support for soldiers in times of war, to an agency involved in all aspects of Jewish life both in the U.S. and abroad. The bulk of the material falls between 1921 and 1988. (In 1990, JWB recreated itself as the Jewish Community Centers Association of North America.)

The collection consists of four main groups, each of which reflects a different function of JWB. Subgroup I, Governance, details the inner workings and operations of JWB, while Subgroup II, Jewish Community Centers, offers information on the various activities JCCs provided for their members, as well as a look at the services and assistance which JWB supplied to the centers itself. Subgroup III, Veterans' Affairs, describes JWB's efforts in support of soldiers, veterans, and their families, and Subgroup IV, Affiliated Organizations documents JWB's sponsorship of and partnership with other national Jewish organizations. (It should be noted that considerable overlap does exist between the subgroups.) Subgroups V and VI consist of audio-visual and oversized materials which were removed from the first four subgroups.

Additional detailed description for each subgroup, series, and subseries is found below.

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Arrangement and Collection Navigation

The collection has been arranged into the six subgroups listed below. The links lead to detailed description of each subgroup, series, and subseries.

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file, which include instructions for how to search and navigate the container list.

When requesting a box or folder, please be sure to note which subgroup the material is found in and the sticker associated with that subgroup.

Boxes are numbered and stickered by subgroup as follows:

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Access and Use

Access Restrictions

The collection is open to all researchers by permission of the Director of Library and Archives of the American Jewish Historical Society, except items that are restricted due to their fragility.

Use Restrictions

Information concerning the literary rights may be obtained from the Director of Library and Archives of the American Jewish Historical Society. Users must apply in writing for permission to quote, reproduce or otherwise publish manuscript materials found in this collection. For more information contact:
American Jewish Historical Society, Center for Jewish History, 15 West 16th Street, New York, NY, 10011
email: reference@ajhs.org

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Related Material

I-9 American Jewish Committee, Office of War Records
I-52 National Jewish Welfare Board, Bureau of War Records
I-69 Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds
I-74 Boston Hecht Neighborhood House
I-88 National Association of Jewish Social Workers
I-180 National Jewish Welfare Board, Army Navy Division
I-249 National Jewish Welfare Board, Military Chaplaincy
I-298 National Jewish Welfare Board
P-16 Cyrus Adler
P-33 Isaac Siegel
P-34 Milton Weill
P-58 Rabinoff, George
P-90 Samuel Kalmin Kohs
P-554 Solender Family
P-673 Louis Kraft

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Preferred Citation

Published citations should take the following form:
Identification of item, date (if known); National Jewish Welfare Board, Records; I-337; box number; folder number; American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY, and Boston, MA.

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Acquisition Information

The Records of the National Jewish Welfare Board were transferred to the American Jewish Historical Society starting in 1968.

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Access Points

Click on a subject to search that term in the Center's catalog. Return to the Top of Page

Container List

The following section contains a detailed description of the materials in the collection.

 

Subgroup I: Governance, 1905-1990 (bulk 1917-1990)

The predominant language of the subgroup is English.
299 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Primarily alphabetical. This subgroup is divided into five series: Series A: Governing Body; Series B: Fund-Raising; Series C: Central Records Center; Series D: Conventions and Committees; and Series E: JWB Survey.

Scope and Content:

This subgroup documents the internal operations of JWB, including review of JWB's financial situation. Material on JWB's efforts to provide guidance to JCC's is also included. JWB was concerned with maintaining an accurate record of its history and operations and so created its Central Records Center, the contents of which are also included here.

Series A: Governing Body, 1918-1990 (bulk 1922-1977)

63 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series is divided into four subseries: 1) Annual Meetings; 2) Associate Executive Director/Vice President; 3) Executive Director/Vice President; and 4) Office of the President.

Scope and Content:

This series documents the inner workings of JWB and also reflects its interactions with other Jewish and non-Jewish organizations, including government agencies.

Subseries 1: Annual Meetings, 1919-1926, 1928-1932, 1934-1971 (bulk 1941-1969)

English.
21 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries is divided into Annual Meeting Proceedings (1919-1969) and Board of Directors Steno-reports (undated, 1961-1971). Arranged chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This subseries documents JWB's activities and programs - including discussions of future plans - and provides a look at the inner workings of JWB's higher councils. The status and development of Jewish Community Centers (JCCs) in the USA and abroad is also documented here. The files located here relate to JWB's Biennial Conventions and meetings of the Executive Committee and Board of Directors; also included are proceedings of JWB's Fund Raising and Jewish Community Centers Divisions, Executive Council, and Finance Committee. Speeches by various JWB staff members, such as Cyrus Adler, the first president of JWB; Irving Lehman (president, 1921-1940); Frank Weil (president, 1940-1950), and Louis Kraft (Executive Director, 1939-1947) can also be found here. In addition, the subseries includes financial statements, constitutions, and annual reports of JWB. (The files from 1961 to 1969 consist solely of annual reports, but there are none for 1970 or 1971.) Material types include reports, correspondence, brochures, by-laws, clippings, newsletters, press releases, proposals, resolutions, surveys, transcripts, and drafts.

Related Materials: Subgroup I: Governance/Series B: Fund Raising/Subseries 4: Support and Development Services; Subgroup I: Governance/Series C: Central Records Center/Subseries 4: History Files/By-Laws and Constitutions; Subgroup I: Governance/Series D: Conventions and Committees/Subseries 1: JWB Biennial Conventions. Additional meeting material can be found throughout the collection.

Subseries 2: Associate Executive Director/Vice President, 1944-1978

English.
12 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries is divided into three subsubseries: 1) Solomon Greenfield Files (1975-1978), 2) Herbert Millman Files (1944-1970), and 3) Subject Files (1944-1967, 1970). Arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This subseries consists of materials compiled by Associate Executive Director Solomon Greenfield. (Greenfield served as Associate Executive Director from 1980 until his retirement in 2000.) The Greenfield materials also include some files of Herman Markowitz, who served as Director of Western Services, 1971-1978. Also included here are the files of Herbert Millman, Associate Executive Director, 1960-1970. The Millman files include material on the relationships between JWB and the USO, and between synagogues, federations, and centers. In addition, work plans of the Field Services Division can be found here. Subject files contain material on regional sections of JWB, as well as Appraisal Committee material, and meeting minutes of the Committee on Center-Federation Relationship and the Jewish Community Centers Division. Records also include annual reports, studies, correspondence, clippings, organizational charts, proceedings, proposals, policies, reports, plans, resolutions, surveys and manuals.

Subseries 3: Executive Director/Vice President, 1967-1968, 1970-1990

English, German, French, and Hebrew.
9 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries is divided into two subsubseries: 1) EVP Name Files (1967-1968, 1970-1990) and 2) EVP Nominating Committee Files (1980-1989). Arranged chronologically and alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This subseries documents the administration of JWB from the late 1960s through 1990. The bulk of these documents relate to Sanford Solender, who served as Executive Director from 1960 to 1970. Material on Executive Directors Herbert Millman (1970-1976) and Arthur Rotman (1977-1995) and Presidents Louis Stern (1966-1969) and Morton L. Mandel (1970-1974) is also located here. The files provide information on the JCC movement, both in the USA and abroad. Other issues include civil rights, selective service, JWB administration, Israel, war claims against Germany, JWB's relationship with other Jewish organizations, union and personnel matters, and contemporary issues concerning the Jewish community and JWB. The subseries also contains photographs of Herbert Millman, Morton L. Mandel, and General Westmoreland, Army Chief of Staff. Document types include correspondence, press releases and clippings, meeting minutes, financial statements, architectural drawings, workbooks, and photographs, which are located in the Audio-Visual Materials subgroup.

Subseries 4: Office of the President, 1918-1964

English, Hebrew, and Yiddish.
21 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries is divided into three subsubseries: 1) Frank L. Weil Files (1918-1957; bulk 1937-1950), 2) Frank L. Weil Award Files (1950-1964), and 3) Irving Edison Files (1942-1956; bulk 1950-1956). Arranged alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This subseries consists mainly of the files of Frank Weil, who served as JWB president from 1940 to 1950. Some material relating to Irving Edison, JWB president from 1950 to 1954, can also be found here. As such, the documents provide information as to the activities and preoccupations of JWB's leaders during and immediately after World War II. Of particular note is the material on Jewish veteran affairs and files relating to JWB's efforts during World War II, including JWB's relationships with the Army and Navy, and with the USO. JWB's relationship with other Jewish and non-Jewish organizations is also documented here. (The subseries also includes a small amount of material related to the Frank L. Weil award, which was first given in 1951. The award recognizes distinguished work in JWB's three areas of focus: the JCC field, the Armed Services field, and the advancement of American Jewish culture.) The records contain correspondence, clippings, press releases, sketches, brochures, budget and financial materials, reports, speeches, by-laws and constitutions, histories, manuals, and photographs and recordiographs, which are located in the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup.

Series B: Fund Raising Services, 1948-1986 (bulk 1950-1983)

51 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series is divided into four subseries: 1) Fund Raising Division; 2) JWB Associates; 3) Large City Budgeting Conference; and 4) Support and Development Services.

Scope and Content:

The Fund Raising Services Department reviewed the financial condition of JWB and expedited communication between the various members of JWB, the Centers, and the National Finance Council.

Subseries 1: Fund Raising Division, 1948-1966

English.
6 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Arranged chronologically and alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The Fund Raising Division functioned as the primary means to raise the funds needed to meet the cost of operating all of JWB divisions. The JWB received monies from various Jewish Welfare funds, Community Councils and, in New York City, from the Greater New York United Jewish Appeal fund. The JCCs and YMHAs around the country and Canada make up the rest of the monies needed to balance the budget. Other activities documented are the Korean War effort of JWB, community visits examining the fund raising campaigns of the Centers, and the meetings of the National Finance Council.

Types of material include correspondence, pamphlets, newsletters, reports, financial statements, memoranda, articles, speeches, minutes, flyers, rules and regulations, bulletins, news clippings, press releases, policies, plans and procedures, field surveys, and photographs (located in Audio/Visual Subgroup).

Subseries 2: JWB Associates, 1967-1984 (bulk 1980-1984)

English.
6 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Arranged chronologically and alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

At the 1956 Biennial a new group called JWB Associates came into being to draw from the larger JWB family. Although construed as a fund raising effort, the objective was to raise awareness in the community of all the functions of JWB, including services rendered to the Armed Forces overseas. JWB Facts says "JWB Associates was established in order to give individual community leaders in all part of the country an opportunity to express concretely their belief in the values of JWB's activities and to actively support its work beyond their regular contribution to their local Jewish federations and welfare funds."1

The subseries highlights the fund raising and membership campaigns of JWB Associates as well as their role within the communities.

The kinds of records found are brochures, membership lists, drafts, correspondence, worksheets, requisitions, computer printouts, and photographs (located in Audio-Visual Material Subgroup).

1 About JWB Associates," JWB Facts, undated, I-337 NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society.

Related Materials: Subgroup I: Governance/Series B: Fund Raising Services/Subseries 4: Support and Development.

Subseries 3: Large City Budgeting Conference, 1982-1983

English.
1 linear foot.
Arrangement:

Arranged chronologically and alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The Large City Budgeting Conference is an informal association of Jewish welfare funds that annually engages in analysis and review of national and overseas agency programs and budgets. The records highlight the preparations for the conferences.

Types of material are financial statements, correspondence, reports, brochures, balance sheets, and agendas.

Subseries 4: Support and Development Services, 1950-1986 (bulk 1953-1975)

English.
38 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Administrative Files (1970-1980), Correspondence (1973-1974, 1979), Fair Share Communities Dues and Records (1975-1986), Non-Fair Share Communities (1950-1965, bulk 1960-1965), New York United Jewish Appeal - JWB Dinner (1951-1963), New York City Council Files (1952-1965), Scholarship Material, Harold Dinerman Fund (1976-1977).

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

JWB adopted the Fair Share plan in 1960 in order to ensure that each JCC and YMHA gave to JWB a portion of monies in relation to its financial situation. A formula was established to determine the amount give by each Jewish community, ¼ of 1 percent of the annual average of the gross income raised by the local Jewish Federations over a three-year period plus 1.5 percent of the local JCC or YMHA's budget averaged over a three-year period. The Non-fair share communities included Jewish Welfare Fund, United Jewish Appeal, Armed Services Committee, Jewish Community Council, and Jewish Community Chest.

The Support and Development materials reveal several aspects of JWB's relationship with the various JCCs and YMHAs. In particular are the conflicts between the agencies regarding fund raising, contributions, the fair share program, and the problem that local agencies had in raising money for the JWB within their communities. JWB had to combat the feeling of "What does the JWB do for me?" Also highlighted are the descriptions of services available to the local Jewish communities from the Centers and JWB.

The Scholarship Material Files describe the fund established after Harold Dinerman's death for graduate students in social work and the people who donated monies to it. For more information on Harold Dinerman please see his biography in the appendix. Types of records included are financial statements, correspondence, forms, contracts, plans and policies, brochures, proposals, news clippings, newsletters, guidelines, programs, studies, reports, drafts, memoranda, budgets, photographs (located in Audio-Visual Material Subgroup), by-laws, applications, minutes, program guides, ledgers cards, membership lists, telegrams, yearbooks, invitation cards, handwritten notes, agendas, workbooks, and obituaries.

Related Materials: Subgroup I: Governance/Series A: Governing Body/Subseries 1: Annual Meetings; Subgroup I: Governance/Series B: Fund Raising Services/ Subseries 2: JWB Associates.

Series C: Central Records Center, undated, 1905-1986 (bulk 1917-1970)

148 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series is divided into six subseries: 1) Archives and Records; 2) General Files; 3) History Files; 4) Holiday Files; 5) JWB Administrative Files; and 6) National Services.

Scope and Content:

The Central Records Center was considered the "memory" of JWB because of the historic material filed within. By the mid-1960's JWB realized that their filing system was in chaos and requested the services of Colonel Seymour Pomrenze. The Colonel had previously been Archivist for the National Archives and an archivist for the US Military. Colonel Pomrenze helped the JWB develop a more efficient records management program in order to control the large amount of paperwork produced every year.

The Central Records Center obtained copies of most of the documents released by each department within JWB so that the records could be used for reference purposes in the future and to establish institutional memory. Selected documents were eventually transferred to the Archives of JWB and kept permanently until they were given to the American Jewish Historical Society.

Subseries 1: Archives and Records, 1963-1986

English.
1 linear foot.
Arrangement:

Files of Colonel Pomrenze. Arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The subseries describes the process by which JWB's records were organized before and after 1967 and reviews the functions and relationships between the various departments of JWB.

Types of records found are memoranda, correspondence, forms, guides, directories, organizational charts, reports, surveys, and agendas.

Subseries 2: General Files, undated, 1918-1981 (bulk 1938-1975)

English, Yiddish, Hebrew, Spanish, and Italian.
46 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Arranged chronologically and alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The General files subseries is comprised of files too small to be maintained in a separated series of records. Included are materials dealing with such topics as refugees, immigration, obituaries, war-related records, and the founding of Israel.

Of special interest are the documents relating to the synagogue-center relationship. In the journal articles, studies, theses, and speeches can be found an analysis of the similarities and differences between synagogue centers and JCCs. Also included is a file documenting Congregation Brothers of Israel's struggle to preserve their historic synagogue from destruction in Long Branch, NJ.

Kinds of records included are correspondence, pamphlets, news clippings, reports, brochures, photographs (located in Audio-Visual Material Subgroup), memoranda, plays and scripts, press releases, articles, telegrams, publications, newspapers, speeches, newsletters, constitutions, by-laws, music, and policies.

Note: JWB Miscellaneous box 1 is located at end of entire collection. The material relates to the General Files and consists of miscellaneous subject files.

Subseries 3: History Files, 1915-1980 (bulk 1917-1970)

English, Hebrew, and French.
7 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Miscellaneous alphabetical files A-P, applications for affiliation, chaplains, by-laws and constitutions, Rabbi Lee Levinger, World War I, World War II, History of YMHA Movement. Arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The subseries consists of historical material regarding JWB, the YMHA movement, chaplains, WWI, and applications from organizations seeking affiliation. The records of the YMHA movement include correspondence, working papers, and manuscript material of Benjamin Rabinowitz who authored The Young Men's Hebrew Associations, 1854-1913.

Types of materials found are memoranda, brochures, articles, reports, minutes, invitations, holiday postcards, speeches, pamphlets, applications, forms, newspaper clippings, by-laws, constitutions, correspondence, maps (located in Oversized Materials Subgroup), books, WWI JWB Insignia, WWI coin board, WWI JWB inscribed wallet, V-Mail, surveys and studies, programs, and photographs (located in Audio/Visual Subgroup)

Related Materials: Subgroup I: Governance/Series A: Governing Body/Subseries 1: Annual Meetings; Subgroup III: Veterans Affairs/Series B: CJC/Chaplains; Subgroup IV: Affiliated Organizations/Series A: National Affiliated Organizations - Series D: YMHA.

Restrictions: Some folders are restricted due to the fragility of their contents.

Subseries 4: Holiday Files, 1905-1972 (bulk 1935-1960)

English, Yiddish, and French.
7 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The subseries contains material related to Chanukah, the High Holy Days, Passover, Purim, Shavuot, Succoth, U.S. National Holidays, and the Sabbath. These documents reflect the program material distributed by JWB to the departments, Centers and servicemen.

Types of records included are correspondence, bulletins, manuals, postcards, musical scores, memoranda, plays, articles, newspapers clippings, reports, press releases, pamphlets, cards, and radio transcripts.

Related Materials: Subgroup III: Veterans' Affairs.

Restrictions: Some folders are restricted due to the fragility of their contents.

Subseries 5: JWB Administrative Files, 1919-1986 (bulk 1940-1969)

English, Hebrew, and Yiddish.
78 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Address and Articles, Board of Directors, Budget Material, Centennial Celebration, Circular Letters, Committees, Confidential Subject Files (not restricted), General Files, Institutes, Master Set of JWB Documents, Organizational Files, Other - History Articles, Policies, Refugee Problems. Arranged alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The JWB Administrative Files subseries recounts the development and function of JWB, JCCs, and the Armed Forces Division, as well as the management and administration of the JWB offices including staffing needs, records management, and retirement plans. The Centennial Celebration material documents JWB's activities during the 100th anniversary of the Baltimore YMHA, the first in America. The General Files material consists of records mainly from the offices of Executive Vice President, Assistant Executive Director, and other key JWB officials. Louis Kraft is prevalent throughout the materials. The Master Set of Documents is made of up records produced by each office or department of the JWB. This material highlights membership trends, budgeting trends, statistics, changes and development in American Jewry, and the Soviet-Jewish resettlement. Also included are documents relating to Oscar Janowsky's 1946 Study Commission. For more information on Louis Kraft please see his biography in the appendix.

Types of documents found are addresses, speeches, articles, correspondence, newspaper clippings, reports, financial statements, agendas, by-laws, studies, memoranda, guides, proposals, circular letters, press releases, minutes, ledgers, pamphlets, programs, manuals, photographs (located in Audio-Visual Material Subgroup), radio and TV transcripts, telegrams, resolutions, agreements, plans, rules and regulations, yearbooks, proceedings, directories, flyers, histories, charts, and policies.

Related Materials: Subgroup I: Governance/Series A: Governing Body/Subseries 3: Executive Director, Vice President - Subseries 4: Associate Executive Director, Vice President; Subgroup II: JCC/Series G: Files and Reports/Subseries 1: Jewish Center Division.

Note: JWB Miscellaneous Boxes 2 and 3 are located at end of entire collection. The material relates to the Circular Letters, General Files, and Policies.

Subseries 6: National Services, undated, 1934-1969 (bulk 1944-1968)

English, Hebrew, and Yiddish.
9 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries has been divided into two categories: Director's Subject Files and Music Council Playwriting Contest.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

According to the JWB "the objective of the National Services Department is to provide stimulation, guidance, and resources to local Jewish Community Centers in serving the needs and interests of Center members, members of the armed forces and veteran's hospitals, and in strengthening the Jewish cultural and communal program in local communities."2 The Music Council's playwriting contest was held for the Golden Jubilee of JWB in 1967. Anyone could enter a one-act play based on a Jewish theme. The contest started in late 1966 and the winners were announced in October 1967.

The subseries highlights the department's concentration on the activities of Centers, the cultural arts, personnel training, and important social issues facing American Jews such as civil rights and one-parent families.

Types of records found are pamphlets, reports, memoranda, studies, bibliographies, indices, proceedings, minutes, constitutions, by-laws, articles, photographs (located in Audio-Visual Material Subgroup), speeches, newsletters, newspaper clippings, proposals, polices, guides, directories, histories, forms, brochures, telegrams, correspondence, and plays.

2 JWB National Services Emphases for 1966-1967, April 18, 1966, I-337 NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society.

Related Materials: Subgroup II: JCC/Series A: Program Services and Series E: Jewish Education Programs.

Note: JWB Miscellaneous boxes 3 and 4 are located at end of entire collection. The material consists of the Music Council Playwriting Contest.

Series D: Conventions and Committees, 1926-1986 (bulk 1946-1986)

English.
37 linear feet.
Arrangement:

JWB Biennial Conventions (1943-1986), Committee on Admissions (1926-1949), Conference on Jewish Cultural Arts (1974-1976), Conference on Membership Problems (1949-1951), Special Committee to Study Board of Directors (1953), Special Convention for Center Leaders (1949-1985, with gaps), Study Committee (1947-1969), Assorted Meetings (1982-1985), Commission on Maximizing Jewish Educational Effectiveness (1983), and Conference of Jewish Communal Service (1983-1984). Arranged alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This series consists primarily of materials relating to the planning and programming of JWB Biennial Conventions. The Biennial Convention consisted of forums and workshops on a variety of topics, covering all aspects of JCC operations. (The first Biennial was conducted in 1950; prior to that, JWB had held annual meetings.) These documents provide a look at JWB's and the JCCs' principal concerns over the years. Included here are the files of several JWB staff members involved in planning and carrying out Biennials. Individuals whose files are collected here include Harry B. Schatz, Harold Arian, Arthur Brodkin, Sherwood Epstein, and Mitchell Jaffe. (For additional information on these individuals, please see the biographical material in the appendix.) Of particular note are an address by President Truman, and letters from various senators and congressmen, including Senators John Fitzgerald Kennedy and Lyndon Baines Johnson. Also included is a small amount of material on other conferences and committees, such as the Committee on Admissions, which invited JCCs, Synagogues, and Hebrew centers to become members of JWB, and the Study Committee, which sought to increase the effectiveness of JWB and the Jewish community it serves. Included are reports, programs, correspondence, agendas, statistics, brochures, lists, questionnaires, minutes, clippings, photographs and audiotapes, which are located in the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup.

Related Materials: Subgroup I: Governance/Series A: Governing Body/Annual Meeting, and Affiliated Organizations/World Federations of YM & YWHA and JCCs; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 1: Community Services. Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series C: Public Relations/Subseries 2: Public Information Services: Communications Awards; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series E: Jewish Education Programs/Subseries 2: Commission on Maximizing Jewish Educational Effectiveness. In addition, further material on the Biennial can be found throughout the collection.

Note: JWB Miscellaneous Box 5 is located at end of entire collection. The material relates to Conference of Jewish Communal Service, Assorted Meetings, and Commission on Maximizing Jewish Educational Effectiveness.

Series E: JWB Survey, 1947-1953

2 linear feet.
Scope and Content:

The JWB survey dealt with three main concerns: 1) the purpose and programs of centers; 2) the nature of the center movement and of JWB as its national body; 3) the relationship of centers and JWB to Jewish and general communities.3

3 Solender, Sanford, The Center and You, The Post-JWB Survey Decade, undated, I-337 NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society.

Subseries 1: Oscar Janowsky Working Papers, 1947-1953

English, Hebrew, and Yiddish.
2 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This series contains the papers of Oscar Janowsky, who developed the JWB survey. Janowsky's files document the process by which the survey was created, and actions taken to implement survey recommendations. Also included is correspondence with Louis Kraft (JWB Vice President/Executive Director, 1939-1947) regarding the survey. Materials include correspondence, minutes, reports, studies, press releases and clippings, brochures, proposals, and resolutions.

Related Materials: AJHS collection I-180, JWB Army-Navy Division, which includes 23 boxes of Janowsky's working papers.

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Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers, undated, 1904-1995 (bulk 1920-1980)

The predominant language of the subgroup is English.
919 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Primarily arranged alphabetically. This subgroup is arranged into seven series as follows: Series A: Program Services; Series B: Field Services; Series C: Public Relations; Series D: Personnel Recruitment and Training; Series E: Jewish Education Programs; Series F: Administrative and Management Services and Series G: Files and Reports.

Scope and Content:

This subgroup documents how the Jewish Community Centers functioned as part of JWB and as individual facilities. JWB offered many services to the Centers, and in return the Centers helped support JWB's mission to enrich the Jewish Community throughout the United States and the World.

Series A: Program Services, 1904-1989 (bulk 1930-1980)

234.46 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series is divided into fourteen subseries as follows: 1) Camping Services; 2) Florence Heller Research Center; 3) Health and Physical Education; 4) Jewish Book Council; 5) Jewish Media Service; 6) Jewish Music Council; 7) Lecture Bureau; 8) Nursery School; 9) Older Adults; 10) Program Development and Research Services; 11) Publications; 12) Statistics and Research Development; 13) Vocational Guidance; and 14) Youth Programming.

Scope and Content:

This series provides a look at the various programs that JWB helped coordinate for itself, the centers, and the affiliated organizations around the world. A successful social organization is only as strong as its curriculum. JWB understood this, and worked towards the goal of providing the most up-to-date and informative programming it could.

Subseries 1: Camping Services, 1941-1988

English, French, and Hebrew.
38 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Arthur Brodkin (1941-1976), Alfred Dobrof (1973-1975), Sherwood Epstein (1971-1979), General files (1948-1981, bulk 1970-1976), Roslyn Kriegsfeld (1956-1976), Leonard Rubin (1957-1988), Shlichim Program (1969-1970). Arranged alphabetically, except Alfred Dobrof material, which is chronological, then alphabetical.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This material documents the activities of JWB's camping services program, which provided consultation services to Jewish communal camps; assisted Federations and JCCs in providing proper camping facilities and effective programs; enhanced Jewish educational and cultural aspects of camping programs; conducted camping institutes; and cooperated with other national organizations in raising communal camping standards and in enriching Jewish camping.4 Day camping was first introduced to the center field by JWB in 1932 and though the camping program was originally focused on children, it grew to include older individuals as well, including the elderly and physically handicapped.5 JWB believed that "Jewish camps make a unique contribution to the welfare of the organized Jewish community. To a great extent camps, both resident and day, provide a totality of experiences which are not available anywhere else in the Jewish community... Camps provide an experience in democratic living and identification with the values of American society..."6

This subseries provides a look at various aspects of the camping program, such as JWB's involvement with the National Conference on Jewish Camping (in Alfred Dobrof's files), and assistance provided by JWB to Jewish camps. Topics featured in Sherwood Epstein's files include design and structure of camps, and analysis of Jewish populations. The subseries also documents JWB's Shlichim and Uplan programs, whereby Israelis came to the U.S. to serve at JCC and Federation camps, while American high school students traveled to Israel. (Material on this can be found in Roslyn Kriegsfeld's files, as well as in the Leonard Rubin and Shlichim Program files.) In addition, the subseries includes analyses of JCC and YM-YWHA programs and operations, as they relate to camping services, field reports describing visits to camps, and scholarship grants, which document individuals selected to be camp counselors. (These files include photographs of the applicants.) Statements of purpose of various JCCs can also be found in Arthur Brodkin's files, as can studies and surveys related to camping. Materials consist of reports, studies, bylaws, surveys, brochures, budgets, lists, clippings, forms, pamphlets, proposals, procedures, speeches, agendas, constitutions, articles, manuals, resumes, minutes, correspondence, applications, questionnaires, photographs, and reel-to-reel tapes, which can be found in the Audio-Visual Materials subgroup.

4 "National Jewish Welfare Board Establishes Camping Department: Alfred Dobrof Named Director of JWB's Camping Services, and Roslyn Kriegsfeld is Named Camping Consultant," December 1, 1972, I-337, NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society.

5 Postal, Bernard. 1966. Change and Challenge: The Past Twenty Years of JWB's History. p. 71. In Change and Challenge: A History of 50 Years of JWB. Janowsky, Oscar I., Louis Kraft, and Postal, Bernard. New York: National Jewish Welfare Board.

6 "Proposed Statement on JWB Camping Services," Leonard Rubin, undated, National Jewish Welfare Board, I-337, American Jewish Historical Society

Related Materials: Subgroup I: Jewish Community Centers/Series A: Program Services/Subseries 3: Health and Physical Education.

Subseries 2: Florence G. Heller Research Center, 1959-1989

English.
8 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series is divided into the following subsubseries: S. Morton Altman (1971-1975), Decision Making Survey (undated), General Files (1959-1989), Greater Washington Membership Survey (undated), Jewish Center Leadership Questionnaire (1988), JWB Research and Statistics (1973-1983), and Survey of Professionals Employed in the JCC Field (1989). Arranged alphabetically, geographically, and numerically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The Florence G. Heller - JWB Research Center was established in 1963 in cooperation with the National Association of Jewish Center Workers. Its function was to identify relevant problems which could be aided by research, and to design and implement effective research projects.7 In 1971 the Research Center was reestablished with a new focus, making the Center's main priority assisting JCCs and Ys in achieving their objectives.8

This material includes the files of S. Morton Altman, who became Associate Director of the Center in 1973, and served as Director from 1974 to 1976. Topics covered here include summer programs at JCCs and camping surveys. The General files include material documenting the creation of the research center, as well as budget and financial material, proposed projects, and reports and studies on various topics. A variety of surveys are also included here, such as the Greater Washington Membership survey, which examined the JCC's image and the quality and value of JCC activities. Other materials include reports, correspondence, proposals, minutes, agenda, questionnaires, studies, and photographs, which are located in the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup.

7 Research Center Voted by Board of Directors. JWB Circle, February 1963. Page 1

8 Florence G. Heller - JWB Research Center Summary of Research Activities, 1972-1973, undated, I-337, NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society

Subseries 3: Health and Physical Education, 1948-1981

English, French, and Russian.
27.75 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries is divided into the following categories: Arthur Brodkin (1975-1984), General Files (1948-1980), Institutes (1955-1979), National Services (1954-1967), Study Committee (1959, 1968-1977), and Oliver Winkler (1932-1981). With the exception of Institutes, which is chronological, the files are arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

JWB's Health and Physical Education Department sponsored "... training programs and institutes to enrich the scope of Center health, physical education, and recreation programs, [recruited] Jewish youth for careers in Center health, physical education, and recreation work, and [provided] consultation to Centers on the construction of adequate health and physical education facilities. The department also [assisted] in coordinating inter-city tournaments and leagues which provide opportunities for young people to broaden their Jewish association."9

This material includes files maintained by Arthur Brodkin, who helped to fill health and physical education positions at JCCs. The Brodkin files contain application forms and requests for jobs, and thus provide information on individuals employed in health and physical education positions at JCCs and camps. The General files include documents maintained by Oliver Winkler and Michael Rand, both of whom served as Health and Physical Education consultants. Found here are files on a variety of sports and health-related topics, such as Olympic games, golf, volleyball, wrestling, swimming, tennis, track and field programs, and programming for pre-school children, the handicapped, and older adults. Material on health and sex education and on smoking programs can also be found here, as can material on various health-related issues, such as heart disease. The National Services Files include basketball and handball tournament material, as well as material on the People to People Basketball program in Mexico, and items documenting JWB's participation in the Conference for National Cooperation in Aquatics (NCA.) The Study Committee material reflects the committee's efforts to assess and evaluate JWB's Health and Physical Education programs and to develop recommendations for the improvement of services. (Committee reports are included here.) Finally, Oliver Winkler's files include materials documenting interactions with other organizations, as well as consultation studies on communities and evaluations of programs. The subseries consists of correspondence, application forms, minutes, annual reports, brochures, surveys, questionnaires, studies, rules and regulations, flyers, lists, proclamations, press releases, forms, schedules, speeches, clippings and photographs, which are located in the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup.

9 "An Overview: JWB's Programs and Services," Dan Morris and Martin Halpern, undated, p. 42, I-337, NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society

Related Materials: Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series A: Program Services/Subseries 1: Camping Services.

Note: JWB Miscellaneous Box 6 is located at end of entire collection. The material relates to Oliver Winkler Files.

Subseries 4: Jewish Book Council, 1922-1985 (bulk 1940-1980)

English, Hebrew and Yiddish.
13.67 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries has been arranged into the following categories: Jewish Book Annual (1968-1980), Jewish Book Awards (1977-1985), Jewish Books in Review (1982-1984), Jewish Book World (1983-1984), General Files (1924-1925, 1939-1985), and Publications (1922-1976). Arranged chronologically, with exception of Jewish Book Annual and Publications, which are arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

In 1944 JWB became a sponsor and coordinator of the Jewish Book Council, which had originally been founded, in 1925, as Jewish Book Week and expanded through the following years.10 The Book Council's objectives were the stimulation of an abiding zeal for knowledge among young and old; the development of a Jewish cultural atmosphere in homes; the enrichment of educational programs of clubs, study circles and discussion groups; and the enlargement of book collections in institutional libraries, reading rooms, and private homes.11

This subseries documents JWB's activities on behalf of the Book Council.
Included here is material on the publications Jewish Book Annual and Jewish Book World, as well as various other publications, such as scripts for The Eternal Light, a radio show presented by NBC for the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, and plays on Jewish themes. Jewish book awards were given for books in such subjects as fiction, history, children's literature, and the holocaust; these files document the process by which award recipients were selected, and also provide biographical information on the winners themselves. Materials include certificates, correspondence, forms, clippings, bibliographies, awards, books, lists, minutes, reviews, questionnaires, plays, scripts, bulletins, newsletters, speeches, reports, articles, brochures, surveys, studies, proposals and photographs, which can be found in the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup.

10 Steinbach, A. Alan. JWB Jewish Book Council: Its History and Program. New York: JWB Jewish Book Council

11 Goodman, Philip. "Report of the Jewish Book Council of America," undated, I-337, NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society

Restrictions: Some of the General files are fragile.

Note: JWB Miscellaneous Boxes 6 and 7 are located at end of entire collection. The material relates to General Files.

Subseries 5: Jewish Media Service, 1973-1984

English.
11.5 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries is arranged as follows: General Files (1973-1984), Geographic Files (1973-1984), Harry Kosansky Files (1977-1984), and Subject Files (1974-1981). Arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

JWB became a primary sponsor of the Media Service in 1978, as did the Council of Jewish Federations and National United Jewish Appeal. (The Jewish Media Service was originally founded in 1973 by the Institute for Jewish Life, which operated under a mandate from the Council of Jewish Federations.) The Media Service evaluated and provided consultation and referral on media materials, distributed films and provided a central purchasing exchange for the purchase of equipment and films or videos. Further, the Media Service assisted communities in establishing media centers and conducted workshops on the use of media, as well as developing supplementary materials such as discussion guides. Finally, the Media Service consulted filmmakers and video producers, and published Medium, a Jewish media review.12

The General files document the interaction of the Jewish Media Service with other Jewish organizations. Material on the Media Service's workshops and other programs can be found here, as can studies on the use of media in the promotion and support of Jewish culture. The Geographic files provide descriptions of Jewish film festivals, and other projects developed by organizations around the country, and also include files on activities in countries such as Canada, England, France, and South Africa. Also included are the files of Harry Kosansky, who, in his role as director of Program Development Services, oversaw the Jewish Media Service; this material documents the administration of the Media Service. Subject files contain descriptions of films in the Media Service's databank, on such topics as Arab-Israel conflict, American Jewish History, the Bible, parenting and Soviet Jewry. Material consists of correspondence, receipts, listings, scripts, programs, speeches, studies, brochures, forms, schedules, clippings, minutes, photographs, and phonograph records (which are located in the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup.)

12 The Jewish Media Service/JWB: Five Years of Service, 1983, I-337, NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society

Related Materials: Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 6: Regional Area Offices/Boston Office.

Subseries 6: Jewish Music Council, 1923-1979

English, German, Hebrew, Yiddish, and French.
12.5 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series has been arranged into the following categories: Commission on JWB's Role in Jewish Cultural Programming (1969-1972), General Files (1923-1979), Geographic Files (1968-1981, 1973), Jewish Music and Composers (1937-1976), and Subject Files (1948-1973). Arranged alphabetically. (Jewish Music and Composers arranged chronologically.)

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This subseries documents the activities and functions of the Jewish Music Council, which was founded in 1944. The Music Council strove to collect and preserve traditional Jewish music and to connect that heritage to the growing musical life in America and in Israel.13 The files of the Commission on JWB's Role in Jewish Cultural Programming include background material on the commission, as well as its final results and recommendations. (The Commission recommended establishing an American Jewish Academy of the Cultural Arts, a Jewish Cultural Mass Media library and archive, and an American Jewish Cultural Center.) The General files contain indices and lists of Jewish music, Music Council budget, Biennial and committee materials, scripts for radio and television programs, and music and play scripts. In addition, the development of the Jewish Music Notes publication is documented here. The Geographic files document the Music Council's interactions with JCCs, synagogues, and temples, musical groups, orchestras, and other organizations. This material consists mainly of requests for information and materials from the Music Council, and illustrates the musical activities of Jewish organizations around the country. Finally, the subject files include music festival program material and materials for Israel's 25th anniversary. (Material related to the governance of the Music Council is also included here.) The material consists of correspondence, application forms, minutes, annual reports, brochures, surveys, questionnaires, sheet music, scripts, plays, studies, rules and regulations, flyers, lists, proclamations, press releases, forms, schedules, speeches, clippings and photographs, which are located in the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup.

13 Heskes, Irene. The National Jewish Music Council Celebrates its 25th Anniversary. I-337, NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society

Related Materials: Subgroup I: Governance/Series C: Central Records Center/Subseries 6: National Services (Playwriting Contest Material); Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series E: Jewish Education Programs/Subseries 4: Jewish Educational and Cultural Programming.

Subseries 7: Lecture Bureau, 1904-1986 (bulk 1950-1980)

English.
20.75 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries has been organized into the following subsubseries: Artists Files (1947-1985), Calendars (1977-1985), Contracts (1977-1979, 1981-1983), Correspondence (1972-1981), General Files (1946-1977), Historical Files (1937-1964), Lecturer Files (1944-1986), Photograph Exhibits (1904-1986), Reports (1942-1977), and Sponsoring Organization Cards (1982-1984). Arranged alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The Lecture Bureau made available to the various affiliated organizations that were interested artists and lecturers from around the world. These people included professors, historians, authors, rabbis, and holocaust survivors. Many of the lecturers and artists approached the JWB to be listed in their brochure. Other, more famous, people were asked by the JWB to join. Some of those asked were Gene Autry, Benjamin Spock, Arthur Miller, Adlai Stevenson, several US Senators, and Eleanor Roosevelt. With the exception of Benjamin Spock they all refused. A few of the artists who performed for the Lecture Bureau were Joey Adams, Terry Saunders with Norman Atkins, Herschel, Jack, and Sam Bernardi, Lillian Lux, Paddy Chayefsky, and Howard da Silva.

The subseries describes the individuals and groups who performed for the Lecture Bureau, what kind of production was given, and the details of the contracts between the individuals and JWB.

The material consists of photographs, negatives, slides, vinyl records and audio tapes (all located in Audio/Visual Materials Subgroup), correspondence, programs, pamphlets, calendars, confirmation of booking forms, confirmation of film-rental orders, receipts, contracts, newspaper clippings, spreadsheets, memoranda, press releases, book jackets, catalogs, condition reports, organization booking reminders and reports, sponsor cards and sequence plans.

Related Material: Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series E: Jewish Education Programs/Subseries 4: Jewish Educational and Cultural Programming.

Subseries 8: Nursery School, 1945-1956

English.
2 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Arranged chronologically and alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This subseries reflects the number of JCCs that had pre-schools, and highlights their programs and the experience of the teachers. Also indicated are the types of facilities available. The subseries consists of correspondence, memoranda, questionnaires, and pamphlets.

Subseries 9: Older Adults, 1943-1956

English.
2 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

These records demonstrate the functions of programming for Older Adults including summer activities, radio scripts, studies and the problems that occurred. The material consists of correspondence, memoranda, program aids, pamphlets, and minutes.

Subseries 10: Program Development and Research Services, 1921-1988 (bulk 1935-1980)

English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian.
54 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries has been arranged as follows: S. Morton Altman Files (1947-1980; bulk 1970-1979), Steve Doochin Files (1977-1985), Miriam Ephraim Files (1921-1965), General Files (1945-1971), Edward Kagen Files (1974-1979), Harry Kosansky Files (1975-1983), Dan Morris Files (1975-1983), Steven Rod Files (1963, 1969-1976), Leonard Rubin Files (1977-1983), and Barry Shrage Files (1977-1979). Arranged alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

JWB understood that one of its chief functions was to define the needs of the JCCs and YMHAs and help them meet those needs. Therefore:

"JWB has instituted approaches to the testing and development of new Center programs. It is concerned with the improvement of practice through the utilization of research, demonstration projects and training programs with the objective of encouraging Centers to focus on the achievement of Jewish communal objectives as well as to deal with current communal concerns."14

S. Morton Altman was Associate Director of Program Development and Research Services and Director of Florence G. Heller - JWB Research Center. His materials consist of adolescent and youth studies, elderly programs, fiscal information for the Heller Research Center, statistical analysis of JCCs, and staffing issues.

Miriam Ephraim was director of Program Services from 1950-1965. Her materials include annual reports of Program Services, work plans of various departments within Program Services, and a description of the Central Jewish Institute.

Harry Kosansky was Director of Program Development and Research Services and JWB staff liaison to Florence Heller - JWB Research Center. His materials include community files, management and development of the Program Services Department, the Holocaust project, and the Russian resettlement.

Dan Morris was Director of Program Development and Research Services. His materials consist of the reorganization of JWB during the 1970's, the social work function of the JCC, how JCCs coped with the economic problems of the early 1970's, and the International Training Project.

Steven Rod was a Program Development Associate. His materials include camping services, college youth programs, and the "Teen clip 'n ship" system.

Leonard Rubin was Director and Executive Director of Program Services. His materials include community services, the Holocaust project, Large City Center Executives Seminar, and the Soviet Jewry Acculturation project.

The records consist of studies, correspondence, surveys, reports, letters, memoranda, lists, minutes, financial statements, proposals, newspaper clippings, articles, questionnaires, brochures, newsletters, telexes, photographs (located in Audio/Visual Materials Subgroup), publications, journals, pamphlets, speeches, evaluations, musical scores, plans, and policies.

14 Untitled JWB Program Development and Research Services document, undated, I-337 NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society.

Restrictions: Some material in Leonard Rubin Files is restricted due to subject matter.

Note: JWB Miscellaneous Box 7 is located at end of entire collection. The material relates to the Miriam Ephraim Files.

Subseries 11: Publications, 1919-1976 (bulk 1945-1960)

English.
13.5 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries is comprised of the following subsubseries: Correspondence (1928-1966), Jewish Community Center Program Aids (JCCPA) (1940-1972), JCCPA: Correspondence (1942-1943, 1945-1953, 1955-1956), JCCPA: "To the Executive" (1944-1957), JWB Publications (1919-1976), JWB Publications: Inner Circle (1968-1972), JWB Publications: JWB Associates Newsletter (1966-1970), JWB Publications: Jewish History (1945-1976), and War Effort (1942-1944). Arranged alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The subseries consists of the records and publications from the Publications Department. The publications included are holiday manuals, "Jewish Thoughts, 1919", ceremonial articles, bibliographies, plays, Program Aids, annual reports, "Jewish Center Songster", and "To the Executive".

"To the Executive" was a kit sent to Center Executives and was used to supplement the materials from the Program Aids and contained current up-to-date information on holidays and activities.

Of special interest are the materials pertaining to the 1976 Bicentennial Exhibit sponsored by the American Jewish Historical Society and JWB (JWB Publications: Jewish History), a programming source book dedicated in 1952 to Isaac Loeb Peretz including stories, poems, and essays written by Peretz himself (Jewish Community Center Program Aids), and the Selected Writings of Miriam R. Ephraim, 1966 written as a tribute to her after her retirement in 1965 (JWB Publications).

Additional materials include correspondence, negatives (located in Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup), copyright certificates, conference proceedings, Photostats (located in Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup), and war effort publications.

Subseries 12: Statistics and Research Department, 1930-1987

English.
15 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries is arranged as follows: Annual Reports Worksheets (1930-1977), Annual Reports Supplements (1941-1974), Basic Records (1945-1953), Building Reports (1947-1959), Manuals (1944-1957), Personnel Reports (1968-1971), Questionnaires (1954-1973), Salary Reports (1948, 1964-1974), Seminar Reports (1976), Statistical Reports (1941-1966), Surveys (1946-1947, 1965-1967, 1973-1974), Edward Kagen: General Files (1958-1987), and Edward Kagen: Surveys (1975-1977, 1982-1983, 1986). Arranged chronologically and alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This subseries consists of statistics relating to almost all aspects of JWB such as salaries, facilities, personnel, and annual reports. Of special interest is Samuel Asofsky's thesis entitled "Least squares analysis of salaries paid in 1948 to full-time professional staff workers in JCCs."

Also included are Edward Kagen's files as consultant for statistics and research and as Director of the Florence Heller - JWB Research Center.

Included are annual reports, correspondence, personnel reports, surveys, questionnaires, data analysis, budgets, pamphlets, theses, dissertations, spreadsheets, punch cards, and micro discs.

Related Materials: Subgroup II: JCC/Series A: Program Services/Subseries 2: Florence Heller Research Center and Subseries 10: Program Development and Research Services.

Subseries 13: Vocational Guidance, 1926-1942 (bulk 1939-1942)

English.
1.75 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Arranged chronologically and alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The subseries reflects how JWB sought to help those new to the JWB field and soldiers returning home find gainful employment in their communities. Types of material found are correspondence, reports, newspaper clippings, questionnaires, and pamphlets.

Subseries 14: Youth Programming, 1923-1969 (bulk 1940-1968)

English.
21.25 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries is arranged into the following subsubseries: Alphabetical Files (1930-1968, bulk 1940-1966), Jewish College Youth ([circa 1947]-1969, bulk 1968-1969), Jewish Youth Councils (1936-1953), National Jewish Youth Conference (1947-1956), Subject Files (1923-1954 (bulk 1949-1952), White House Conference on Youth (1948-1961, bulk 1950-1951), and Youth Committee (1942-1952). Arranged alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The Youth Programming Department's material highlights how JWB assisted the various JCCs and YMHAs in developing valuable and instructive programs for the Jewish youth in their communities. The Jewish College Youth Files reflects how JWB reached out to Jewish College students and tried to determine what issues were paramount in their lives. The Jewish Youth Councils shows the manner in which JWB worked with young leaders to provide a significant opportunity for both the youth and the future of the Jewish community. The first White House Conference on Youth occurred in 1909 under President Roosevelt. The 1950 conference developed 5 goals:

1. bring together in usable form pertinent knowledge related to the development of children and indicate areas in which further knowledge is needed;
2. examine the environment in which children are growing up, with a view to determining its influence upon them;
3. study the ways in which the home, the school, the church, the law, welfare agencies, and other social institutions, individually and cooperatively, are serving the needs of children;
4. formulate, through cooperative efforts of laymen and specialists, proposals for the improvement of parental, environmental and institutional influences on children;
5. suggest means whereby these proposals may be communicated to the people and put into action. 15

The files document JWB's efforts with the White House in order to help improve the lives of children within the United States.

Of particular interest within the alphabetical files and the subject files are the materials pertaining to the National Commission of Children and Youth, teen-agers, the handbook for Young Judeans, 1927 and the Youth Movement articles. The alphabetical files and the subject files are the same types of material and may overlap in subject matter.

Types of material found are conference proceedings, correspondence, memoranda, reports, training courses, pamphlets, newspaper clippings, studies, minutes, play scripts, newspapers, surveys, program bulletins, teaching materials, Passover material, agendas, member lists.

15 National Jewish Youth Conference Report of Mid-Century White House Conference of Children and Youth, February 15, 1950, American Jewish Historical Society.

Series B: Field Services, undated, 1911-1995 (bulk 1921-1980)

371 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series is arranged into six subseries as follows: 1) Community Services; 2) Community Studies; 3) Field Reports; 4) Geographic Files; 5) Regional Area Files; and 6) Regional Area Offices.

Scope and Content:

This series documents JWB's relationship with the various affiliated Centers throughout the United States and the World. The support services that were available to the Centers are clearly defined and highlighted throughout the records.

Subseries 1: Community Services, 1945-1984 (bulk 1960-1978)

English.
117 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries is arranged as follows: Emanuel Berlatsky Director of Community Services (1961-1968); Director of JWB Services in Large Metropolitan Communities (1945-1984, bulk 1961-1973), Jack Boeko Community Consultant; Staff Coordinator New Jersey Section (1953-1976, bulk 1972-1974), Arthur Brodkin Bureau of Personnel and Training; Regional Consultant New York State Section; Community Consultant; Staff Coordinator Mid-Atlantic Region; Staff Coordinator Southern Area; Consultant on Placement of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation Staff (1953-1982, bulk 1973-1980), Sy Colen Community Consultant; Staff Coordinator Mid-Atlantic Area (1945-1981, bulk 1963-1970), Harold Dinerman Director of Community Services; Director of Community Consultation Services (1949-1976, bulk 1967-1973), Director's Office (Mostly Emanuel Berlatsky) (1944-1972), Alfred Dobrof Community Consultant (1979-1981), Englewood, NJ (1967-1970, bulk 1969-1970), Rabbi Philip Goodman Community Consultant to Small Jewish Communities (1966-1973, bulk 1969), Barry Hantman Community Consultant (1973-1978), Zev Hymowitz Community Consultant (1956-1989, bulk 1988), Mitchell Jaffe Community Consultant; Assistant Director Community Services; Director of Community Services (1957-1988, bulk 1974-1988), Recreation/Leisure Reports (1939-1962), Larry Szpirglas Community Consultant (1954-1986, bulk 1973-1984), Earl Yaillen Community Consultant (1970-1980). Arranged alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

Up until 1960 the Field Services Department carried out the community services function with field secretaries in place. In 1963 Field Services changed focus and became Regional Consultation. The field secretaries had previously traveled to various organizations all over the country and Canada to assist the executives and staff of these centers in any way that they could. Reports were written and feedback given. During the decade 1960 - 1970 the concentration shifted to particular communities throughout the country. Field Secretaries became Regional Consultants and their areas were now more concentrated to one district which they were to visit more frequently, as well as the 12 staff members who were spread out and assigned to Chicago, Newark, Boston, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Atlanta, and New York. After the JWB study of 1970 the department changed again to Department of Community Services and again roughly ten years later to Community Consultation Services. And the focus changed again to more national coverage. JWB states that
"it is the function of the JWB Community Consultant to be in regular communication with his communities through a variety of methods, including telephone, correspondence, other normal associations such as professional meetings and conferences and focused community visitations. Although there is no longer a pattern of regular visits, there is a pattern of regular communication in order to determine how we can be most helpful, including visitations when necessary. At a minimum, every JWB Consultant is in telephone communication with the executives of the centers no less than once a month."16

Today the JWB is known as the JCC Association and according to their website:
"This year, JCC Association celebrated 80 years of assisting JCCs in responding to changing conditions and challenges. From its New York headquarters and its Western Region and Israel offices, JCC Association has provided leadership in the areas of staff recruitment and training, lay leadership development, field research, professional conferences, and workshops, consultation, publications, and specialized programming, enabling each of its constituent JCCS to better serve the needs of its members and community."17

The subseries reflects how JWB offered the affiliated Y's, JCCs, and other organizations a link to JWB's headquarters and its many functions. Building plans and architects, program ideas, policy changes, and help finding and hiring new staff were all available for the asking. They also offered conferences for executives in small, intermediate, and large cities.

Emanuel Berlatsky's files highlight his work within the various Jewish communities, the Colleges and Universities with social work programs, and the Field Services Committee. Jack Boeko's material shows his involvement with the Biennial Conventions, and Intermediate City Center Executive Seminars. Arthur Brodkin's files reflect his participation with the Biennial Conventions, the Jewish communities, and the Health and Physical Education Department. Sy Colen's files highlight his work with Belgian Youth, the Biennial Convention, and Jewish communities. Harold Dinerman's records show his involvement with area councils and the Jewish communities. The Englewood, NJ material reflects the study conducted in that Community. Philip Goodman's files consist of Sherut Vol. 1 - Vol. 3. Barry Hantman's records highlight his work with the Intermediate City Center Executive Seminars and the Nine Cities Conference. Mitchell Jaffe's documents consist of community files from his work as Community Consultant and as Director of Community Services. Also included are the subject files he used as reference material. Larry Szpirglas's files show his community work, resources files and his involvement with the Large Intermediate City Center Executive Seminars and the Nine Cities Conference.

Of special interest are: Morris Levin's A Survey of Research and Program Developments Involving Jewish Adolescents and the Implications for JCC Service Chicago, IL 1969 (Berlatsky, Emanuel/Communities: Individual/Chicago, IL/1969); Papers submitted to Journal of Jewish Communal Service (Director's Office/Journal of Jewish Communal Service); National Commission for Social Work and Council on Social Work Education/Careers (Director's Office/Minutes and Organizations); Self Studies done by Centers for Leisure-Time Activities (Recreation/Leisure Reports)

Material in this subseries consists of photographs (located in Audio-Visual Subgroup), correspondence, meeting minutes, meeting agendas, field reports, building plans (located in Oversized Materials Subgroup), profile transmission notices, programs, bulletins, memoranda, studies, and budgets.

16 The Service Needs of Jewish Community Centers and How These are Being Met, 1972, I-337 NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society.

17 Jewish Community Centers Association, Since the Sixties, http://www.jcca.org/today.html, June 6, 2003.

Related Materials: Subgroup I: Governance/Series A: Governing Body/Subseries 1: Annual Meetings; Subgroup I: Governance/Series D: Conventions and Committees/Subseries 1: Biennials; Subgroup II: JCC/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 3: Field Reports; Subgroup IV: Affiliated Organizations.

Restrictions: Several folders are restricted due to the subject matter.

Note: JWB Miscellaneous Box 8 is located at end of entire collection. The material relates to the Sy Colen and Mitchell Jaffe Files.

Subseries 2: Community Studies, undated, 1921-1964 (bulk 1940-1955)

English, Hebrew, and Yiddish.
16 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This material pertains to surveys of Jewish communities, self-studies of JCCs, and studies of other Jewish organizations. (The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the services of JCCs by analyzing Jewish population trends, determining how Jewish people spent leisure time, appraising existing JCC programs and studying Jewish participation in activities sponsored by other organizations.18) The files dating from 1921 to 1950 include many actual studies and surveys; after 1950 relatively few appear. The files from 1951 on consist mainly of correspondence, and some of these files contain only 1 or 2 memoranda and letters. Some states, such as Montana, Vermont, and Wyoming, are not represented at all, while for others a large amount of material is included. New York and Pennsylvania (particularly Philadelphia and Pittsburgh: the Irene Kaufmann Center and Settlement) are strongly represented. Some material on Canada (mainly Toronto) is also included, as is a small file (1 document) on South Africa. Materials of note include "A Study of Negro Housing in Atlanta Georgia, 1940 - 1956." (This was a sociology research paper written by a Dartmouth student.) Also of note are an YMHA Golden Anniversary Souvenir Book (1890-1940) for Louisville Kentucky and a 1953 JCC self-study manual, which provides guidance on the purpose and scope of surveys and studies. Finally, the early studies, such as a 1924 study of educational and recreational resources and needs of the Jewish Community on New York's Lower East side, provide an interesting look at Jewish communities in the early part of the 20th century. The material includes surveys, studies, maps, field reports, correspondence, clippings, photographs (located in the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup), charts, maps, and blueprints (located in the Oversized Materials Subgroup.)

18 JCC Self-Study Manual, 1953, I-337, NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society.

Related Materials: Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series A: Program Services/Subseries 5: Jewish Media Service; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 1: Community Services, Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 4: Geographic Files, Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 6: Regional Area Offices.

Restrictions: New Jersey, Newark: Seth Boyden, Groups I and II (restrict until 2023); New York, Bronx, 1934-1936 (restrict until 2011); Massachusetts, Greater Boston YMHA

Subseries 3: Field Reports, 1919-1980 (bulk 1921-1965)

English.
40 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Field reports from JCCs and YM & YWHA's (1921-1967, 1969-1980), Anniversaries and Annual Reports (1919-1965), Regional Sections (1939-1943), Related Organizations (1928-1961), and Summary Field Work (1927-1928, 1930-1931, 1939). Arranged chronologically and alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The subseries documents the work of the various field secretaries throughout the country and Canada. The period of 1921 to 1954 is especially rich in content and reflects the procedural changes made by the JWB during the course of the 33 years that the records cover. Massachusetts, New York and Pennsylvania have the largest concentration of material for all time spans. Also evident are the day-to-day problems faced by the organization and what, if anything, JWB was able to do to help them. After 1954, fewer visits were made by the field secretaries to the communities due to change in focus by JWB and the Department of Field Services. The drop-off in need by the centers may have been the catalyst. The Summary Field Work material documents each field visit performed by the field secretaries noting date of visit, location, and purpose. Of special interest is the Hecht House in Dorchester, MA; Baron de Hirsch Fund and Woodbine, NJ; New York Office of Civil Defense 1941-1953; Williamsburg YMHA NYC Brooklyn 1922-1954; Syracuse, NY 1922-1954; Philadelphia, PA 1922-1954 (Field Reports); Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds; Federation of Jewish Philanthropies (Related Organizations); and First NJWB Annual Report 1919 (Anniversaries and Annual Reports).

Types of documents found are field reports, summaries of field visits, newspaper clippings, pamphlets, annual reports, correspondence, and anniversary booklets.

Related Materials: Subgroup II: JCC/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 1: Community Services; Subgroup IV: Affiliated Organizations/Series A: National Affiliated Organizations - Series D: YMHA.

Note: Miscellaneous box 17 added to the end of the collection relates to the Field Reports Material.

Subseries 4: Geographic Files, undated, 1938-1968 (bulk 1946-1966)

English.
13 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Arranged alphabetically by regional section, state, and city.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

JWB divided the country into the following geographical areas (which were known as Sections, or Regions): Middle Atlantic, Midwest, New England, New Jersey, New York Metropolitan, New York State, Southern, and Western States. The Regions' mission was to promote close relationships between JCCs, Ys, and other organizations; to coordinate programs within organizations; to stimulate organization of new JCCs; and to aid member agencies in development and improvement of programs so that the agencies could contribute to the intellectual, religious, social and physical well being of Jews and Americans. Regions were visited by Community Consultants, who provided assistance and guidance to JCCs, Ys, Federations, Armed Forces Services Committees, and other organizations. Community Consultants served as the primary means for channeling JWB services to communities and provided both community planning and educational programming assistance.

This subseries consists of correspondence, field reports, newsletters, maps, charts, diagrams, and blueprints (located in Oversized Materials subgroup) dealing with JCCs within the regional sections. (Some material on Canada is also included.) Of particular note are the Philadelphia camping materials in the Middle Atlantic Section, "Proceedings of an Institute on Models for Service to Jewish Families by JCCs," in the 1968 Santa Barbara California files, and the Bridgeport Connecticut survey material, which includes "Highlights in Center History, 1912-1957."

Note: For Pittsburgh, Erie, and Westchester Penn., see the Midwest Section. For El Paso, Texas, see the Western States section. The remainder of Texas can be found in the Southern section.

Related Materials: Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 3: Field Reports; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 5: Regional Area Files; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 6: Regional Area Offices.

Subseries 5: Regional Area Files, 1931-1966, 1968-1970 (bulk 1948-1962)

English.
18 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Arranged chronologically, then alphabetically by region.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This subseries documents activities within the Regions. Files on the Metropolitan and National Associations of Jewish Center Workers (NAJCW) and the National Council of YM and YWHAs of Canada are also included here. Materials of note include NAJCW's 1953 statement of principles and a Louis Kraft article on "NAJCW-35 Years." Other highlights include Keynotes, the Midwest Section's newsletter, and the Proceedings of the Institute for Teens, in NAJCW's 1966 file, and a file on the New York State Section's 50th anniversary annual meeting. (This file includes statistics on the Centers and Ys in New York State.) Also of note are Convention materials, which provide summaries of each section's activities. (The New England section's 50th annual convention program contains acknowledgements from New England Congresspeople.) Included here are field reports, correspondence, meeting and biennial materials, section constitutions, photograph (located in the Audio-Visual Materials subgroup), certificates, and statements (located in the Oversized Materials subgroup.)

Related Materials: Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 3: Field Reports; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 4: Geographic Files; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 6: Regional Area Offices.

Restrictions: Southern Section: Lebovits, H.; Western Section: Kanner, Ted

Subseries 6: Regional Area Offices, undated, 1911-1995 (bulk 1945-1975)

English, Hebrew and Yiddish.
169 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Atlanta Office (undated, 1948-1976; bulk 1951-1953, 1970-1974), Boston Office (undated, 1952, 1969-1978), Denver Office (1946-1947, 1951-1957, 1959-1975; bulk 1964-1975), Federations (1919-1935, 1938-1944; bulk 1939-1944), Middle Atlantic (undated, 1919, 1922-1977; bulk 1955-1970), Midwest (1939-1967, 1969-1972; bulk 1951-1972), New England (undated, 1911-1979; bulk 1948-1970), New Jersey (undated, 1947-1981; bulk 1962-1976), New York Metropolitan (undated, 1915-1995; bulk 1952-1973), New York State (undated, 1953-1969; bulk 1963-1967), Phoenix Office (1981-1985), Washington Office (undated, 1943-1982; bulk 1960-1982), Western Area (undated, 1965-1983, 1985; bulk 1973-1981). Mainly arranged alphabetically: some portions are arranged chronologically.

Federations: the earlier files are arranged alphabetically, while the 1939-1944 files are arranged first chronologically and then alphabetically; New York Metropolitan Area: Organization Files from 1958 on are chronological, then alphabetical. The majority of the New York Metropolitan Area Subject Files are arranged by date. (Many of these files actually cover a broader range of years than may at first be apparent. For example, the "1952" file ranges from 1951 to 1955, with the bulk of the material falling in 1952.) Approximately 6 feet of the Subject Files are arranged alphabetically. New York State Area: Herman Sainer's Administration on Aging files are arranged in three chronological subsets, while the Subject files are arranged in five chronological subsets: 1960-1962, 1964-1965, 1965-1966, 1966-1967, and 1967-1968. (As with the New York Metropolitan Area, a wider range of years is actually covered in each subset.)

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The files document activities within JWB's regional areas. There are no files for the Southern Section (which was formed in 1944), though the Atlanta Office files do cover activities at JCCs and Ys in the South. (The Federation files include a small amount of material on the early years of the Southern Section.) Atlanta, Charleston, Chattanooga, Dallas, Fort Worth, Memphis, New Orleans, and San Antonio are particularly strongly represented. Of particular note is the 1972 study of Jewish youth of Birmingham, Alabama. The material is arranged alphabetically by city, though some field reports are also collected in "Southern Section, JWB Field Reports." (Some other parts of the country are also included in the Atlanta Office files.)

The Boston Office files pertain to the Institute for Jewish Life, which later became the Jewish Media Service. The documents reflect the Media Service's efforts regarding the effective use of media in Jewish education and in cultivating Jewish life in the United States. Included are evaluations of films made available through the Media Service, as well as information on institutions which rented the films. Some files on specific topics, such as Soviet Jewry, can also be found here. (For related material, see Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series A: Program Services/Subseries 5: Jewish Media Service.) The Denver Office material provides information on activities in the Western Area. Of note are the files on USO Activities and teen conferences. Also included here are documents maintained by Herman Markowitz, who served as director of Western Services from 1971 to 1978; this material consists of files on JCCs and Ys in the U.S. and Canada. The Federation files chronicle the early years of Federations throughout the country. Items of note include issues of New York Federation News and (in the files on the Metropolitan Association of Jewish Center Workers) a 1943 seminar on a postwar agenda.

The Pennsylvania Federation of YMHAs held its first convention in 1910. In the 1920s, this Federation merged with the newly formed Middle Atlantic States Federation, and later became the Middle Atlantic Section of JWB.19 Of particular note in the Middle Atlantic files are the History files which include programs for the 1919, 1922, and 1925 section conventions, as well as constitutions and bylaws, and JCC objectives and statements of purpose. The Subject Files include annual reports, executive board minutes from 1923 to 1970 (there are no minutes from 1956 to 1965) and a statement of principles regarding Center-Federation relationships. Also included in the Subject Files are programming resources for the centenary of Jewish chaplaincy and materials on the merger of the Middle Atlantic Section and the 2nd Army Services Committee. In addition, files Arthur Brodkin maintained in his role as community consultant can also be found here. These files document Bodkin's involvement in the Mid-Atlantic Council, as well as his role in Biennial preparation and Health & Physical Education activities.

The Midwest Section was founded in 1939 and was admitted into JWB the following year.20 The documents collected here consist of Community and Subject Files. The Subject Files include a study of Federation and Center Executives regarding their views of the American Jewish community, and also contain a variety of conference materials. Information on the Midwest section's 1963 and 1965 Biennials can be found here. Also included is material on the Centenary Committee; this includes a compilation of articles and speeches from various years, recounting events in JCC's development and history.

The Scrapbook Files include bylaws and constitutions of the Midwest section. Some material on Canada is included in the Community files, and a photograph of the first five Midwest Area presidents is located in the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup.

The New England Area files document activities in the New England region, including the actions of Alfred Dobrof and Leonard Katowitz, regional and community consultants. Included in the Administrative Subject Files are house policies, consisting of rules and guidelines for various JCCs, and work plans for the New England area. The History Files include dedication journals and studies of New England communities, while the Minutes Files include a program of the first annual convention of the Associated Ys of New England-the New England Section's predecessor-in 1911, as well as programs for other meetings up to 1952. Materials on the third to fifty-ninth New England annual conventions can be found in the Proceedings files, while the Subject files include New England constitutions and further material on conventions. (The 1954 convention file includes letters from the governors of Virginia, Maine, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania.) Also of note is a 1912 YMHA convention photograph, with signatures of the New England Region's board on the back; this can be found in the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup.

The New Jersey Federation of YMHAs was established in 1912 and joined JWB in 1921. About half of the New Jersey Area material consists of community files, documenting JCC and Y activities from 1966 to 1983. (Some files on New York, Connecticut, and Canada are included in the files of Jack Boeko, community consultant.) Of note in the Subject Files are the work plans of Mitchell Jaffe, consultant to the New Jersey Area and Assistant Director of Community Services, and Al Dobrof, New Jersey Consultant. Subject files also include a variety of material on Nursery School Institutes, Teen Activities, Health and Physical Education, and meetings of JCC and Y executives. Also of note is the JWB Study Committee material, which describes a proposed reorganization of JWB structure.

The Metropolitan League of YMHAs and Kindred Associations, formed in 1913, was reorganized as the New York Metropolitan Section-Jewish Welfare Board in 1936. It served as the planning, activating, coordinating and servicing agency for Jewish Community Centers and kindred organizations in the five boroughs and neighboring parts of Westchester and Long Island.21 Almost half this subseries consists of files of the Metropolitan Section: included are the papers of Harold Arian, who was appointed Administrative Field Secretary in 1954 and served in that capacity until 1971. His files consist of journals (the Journal of Jewish Communal Service and Jewish Social Service Quarterly) and Subject Files. Of note in Arian's Subject Files are the materials on the Bronx Y Study and the Bronx Y Golden Age Club, and the 1966 Teen Workers conference, which includes material on the values of middle class Jewish teenagers.

Articles of Incorporation, Constitutions, By-Laws and Financial Statements for the Metropolitan section can also be found here. (Some financial statements for JWB itself are also included.) Of particular note is the material on the Hunts Point project, which was initiated in the spring of 1934, as part of an experimental effort to reduce delinquency among Jewish youth. In addition, this section includes a 1946 survey of the New York City Jewish population's cultural and recreational needs, and files on JCCs and Ys in the various boroughs of the city. (These files are collected under Organizations and also under City Wide and National Agencies.) Over half of the New York Metropolitan material consists of Subject Files, the bulk of which fall between 1941 and 1981. Items of note in the Subject Files include the History File, in the "1954" subject file and the Historical material in the Alphabetical Subject Files, which include constitutions and bylaws for the Metropolitan League of Ys and Kindred Associations, as well as the Metropolitan League of JCAs and other associations. Some reel-to-reel and audiotapes can be found in the Audio Visual Materials Subgroup.

The New York State Section was first organized in 1915, as the New York State Federation of YMHAs, and joined JWB in 1921. The New York State material consists of Subject Files and the files of Herman Sainer, who became Administrative Regional Consultant in 1964. (Much of the material maintained by Sainer actually precedes this appointment.) Of note are the documents on the Administration on Aging, and the files on New York cities and towns. Some material from Arthur Brodkin's tenure as Field Secretary is included in the Subject Files. (Brodkin was appointed in 1961.) The Phoenix Office files consist of the records of George Korobkin, director of Western Services. This material is primarily administrative in nature.

The Washington DC Office files document the work of that office, which focused on services to JWB, JCCs, and Armed Services. These services included public affairs, program and administrative services, representation of JWB to local and national meetings and federal departments and agencies and direction of the Government Division Campaign for United Jewish Appeal of Greater Washington.22 Included here are June Rogul's files on JCCs. (Rogul served as director of the Washington Office.) Also included are community files documenting visits to Virginia JCCs conducted by Moe Hoffman in his capacity as Regional Consultant, and Subject Files, which include personal services files dealing with court martials in the 1960s.

In 1936, eleven societies on the West Coast organized the Pacific Coast Federation of Jewish Community Centers, which was admitted into JWB two years later and became the Western States Section.23 Included here are the files of George Korobkin, who served as director of Western Services. (Additional Korobkin files can be found in the Phoenix Office material, and further information on the Western area can be found in the Denver Office files.) The Western Area material consists primarily of Community and Subject Files. The bulk of the Community Files concern Canada and the Western states, though some other states are also included. Of particular note is the material on the 1980s Kansas City Study, which assessed the JCC's adult education, fine arts, theater, jazz, poetry, early education, and humanities programs.

The subseries includes correspondence, field reports, meeting minutes, brochures, reports, news clippings, surveys, journals, work plans, studies, personnel profiles, certificates, constitutions, by-laws, publications, photographs, audio-tapes, (located in the Audio-Visual Materials subgroup), maps, charts, posters, and blueprints (located in the Oversized Materials subgroup.)

19 Change and Challenge: A History of 50 Years of JWB. Page 14. Janowsky, Oscar I., Louis Kraft, Bernard Postal. New York: National Jewish Welfare Board. 1966

20 Change and Challenge: A History of 50 Years of JWB. Page 15. Janowsky, Oscar I., Louis Kraft, Bernard Postal. New York: National Jewish Welfare Board, 1966

21 New York Metropolitan Section-JWB - Its Functions. 1955, I-337, NJWB. American Jewish Historical Society

22 JWB Today: Part I Services, Facilities, Staff JWB Today: A Guide and a Directory, Part I Services Facilities Staff, New York: JWB, 1947

23 Change and Challenge: A History of 50 Years of JWB. page 15. Janowsky, Oscar I., Louis Kraft, Bernard Postal. New York: National Jewish Welfare Board, 1966

Related Materials: Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series A: Program Services/Subseries 3: Health and Physical Education; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series A: Program Services/Subseries 5: Jewish Media Service; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 3: Field Reports; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 4: Geographic Files; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 5: Regional Area Files.

Restrictions: Several files are restricted due to fragility or subject matter. Boxes are marked accordingly.

Series C: Public Relations, undated, 1917-1988 (bulk 1925-1969, 1981-1987)

72 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series is divided into two subseries: 1) Department of Communications and 2) Public Information Services.

Scope and Content:

The Public Relations Department assisted JWB in maintaining its position as the leadership and central service agency of North American JCCs and YM-YWHAs. The Department helped to create and transmit JWB's messages to its constituents, thus fulfilling JWB's role as advocate for a united JCC movement. The Department served as JWB's liaison with the American Jewish and general press and also published the JWB Circle, which showcased the work of JWB, the Center movement, and individual JCCs. In addition, the Department provided JCCs, Centers, and Federations with a variety of publications, and evaluated the JCCs' own public relations material. The Department also consulted with local agencies, to assist them with their public relations efforts and promoted Jewish educational and cultural programming in JCCs.24

24 "JWB Communications and Public Relations," undated, I-337, NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society.

Subseries 1: Department of Communications, undated, 1967-1988 (bulk 1981-1987)

English.
22 linear feet.
Arrangement:

General Correspondence (undated, 1918, 1952, 1967-1988; bulk 1981-1987), Press Releases and Projects (1981-1983). Arranged chronologically (general correspondence) and numerically (press releases and projects.)

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The Department of Communications sought to promote a positive image of JWB as the headquarters for the Association of Jewish Community Centers and YM-YWHAs in North America and as the sponsoring agency for the Lecture Bureau, Jewish Music and Book Councils, Jewish Media Service, Armed Forces and Veterans' Services Committee, and Commission on Jewish Chaplaincy.25

This material consists of General Correspondence files, and Press Releases. The General Correspondence includes work plans for Frank Wundohl, Director of Communications and Public Interpretation, and Lionel Koppman, Director of Public Information Services and Executive Editor of the JWB Circle. Also included are files on staff member projects, copies of the JWB Circle, and information on JWB's Book Council, the Rockower awards, the American Jewish Press Association, JWB Biennials, and Israel.

In addition, material on the Commission on Maximizing Jewish Educational Effectiveness and its Implementation Committee can be found here. (For more material on this, see the Jewish Education Programs sub-series.) Also included are departmental materials such as personnel files and a speech delivered by President Ronald Reagan at the Bergen-Belsen American Israel Public Affairs Committee. The press releases document JWB activities, as well as staff appointments and JWB award winners. Several video and audiotapes were moved to the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup and a wide assortment of photographs, including photos of JWB staff members with Golda Meir and Israeli Foreign Minister Abba Eban, can also be found there. Other materials include reports and news clippings.

25 "Department of Communications and Public Interpretation Work Plan & Goals. October 1982-August 1984," October 1982, I-337, NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society.

Related Materials: Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series E: Jewish Education programs/Subseries 2: Commission on Maximizing Jewish Educational Effectiveness.

Restrictions: personal data, Frank Wundohl, 1981; Applicants, 1982; Personnel, Grotte, Rita & Personnel, Thomas, Patrice, 1983

Subseries 2: Public Information Services, undated, 1916-1986 (bulk 1925-1969)

English, Hebrew, Yiddish, Spanish, French, German, and Afrikaans.
50 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Artwork (undated), Biennial (1966, 1970-1972, 1983-1986; bulk 1966, 1972, 1986), Biographical Files (undated, 1930-1982), General Files (undated, 1917-1984; bulk 1941-1984), Golden Jubilee (1966), Jewish Community Center Services (undated, 1945-1971), Lionel Koppman Files (undated, 1938-1986), Photographs: General and Historical Documents (1916-1970), Arnulf Pins Files (undated, 1940-1954), Bernard Postal Files (undated, 1917-1918, 1927-1969, 1978-1982; bulk 1940-1960), Press Releases and Clippings (1969-1970,1976-1977, 1981-1982), Printing Plates (circa 1919-1922), Publications (undated, 1923, 1926, 1930s-1983; bulk 1950-1975) Mainly arranged alphabetically. (General Files are chronological, Lionel Koppman files and Press Releases are chronological and numerical.)

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The Department of Public Information promoted broader community understanding of the role of JCCs and also provided individual centers with technical public relations assistance and guidance.26 The duties of the director of Public Information Services included serving as the Executive Editor of JWB Circle and also researching and writing press releases on JWB/JCC activities, such as the Jewish Media Service and Lecture Bureau.27 The files collected here reflect JWB's efforts in this area and consist of correspondence, meeting materials, reports, printing plates, art work, certificates, speeches, surveys, pamphlets, fact sheets, art work, conference proceedings, biographies, contest entry forms, articles, press releases, news clippings, annual reports, yearbooks, newsletters, bulletins, bound volumes, (located in Subgroup VI: Oversized Materials), photographs, videotapes, film reels, audio-tapes, and slides (located in Subgroup V: Audio-Visual Materials).

Some Biennial files are included here, as are some biographical files on individuals of note, such as Yitzhak Rabin, Sandy Koufax, Jack Dempsey, General Douglas MacArthur, Eleanor Roosevelt and Hank Greenberg. Biographical information on some JWB staff members is also included.) These files consist mainly of clippings and photographs, with the photographs located in Subgroup V: Audio-Visual Materials. Materials of note in the General Files include some files on anti-Semitism and a 1944 speech by Massachusetts Representative James Curley and a signed letter from him. In addition, material on a radio program called "We the Guilty" can be found here, as can an index to the first two volumes of the JWB Circle and a 1949 pamphlet entitled "JWB Today" which describes the services JWB offered at that time. Other materials on note include some pencil drawings by Feingold, as well as printing plates for army and navy certificates. The Photographs: General and Historical Documents material includes Photostats of letters to JWB from Presidents Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Harry Truman, Lyndon Johnson and John F. Kennedy. (This material was found with the historical photographs located in Subgroup V: Audio-Visual Materials)

The files of Lionel Koppman, who became head of Public Information Services in 1970, include entry forms for JWB's Communications Awards competition, which honored public relations professionals working in a variety of communications media.28 (Related material can be found in the Audio-Visual Material series.) Entries were submitted by synagogues, JCCs, YM and YWHAs, camps, and VA chapels. The files of Arnulf Pins, in his capacity as chair of the National Jewish Youth Planning Commission can also be found here. Also of note are a wide variety of publications documenting activities at the national, regional, and local levels of JWB. Included here are annual and semi annual reports, position statements on various issues, meeting minutes, and newsletters, newspapers, and bulletins. (Bound volumes of the JWB Circle, dating from 1949 to 1965, can be found in the Oversized Materials Subgroup.)

Finally, about a third of this material consists of the files of Bernard Postal, who became director of Public Information in 1946 and remained in that position until 1970. The bulk of the Postal material consists of General Files and Press Releases; some material on military heroes and Jewish families with more than one child serving in World War II is also included, as are some files on the Committee to Reappraise Public Understanding of JWB. Postal's General Files cover an extremely wide range of topics, from fascism and anti-Semitism in such countries as England, Germany, Czechoslovakia and Canada to the Boy Scouts. Files on individuals such as novelist Pearl Buck, Supreme Court Justice Black, actress Claire Bloom, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt are also included here, as are files on the Emergency Committee to save the Jews of Europe and a National Conference of Christians and Jews. A copy of the World War I High Holy Days Prayer book can also be found in Postal's General Files.

Several boxes of photographs have been removed from these files and added to the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup.

26 JWB Today: A Guide and a Directory. Part I Services Facilities Staff; Part II The JWB Family. Page 28. New York: National Jewish Welfare Board, 1947

27 "Work Plan - 1983/1984. Director of Public Information Services." I-337, NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society

28 "JWB Communications and Public Relations," undated, I-337, NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society.

Related Materials: Subgroup I: Governance/Series D: Conventions and Committees/Subseries 1: JWB Biennial Conventions; Audio-Visual Material Subgroup.

Series D: Personnel Recruitment and Training, undated, 1917-1987 (bulk 1945-1975)

87 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series contains one subseries: Personnel Services.

Scope and Content:

This series documents the recruitment and training efforts of JWB's personnel department, which served as the main source of professional staff for JCCs and camps. The department interviewed applicants, evaluated workers and served as a resource to JCC leaders on personnel problems, in addition to organizing training institutes to enrich the professional skills of center workers.29

29 JWB Today: A Guide and a Directory. Part I Services Facilities Staff. New York: National Jewish Welfare Board, 1947

Subseries 1: Personnel Services, undated, 1917-1987 (bulk 1945-1975)

English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and German.
87 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries is divided as follows: Bessie Pine files (undated, 1969-1973), Edward Kagen files (undated, 1971-1987), General Files (1968-1977), Israel Program Resource Materials: Irving Brickman files (undated, 1948, 1955, 1958-1974; bulk 1969-1972), JWB Organizational Files (1954-1975; bulk 1959-1973), JWB Personnel Files (1925-1935, 1938-1942; bulk 1938-1941), Personnel Data: Clerical Employees and Support Staff (1942-1985; bulk 1950-1972), Personnel Evaluations (1941-1962), Personnel Profiles: Scholarships (1964-1969), Personnel Profiles: Sets A, B and C (undated, 1918-1972; bulk 1942-1963), Professional Personnel Records (1917-1983; bulk 1940-1960), Reference Material (undated, 1944, 1956-1971), Scholarship Material (1957-1970), Scholarship Rejections (1971-1976), Sherwood Epstein files (undated, 1951-1974; bulk 1969-1974), Solomon Greenfield files (undated, 1948, 1958-1987; bulk 1976-1986), Staff Training (undated, 1944-1975; bulk 1966-1975), [Executive] Training (1969-1978), Training Services (undated, 1935-1971; bulk 1965-1970), and USO Employee Cards (1921-1970; bulk 1941-1947). Arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The personnel services files include materials on all aspects of employment, including recruitment, retention, counseling, placement, and training. Almost half this subseries consists of personnel files on applicants, employees, and scholarship and Shlichim candidates; these files, which contain social security numbers, medical records, and other personal information, including transcripts, are restricted.

Shlichim applicants are documented in the Bessie Pine's files, while information on staff grievances and interactions with the Union can be found in the Edward Kagen material. The restricted Personnel Data and Profile files provide data about JWB's employees, with the Professional Personnel Records containing information on several high level employees such as Louis Kraft, Aryeh Lev, Sanford Solender, and Chester Jacob Teller. (Located here is a file on Nathan Witkin including information on the Medal of Freedom he received in 1947.) Sherwood Epstein's files reflect his role as New England Community and Personnel Consultant and Staff Coordinator of JWB's Northeast Area Council. (Of particular note are his files on the Manpower Utilization Study, which sought to improve the use and productivity of JCC employees with baccalaureate degrees.30) Also included are the files of Solomon Greenfield, who served as Director of Personnel from 1974 to 1977 and subsequently as assistant executive director of JWB (1977-1980) and associate executive director (1980-2000.) (The bulk of Greenfield's files either predate or postdate his tenure as Director of Personnel.) Finally, the subseries provides a look at the variety of training programs implemented by JWB. Specifically, information on the New Workers Orientation Institute can be found in the Staff Training: Irving Brickman files and material on the Executive Development Training Program can be found in the [Executive] Training files. The series consists of correspondence, clippings, conference materials, transcripts, personnel profiles, performance evaluations, publications, medical records, chart, architectural drawings, and photographs (primarily located in the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup, though application photographs remain with the applications.)

30 "Sherwood Epstein Named Director of Camping Services", 1976, I-337, NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society

Related Materials: Subgroup I: Governance/Series A: Governing Body/Subseries 2: Associate Executive Director; Subgroup III: Veterans' Affairs/Series A: Armed Forces and Veterans' Services (USO material.)

Restrictions: Wrapped and bound materials in Sherwood Epstein and Solomon Greenfield files. In addition, items in Bessie Pine Files, General Files, Personnel Data: Clerical and Support Staff, Personnel Profiles Sets A, B, and C, Professional Personnel Records, Scholarship Rejections, and Solomon Greenfield files are restricted. Boxes are marked accordingly.

Note: Miscellaneous boxes 9 to 11 are located at end of entire collection. The material relates to Solomon Greenfield and USO Employee Cards.

Series E: Jewish Education Programs, undated, 1924-1988 (bulk 1951-1988)

43.33 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series is divided into six subseries: 1) Adult Education; 2) Commission on Maximizing Jewish Educational Effectiveness; 3) Jewish Education; 4) Jewish Educational and Cultural Programming; 5) Jewish Educational and World Programming; and 6) Jewish Educational Programming.

Scope and Content:

This sub-series documents JWB's educational programs, which were geared towards all users of the JCCs: children, teenagers and adults.

Subseries 1: Adult Education, 1951-1963

English.
1 linear foot.
Arrangement:

Arranged chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This subseries consists of material on adult education programs conducted at JCCs. Programs include Hebrew and Yiddish classes and general Jewish study groups on topics such as "Israel and the Lively Arts" and the "Jewish Concept of Charity." Material on Jewish education programs conducted by other organizations is also included. The files consist of correspondence, clippings, reports, and meeting minutes.

Subseries 2: Commission on Maximizing Jewish Educational Effectiveness, undated, 1978-1988 (bulk 1983-1988)

English.
6.25 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series is organized as follows: Communities (1983), General (undated, 1983-1984), JWB Special Convention (1983-1985), Leonard Rubin (undated, 1982-1986), Nine Cities Conference (1984-1985), Reisman Study (undated, 1982-1988), Resource Files (1978-1983), Special Projects (undated, 1979-1984), Think Tank (undated, 1984-1988), Visits to Centers and Ys (undated, 1955, 1979-1986). Arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

In 1982 an ad hoc committee of JWB's Board of Directors called for a high-level commission to increase Jewish educational effectiveness. The Commission visited communities and JCCs and heard reports and presentations, before compiling a report in 1984.31 This material documents the Commission's review of JCCs and its deliberations and recommendations; it includes conference files and files on visits to JCCs and Ys, at which the development of education programs was tracked. Also included is a study conducted by Dr. Bernard Reisman in 1988, to determine the progress made since the reports of the Commission and of the later Committee on Implementation. The Commission's 1984 report can be found here, as can questionnaires completed by JCC camp staff. Additional materials consist correspondence, clippings, reports, and meeting minutes.

31 The Work of the Commission. Commission on Maximizing Jewish Educational Effectiveness, 1984, I-337, NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society

Related Materials: Subgroup I: Governance/Series D: Conventions and Committees/Subseries 9: Commission on Maximizing Jewish Educational Effectiveness; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series E: Jewish Education Programs/Subseries 6: Jewish Education Programming.

Subseries 3: Jewish Education, undated, 1928-1959 (bulk 1950-1957)

English.
4 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Arranged chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This material documents JWB's involvement with numerous educational associations, committees, and commissions, such as the American Association for Jewish Education and the Committee to Survey Hebrew Education. Material on JCC interactions with the Synagogue Council of America, regarding Jewish education, is included. Of particular note is the material on the 1957 Jewish writers' conference. Files consist of correspondence, meeting minutes, clippings, brochures, and reports.

Subseries 4: Jewish Educational and Cultural Programming, undated, 1924-1981 (bulk 1967-1981)

English, Hebrew, and Yiddish.
29 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries is divided into the following categories: Harold Arian files (undated, 1924-1981; bulk 1971-1978), Israel: Rabbi Philip Goodman files (undated, 1947-1973; bulk 1967-1972). Arranged alphabetically, with the exception of Arian's Subject files, which are chronological.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The bulk of this material documents the activities of Harold Arian, in his role of coordinator of Jewish Educational and Cultural Programs. In this capacity, Arian directed JWB's Israel projects and activities, and oversaw the work of the Jewish Book Council, National Jewish Music Council, and Lecture Bureau. He also served as liaison to national Jewish organizations and delegate to the United Nations.32 (Some documents pertaining to Arian's earlier work as a field secretary for the New York Metropolitan Area are also included. Further material on this is located in the Field Services series.) Included here are files on cultural arts conferences (with particular emphasis on the 1976 Bicentennial), educational and cultural activities throughout the country, and the Israel Program and Information Desk (IPID) Project. (This program was aimed at "encouraging and facilitating increased American study, volunteerism, travel, business ventures, employment and settlement in Israel.33" The project's goal was to establish Israel Desks at JCCs throughout the United States and Canada.) A variety of material on Israeli programs, seminars, and camps can be found here. Of particular note is a photograph of JCC secretaries in Atlantic City in 1924, which can be found in the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup. Also included here is some historical material on the National Association of Jewish Center Workers, including some material written by Louis Kraft, and a "Celebration of Israel's 25th Anniversary, written for Frank Sinatra, Walter Matthau, and Edward G. Robinson.

This subseries also contains files maintained by Rabbi Philip Goodman, who served as director of Jewish education from 1944 to 1968. (The Jewish Education department provided JCC's with advice on Jewish content and assistance in dealing with Jewish education problems. The department maintained a library of program aids and Jewish holiday bulletins, containing stories, games, quizzes, and plays, which were available for use by JCCs.34) A variety of material related to Israel-such as material on Independence Day and Aliyah-is included here. Much of the material was created by other (non JWB) organizations, such as the American Zionist Youth Foundation, the Jewish Agency, and the United Jewish Appeal. Of particular note are the pamphlets and dramatizations. Additional materials found here include discussion/study guides, articles, educational kits, meeting minutes, reports, correspondence, clippings and photographs and film strips (located in the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup.)

32 "Background Information: Harold Arian," undated, I-337, NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society

33 "Israel Desk Project Gathers Steam," The JWB Circle, p. 3, November 1977

34 JWB Today: A Guide and a Directory, Part I Services Facilities Staff, New York: JWB, 1947

Related Materials: Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series A: Program Services/Subseries 4: Jewish Book Council; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series A: Program Services/Subseries 6: Jewish Music Council; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series A: Program Services/Subseries 7: Lecture Bureau; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 6: Regional Area Offices/New York Metropolitan Area; Subgroup II/Series E/Subseries 3: Jewish Education.

Restrictions: Harold Arian General Files: Steve Bayer file

Subseries 5: Jewish Educational and World Services Programming, 1968-1973 (bulk 1971-1973)

English, Hebrew, and Yiddish.
1.33 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This subseries consists of files maintained by Asher Tarmon in his capacity as Consultant to JCCs on Programs in Relation to Israel. The material contains information on Hebrew programs at JCCs in various cities, and includes survey forms on programming submitted to JWB by the JCCs. Files consist of clippings, brochures, forms, embroidered badge, and a photograph (located in the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup).

Related Materials: Subgroup IV: Affiliated Organizations/Series C: World Federation of YM & YWHAs and JCCs.

Subseries 6: Jewish Educational Programming, undated, 1981-1988 (bulk 1984-1986)

English.
1.75 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The files document JWB's role in helping JCCs and YM-YWHAs develop and evaluate education programs. Items of note include material on the Jewish Education Expo at the 1987 CJF General Assembly and material related to program consultation at the Cleveland Ohio JCC. Issues of Zarkor, a newsletter on JCC programming, are also included. Other materials include clippings, correspondence, meeting materials, and studies.

Related Materials: Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series E: Jewish Education Programs/Subseries 2: Commission on Maximizing Jewish Educational Effectiveness.

Series F: Administrative and Management Services, 1917-1977 (bulk 1940-1970)

67 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series is divided into four subseries: 1) Accounting and Controller; 2) Administrative Services; 3) Building Bureau; and 4) Central Purchasing Services.

Scope and Content:

This series documents the administrative inner workings of the JWB including the building practices and standards of the Centers and the purchasing of supplies for Passover by the Chaplains on US Military Bases.

Subseries 1: Accounting and Controller, 1938, 1940-1978 (bulk 1945-1960)

English, French, Yiddish and Hebrew.
3 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries is arranged into 3 categories: General Files (1940-1965), Financial Statements (1967-1978), and Insurance Files (1938, 1941-1963). Arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The Controller and the Accounting Department provided an analysis of JWB's financial condition by summarizing the financial activities and expenses for the year. Also included are accounting procedures, fund raising materials, and death claims. Files include memoranda, studies, correspondence, financial statements, minutes, policies and procedures, proposals, reports, manuals, by-laws, contracts, retirement plans, and certificates.

Related Materials: Subgroup I: Governance/Series B: Fund Raising Services/Subseries 1: Fund Raising Division.

Subseries 2: Administrative Services, undated, 1917-1977 (1950-1975)

English, Hebrew and Yiddish.
55 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries has been arranged into the following categories: Consultant in JCC Administration (1951-1976), Director of Administrative Services (1940, 1945-1969), General Files (1917-1965) Biennial Conventions (1956-1976) Board Manuals and other Workbooks (1948, 1950-1975), Community Files, Consultant (1961-1977), Community Files, Director (1954-1970), Electronic Data Processing (1965-1977), Intermediate City Center Executives Seminar (1960-1971), JWB Administrative Services Files (1932-1960), Resources Files (1940-1977), Studies and Manuals (1945, 1950-1974), Subject Files, Consultant (1964-1977), Subject Files, Director (1963-1970), Subject Files, Clerical Personnel (1946-1961), USO (1971-1974), and Frank Weil Awards (1952-1976). Arrange alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This material primarily consists of Harry Schatz's files as Director of Administrative Services. He became Consultant in 1953 when the department was called Department of Jewish Community Center Administration. In 1961 the name was changed to Administrative Services. According to their annual report "JWB Administrative Services has a double mission. It provides internal operating services to the administration of JWB and external consultation services to the Jewish Community Centers in the US and Canada, and through the World Federation of YMHAs to Centers in other parts of the world."35

The Consultant in JCC Administration material deals with the establishment of JCC standards, program development, and the restructuring of JCC organization.

The Director of Administrative Services material consists of by-law revisions, white/black Jewish relationship, legal issues of the JWB/JCCs, manpower needs of JCCs, maintenance of JWB's Records Management system, JWB's move to a new location in 1967, the planning of Biennial Conventions, and the internal administration of JWB.

Of special interest within the Board Manuals and other Work Books material is The Great Society and the JCC Field.

The JWB Administrative Services Files highlights such subjects as budget and finance, building activities, Community Relations, membership, personnel, section meetings, and the World Fellowship European Tour. The Frank Weil Awards file documents who was chosen as recipients for the award and why.

Files include correspondence, reports, studies, forms, ribbons, manuals, newspaper clippings, minutes, programs, telegrams, brochures, pamphlets, guidelines, photographs and negatives (located in Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup), workbooks, surveys, lecture notes, financial statements, memoranda, leases, by-laws, architectural drawings (located in Oversized Materials Subgroup), and flyers.

35 Annual Report JWB Administrative Services, September 1, 1967 - August 31, 1968, I-337 NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society.

Related Materials: Subgroup I: Governance/Series D: Conventions and Committees/Subseries 1: JWB Biennial Convention; Subgroup I: Governance/Series C: Central Records Center/Subseries 1: Archives and Records.

Note: JWB Miscellaneous Box 11 is located at end of entire collection. The material relates to the General Files and Studies and Manuals.

Subseries 3: Building Bureau, 1927, 1940-1962 (bulk 1945-1960)

English .
8 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries is organized as follows: Blueprints (1946-1958) (located in Oversized Materials Subgroup), Bureau Data (1945-1960), Correspondence Files (1947-1964), Miscellaneous Building Material (1949-1960), Photographs ([circa 1940]-1960) (located in Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup), and Specification Files (1927, 1946-1962). Arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The Building Bureau of the JWB provided technical direction in the planning and construction of new centers. The blueprints feature JCCs from the United States and around the world. The Bureau Data material consists of agreements and contracts, building specifications, camp standards, and analyses of JCC building activities. The photographs include exterior and interior shots used for publicity campaigns within the JWB.

This material consists of blueprints (located in Subgroup VI: Oversized Materials), financial statements, correspondence, brochures, pamphlets, contracts, manuals, reports, photographs (located in Subgroup V: Audio-Visual Materials), memoranda, policies, minutes, and plans.

Subseries 4: Central Purchasing Services, 1964-1969, 1973-1977

English.
1 linear foot.
Arrangement:

Arranged chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The Central Purchasing Services material documents the activities of the purchasing and supply department. The documents also highlight the interaction between the department and the Chaplains who were stationed at US military bases in the US and around the world. The files consist of memoranda, correspondence, reports, invoices, plans, and policies.

Related Materials: Subgroup III: Veterans' Affairs/Series B: Commission on Jewish Chaplaincy.

Series G: Files and Reports, 1909-1970 (bulk 1935-1959)

69 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series is arranged into one subseries: Jewish Center Division.

Scope and Content:

Although this series contains many reports from the Jewish Center Division, other reports generated by the JWB and Jewish Community Centers can be found throughout the Jewish Community Center Subgroup.

Subseries 1: Jewish Center Division, 1909-1970 (bulk 1935-1959)

English, Hebrew and Yiddish.
69 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subseries has been arranged into the following categories: Committee on Admissions of Constituent Societies (1924-1950, bulk 1935-1942), Commission to Study the Effects of Emergency on Jewish Center Work (1919-1944, bulk 1941), Council of Jewish Federations and World Fund (1968-1973, bulk 1972), Evaluation Committee (1946-1951, bulk 1950), Girls' and Women's Activities Committee (1922-1952, bulk 1945-1949), Jewish Community Center Division (1943-1944, 1957-1962), Jewish Center Division (1919-1955), Jewish Center Division Committee (1937-1952), Jewish Center Division Executive Director (Gershovitz, Samuel, 1928-1948), Jewish Center Division Executive Director (Solender, Sanford, 1924-1969), Jewish Community Center Division Committee (1955-1961), Jewish Community Center Services (1948-1966), Jewish Community Center Services Committee (1962-1965), Jewish Center Activities (1913-1967, bulk 1925-1959), Reports (1925-1982, bulk 1927-1960), and Research (1946-1950). Arranged alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

In 1943 the Jewish Center Division was created in order to bring together the function of the Centers under one heading. All aspects of Center life were organized thought the JCD. In the 1960's the name changed from Jewish Center Division to Jewish Community Center Division, and again to Jewish Community Center Services.

The Jewish Center Activities material reflects the various activities that were offered by the Centers. Of special interest are a copy of Theodore Herzl A Memorial, 1929 and newspaper clippings from Europe during the 1930's.

Within the Jewish Center Division Committee materials are Postwar Jewish Center Building Problems, 1948, quarterly reports of all departments, 1946 and Program Reconversion: Report to JCCs transferring wartime gains to peaceful programs, undated.

Of note in the research materials are the questionnaires that were taken in 1948 by youth 13 - 18 years of age. Questions asked were: Why did you come to the center tonight? Where would you and your friends go if there were no center here? Why do you usually come to the center? The questionnaires were left in the original groupings.

There are 5 types of reports found in the Report files. The first type, and most numerous, are annual reports of the various JCCs, synagogues, and YMHAs affiliated with the JWB. The annual reports reflect the number of members by gender, membership rates, changes in membership, types of groups and activities offered, attendance, income and expenses, size of building, and facilities available. These reports are arranged by the geographic regions used by the JWB: New England, Middle Atlantic, Mid-West, New York State, Metropolitan New York, New Jersey, Southern, and Western. Pennsylvania is divided into Middle Atlantic and Mid-West. At the end of the most recent annual reports are several special studies that pertain to the reports themselves.

The second type of report is the monthly reports of the Jewish Center Activities Department. These monthly reports record the activities offered by the various affiliated centers and synagogues around the country. These reports span 1927-1938.

The third type of report consists of reports that were subsequently published such as the annual reports of 1942 and 1956, Twenty Years of Community Service, and the Minneapolis Communal Survey.

The fourth type of report is the studies and surveys conducted by the JWB of Jewish communities throughout the US.

The fifth type of report is the proceedings, minutes, and reports from institutes held throughout the country from 1947-1960.

These files include emergency membership reports, telegrams, charts, correspondence memoranda, newspaper clippings, budgets, minutes, evaluations, index cards, speeches, articles, financial statements, maps (located in Subgroup VI: Oversized Materials), photographs (located in Subgroup V: Audio-Visual Materials), pamphlets, biographies, application forms, pocket calendars, constitutions, agendas, newsletters, union contracts and questionnaires.

Restrictions: One folder restricted due to subject matter.

Note: JWB Miscellaneous Box 12 is located at end of entire collection. The material relates to the Reports.

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Subgroup III: Veterans' Affairs, undated, 1917-1985 (bulk 1940-1978)

The predominant language of the subgroup is English.
180 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subgroup has been arranged in 3 series: Series A: Armed Forces and Veterans' Services; Series B: Commission on Jewish Chaplaincy; and Series C: Women's Organizations' Services. Primarily arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

This subgroup documents JWB's efforts on behalf of servicemen and veterans. Approximately a third of the subgroup consists of files on individual rabbis who served as chaplains in times of both war and peace. Material on JWB's involvement with the USO is also included, as are files documenting women's organizations' activities on behalf of chaplains, soldiers, and veterans.

Series A: Armed Forces and Veterans' Services, undated, 1937-1978 (bulk 1945-1970)

English, Hebrew and Yiddish.
45 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series has been arranged into the following subseries: Committees (1960-1977), Field Operations (undated, 1948-1956), Geographic Files (1960-1973), J. Greenhut Files (undated, 1943-1956), Jewish War Veterans (1940-1962), Overseas (1944-1966), Regions (1960-1964), Subject Files (undated, 1941-1978), USO Geographic Files (1938, 1958, 1963-1975; bulk 1964-1975), USO Narrative Files (1958-1963), USO Subject Files (undated, 1937, 1941-1975), War Claims (1942-1965), and World War II Subject Files (undated, 1940-1945). Arranged alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

In 1940, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt requested that JWB, along with the YMCA, YWCA, National Travelers Aid Association, Salvation Army, and the National Catholic Community Service, handle the recreational needs of members of the Armed Forces. As a result, the United Services Organizations (USO) was founded in 1941,36 with JWB participating actively in all aspects of the USO's operations. In addition to its USO activities, the Armed Forces & Veterans' Services (AFVS) division (originally organized in 1917 as the Army and Navy Committee and renamed the Army and Navy Services Division in 1924 before being renamed again in 1947) consisted of two main programs: Field Operations, responsible for determining assignments and managing personnel matters for field staff, and the Overseas Program37, responsible for meeting the religious and related welfare needs of servicemen abroad. This series provides a look at JWB's various activities in support of soldiers and veterans from World War II onward.

Much of the material collected here-Geographic Files, Overseas, Regions, USO Geographic Files, and USO Narrative Reports-has to do with activities undertaken by JWB and the USO both overseas and at stateside military bases. (In addition to sponsoring and maintaining its own field offices, which covered military installations and neighboring communities, JWB staff also maintained and directed field offices and clubs on behalf of the USO.38) Material on Armed Services Committees throughout the country can be found in the Geographic files, while the Regions files consist largely of administrative and financial matters. The USO Geographic and Narrative reports files provide information about events at USO clubs.

Also included are the files of Joseph Greenhut, director of Field Operations from 1955 to 1956. Items of note found here include USO-JWB work plans, which give insights into the interactions of the two organizations, and a manual entitled "Publicizing JWB's Armed Services Program: A Manual for USO-JWB Workers and Jewish Chaplains." Other interesting materials can be found in the Committees files, which include meeting minutes for the AFVS Executive Committee, the National Advisory Council on Service to Military and Veterans, and the Cuban Crisis Committee. Additional meeting materials are located in the USO Subject files, which also contain files on USO Presidents Chester Barnard, Lindsey Kimball, Harper Sidley and Executive Director Edwin Bond. (A USO insignia is included in the Army and Navy Subject File.) In addition, the series contains War Claims files, pertaining to JWB's successful claims against the governments of Italy, the Philippines, Austria, Germany, Czechoslovakia and Japan, for compensation for supplies lost, damaged, and destroyed during World War II. (This material includes lists of Jewish Chaplains who served in the European Theatre of Operations during World War II, as well as those in the Pacific Combat Zone and in China, Burma, and India.) Finally, a small amount of material on the Bureau of War Records can be found in the Jewish War Veterans files, and a variety of interesting information can be found in the World War II Subject Files, which consist primarily of news clippings. Topics include refugees, Passover, and the activities of Chaplains. (Several articles focus on the chaplains' efforts to liberate and assist displaced persons and concentration camp survivors.) Clippings pertaining to Joe Rosenthal, who took a famous photograph of the U.S. flag being raised on Iwo Jima, are included here. Also of note are some building plans for a community center in Balboa, which can be found in the Oversized Materials Subgroup.

36 USO (United Service Organizations) Historical Timeline, www.uso.org/whoweare/ourproudhistory/historicaltimeline/, January 20, 2004

37 JWB Today: A Guide and a Directory. Part I: Services, Facilities, Staff. Army and Navy Division, pp. 18-21, New York: National Jewish Welfare Board, 1947

38 JWB Year Book, volumes 4 to 7 1954-1957, Part 2: The Armed Services Field, New York, National Jewish Welfare Board, 1958

Related Materials: Subgroup I: Governing Body/Series C: Central Records Center/Subseries 4: Holiday Files; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series D: Personnel Recruitment and Training/Personnel Services/USO Employee Cards; Subgroup V: Audio-Visual Materials; Subgroup VI: Oversized Materials. Also I-180: National Jewish Welfare Board Army-Navy Division and I-52: National Jewish Welfare Board Bureau of War Records.

Restrictions: Field Operations: staff evaluations; Jewish War Veterans (fragile folder of 1947 tribute dinner material; congressional records); USO Geographic-Panama: Chaplaincy; Greenwood, Anne; Reiss, Jacques

Note: JWB Miscellaneous Boxes 13 and 14 and one unnumbered box are located at end of entire collection. The material relates to Overseas, Regions, Subject Files, War Claims and World War II Subject files.

Series B: Commission on Jewish Chaplaincy, undated, 1917-1985 (bulk 1940-1965)

English, Swedish, German, Latin , Hebrew, Yiddish, Hungarian, and French.
118 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series has been arranged as follows: Chaplains Files (1918-1985; bulk 1940-1965), General (undated, 1943-1984; bulk 1966-1975), Lay Leaders (1969-1985), Military Installations (1948-1984), Organizations (undated, 1932-1984), Passover (undated, 1930-1973; bulk 1967-1972), Prayer Books and Publications (undated, 1917-1977), Resource Files (undated, 1938-1973), Staff and Past Members (1942-1982; bulk 1960-1974), and Subject Files (undated, 1935-1980). Arranged alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The Commission on Jewish Chaplaincy (CJC), founded in 1917 as the Chaplain's Committee of the Jewish Welfare Board, was composed of leaders of the Rabbinical Assembly of America, the Rabbinical Council of America, and the Central Conference of American Rabbis.39 By 1922 the organization had become known as the Sub-Committee on Chaplains and Religious Observance; the name subsequently changed to the Committee on Religious Activities (1940), the Committee on Army and Navy Religious Activities (1942), and the Division of Religious Activities (1947). The Division was renamed the Commission on Jewish Chaplaincy in 1952 and kept this name until 1987, when it became known as the [JWB] Jewish Chaplains' Council. Under any name, the organization's purpose was to recruit and train chaplains and lay leaders to provide services to Jewish military personnel and their families. This subseries documents CJC's activities, with particular focus on World War II and beyond.

Over half the material found here comprises files on individual chaplains. These files consist mainly of application forms and photographs, as well as narrative reports and correspondence with CJC headquarters, and correspondence with soldiers and their families. This material provides an interesting look at the various activities undertaken by the chaplains during the Second World War, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War, as well as during times of peace. (Also included is a small amount of information on Jacob Frankel, a Jewish chaplain in the Civil War, and the files on Nathan Blechman and Elkan Voorsanger include documents pertaining to their activities during World War I.) Materials of note include the documents concerning David Goldberg, the first Jewish chaplain in the Navy;40 this file includes information on the navy chaplaincy insignia.

Also of interest is the file on Alexander Goode, posthumous recipient of the Distinguished Service Cross. Goode was one of the Four Chaplains who went down with the SS Dorchester on February 3, 1943. Further material on the Four Chaplains can be found in the General Files and in the Subject Files (in the Rabbis/Chaplains file.) The series contains sizable amounts of material on Aryeh Lev who served as director of CJC from 1945 to 1976 and Joseph Messing, director from 1982 to 1983. Large files also exist on several individuals, including: Benjamin Tintner (this material ranges from the 1920s to the 1950s and covers activities at West Point); Albert Lewin, whose file includes a chaplain's insignia pin; Oscar Lifshutz, the first Jewish Chaplain on combat duty in Korea and recipient of the Bronze Star and several other honors41; Judah Nadich (the first advisor to General Eisenhower on Jewish affairs in the European theater of operations42); and Henry Tavel, the first Jewish chaplain to receive the rank of Colonel in the U.S. Army.43 Also included is a file on Roland Gittelsohn, the first Jewish Chaplain appointed by the Marine Corps, who gave a famous memorial address at Iwo Jima. Material on chaplains' work with displaced people during and after WWII can be found in the files for Mayer Abramowitz, Max Braude, David Max Eichhorn, Herbert S. Eskin, Morris Frank, Herbert Friedman, Meyer J. Goldman, Joseph Miller, Harold Saperstein and Max Wall, among others. (Further material on this can be found in Subgroup III: Veterans' Affairs/Series A: Armed Forces and Veterans' Services/World War II Subject Files.) The series also includes a short run of incomplete chaplaincy applications.

The lay leaders files include applications, dating between 1969 and 1985, of individuals who supplemented the work of the chaplains and provided religious coverage in areas without chaplains.44 As with the Chaplains' files, these include small photographs which were submitted with the applications.

The staff and past members files provide information on staff members Joel Balsam (director of CJC, 1977-1978), David Max Eichhorn (director of CJC Field Operations, 1945-1968), Gilbert Kollin (director of CJC, 1979-1981) and A. Elihu Michelson (associate director of CJC, 1952-1975), while the Resource files include orientation materials for new personnel. Also of note are the prayer books, ranging from 1917 to 1956, the Journal of a U.S. Solder (in General Files) and, in Organizations: Military Organizations, the Veterans Administration material regarding a plan to eliminate the chaplains service, and the Military Installations files, which document activities at military bases both in the U.S. and overseas. The Organizations: Jewish Organizations Files provide background on the CJC's relationship with national Jewish agencies, while the Organizations: Military Organizations Files include information on CJC's interactions with the Army, Navy, and Air Force and include the blueprints for a Navy pennant and a 7-light candelabrum. (These are located in the Oversized Materials subgroup.)

Materials of note in the Subject files include (in Chaplaincy Statistics), lists of WWI chaplains and orthodox chaplains who served on extended active duty between 1861 and 1962, the booklet Brothers in Arms (in the Rabbis/Chaplains file), and the JWB-published book Responsa in Wartime (in the Committee Responsa in Wartime file.) Also included is material on the history of the Chaplaincy (in the History Project and Research Project files.) The War Records file includes material on the participation of Jews in the U.S. armed forces.

The series also includes a variety of photographs, located in the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup. These include a 1963 photograph of Chaplain Seymour Brickman with President John F. Kennedy and General Westmoreland and, also from 1963, a photograph of Former President Dwight D. Eisenhower with Chaplain Judah Nadich. A photograph of President Eisenhower with Chaplain Joshua Goldberg and other chaplains can also be found here.

39 JWB Jewish Chaplains Council/Chaplines on the Web, www.jcca.org/jwb/pastissues/winter99/frame2.html, January 20, 2004

40 Who's Who in American Jewry, vol. 3, 1938-1939, John Simons, ed. New York: National News Association, Inc., 1938. p. 340

41 Who's Who in World Jewry: A Biographical Dictionary of Outstanding Jews, Harry Schneiderman & Itzhak J. Carmin, eds, New York: Who's Who in World Jewry, Inc., in cooperation with Monde Publishers, Inc., 1955 p. 473

42 Who's Who in American Jewry, 1980 Edition, Incorporating the Directory of American Jewish Institutions, Los Angeles: Standard Who's Who, 1980, p. 351

43 Who's Who in World Jewry: A Biographical Dictionary of Outstanding Jews, Harry Schneiderman & I. J. Carmin Karpman, eds, New York: Who's Who in World Jewry, Inc., 1965, p. 983

44JWB Circle, February 1977. p. 4

Related Materials: Subgroup I: Governing Body/Series C: Central Records Center/Subseries 4: Holiday Files; Subgroup III: Veterans' Affairs/Series A: Armed Forces and Veterans' Services/War Claims, Subgroup III: Veterans' Affairs/Series A: Armed Forces and Veterans' Services/World War II Subject Files; Subgroup I: Governance/Series C: Central Records Center/Subseries 4: History Files; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series F: Administrative and Management Services/Subseries 4: Central Purchasing Services; Subgroup V: Audio-Visual Materials. Also I-249: National Jewish Welfare Board Military Chaplaincy Records.

Restrictions: The West Point documents (in Organizations: Military Organizations) are very fragile, as are the "Raishes Daas" book in Subject Files, and the High Holy Days and Sabbath Morning materials, in Publications. In addition, some documents in Chaplains, Chaplains Incomplete Applications, Lay Leaders, Military Installations, Overseas Installations, Organizations: Military Organizations, and Subject Files should be restricted. Boxes are marked accordingly.

Note: JWB Miscellaneous Box 15 is located at end of entire collection. The material relates to Subject files.

Series C: Women's Organizations' Services, 1930-1982; (bulk 1945-1982)

English, Hebrew and Yiddish.
19 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series is divided into two subseries: Women's Organizations' Services and Diane Coran files. Arranged alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The Women's Organizations' Services (WOS) Division was organized in 1942 (as the Women's Organizations' Division) to help maintain the morale of men and women in the Armed Forces, and of patients in Veterans' Administration hospitals. WOS was composed of several national Jewish organizations including Hadassah, the National Bureau of Federated Jewish Women's Organizations, the National Council of Jewish Women, the National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods, the National Women's League of the United Synagogue of America, the United Order True Sisters, and B'nai B'rith. WOS ran four main programs: Serve-a-Camp, which, through local committees, sent supplies to JWB-USO workers stationed at isolated camps and bases; Serve-a-Chaplain, which shipped supplies to chaplains overseas; Serve-an-Overseas Hospitality Center, and Serve-a-Hospital, which provided gifts to patients in veterans hospitals and Army and Navy general hospitals.45 All of these programs offered large quantities of Hanukah, Purim, and Passover items to soldiers and patients in veterans' hospitals.

This series documents the activities of the various organizations affiliated with WOS; these organizations raised money and collected goods-ranging from kosher food for Passover, to gifts for Chanukah and books for chaplains' libraries-for the chaplains, lay leaders, and Veterans' Administration Voluntary Service volunteers. Also included here are the files of Diana Bernstein Coran, who served as director of WOS beginning in 1957. These files consist of program materials for Chanukah, Passover, Purim, Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, and the Shabbat, and contain recipes, plays, meeting ideas, crafts, games, fund raising ideas, bibliographies and temple services in Hebrew and English. Meeting minutes and news clippings can also be found here, while some photographs are located in the Audio-Visual Materials Subgroup. Of particular note are a medal from walk-a-thon, mezuzah parchments, a vinyl record titled "Shabbat Sholom" (to be found in the Audio/Visual Materials subgroup) and a campfire girls poster. Also of note are "A Book of Jewish Thoughts" and "The Oppenheim Pictures."

45 JWB Today: A Guide and a Directory, Part I: Services Facilities Staff, New York: National Jewish Welfare Board, 1947, p. 24

Related Materials: Subgroup III: Veterans Affairs/Series B: Commission on Jewish Chaplaincy/Passover; Subgroup II: Jewish Community Centers/Series F: Administrative and Management Services/Subseries 4: Central Purchasing Services; Subgroup I: Governing Body/Series C: Central Records Center/Subseries 4: Holiday Files.

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Subgroup IV: Affiliated Organizations, undated, 1889-1979 (bulk 1930-1975)

The predominant language of the subgroup is English.
75 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This subgroup is divided into four series: Series A: National Affiliated Organizations, Series B: World Confederation of Jewish Community Centers, Series C: World Federation of YM & YWHA and JCC, and Series D: YMHA. Arrangement: Arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The Affiliated Organizations subgroup documents JWB's sponsorship and partnership of other national Jewish organizations, most notably are the YMHA, B'nai B'rith, American Jewish Historical Society, and World Federation of YM & YWHAs and JCCs. This subgroup reflects the difficulties faced by these organizations both during and after both World Wars. Also partly documented is the growth of the Jewish Center movement within the country and Canada. Material related to the affiliated organizations can also be found in the Jewish Community Center subgroup.

Series A: National Affiliated Organizations, 1915-1978 (bulk 1938-1950)

English and Yiddish.
6.5 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series has been arranged into the following categories: Various Organizations, AJHS, National Association of Jewish Center Workers, and NAJCW/Louis Kraft. Arranged alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The series National Affiliated Organizations reflects the relationship between JWB and the various organizations that allied themselves under the umbrella of JWB. With the exception of NAJCW, which came into existence because of the JWB, the other organizations were founded as individual groups to stand on their own merit. After WWI and WWII, however, many organizations had difficulty in obtaining the funds needed for day-to-day operations. These organizations chose to become affiliated with the JWB in order to receive some of the needed funds from JWB itself. JWB actively sought some of these organizations others contacted JWB themselves. "A Century of the Jewish Community Center Movement" states that:

"The National Association of Jewish Center Workers, founded in 1918... conducts annual conferences, publishes papers, stimulates research in various aspects of Center work and issues a quarterly magazine devoted to the professional interests of its membership."46

The records document the correspondence between JWB and the assorted organizations concerning the representation and membership issues involved with joining the larger organization. B'nai B'rith's material is a good example as to how the organizations functioned after joining JWB and the concerns that arose around the affiliation. Also highlighted is the relationship between JWB and its professional staff who belonged to NAJCW.

Of special interest are the materials relating to Jewish History Week, which was sponsored by the American Jewish Historical Society to promote the rich history of the Jews in America.

Types of documents include reports, lists, correspondence, budgets, memoranda, minutes, annual meeting programs, speeches, by-laws, photographs (located in Audio/Visual Subgroup), newspaper clippings, donation information, building plans (some are located in Oversized Materials Subgroup), radio play transcripts, promotional material, "NAJCW Newsletter", resolutions, personnel codes, committee findings, and a honor roll of Jewish Center Workers who served in the Armed Forces during WWII.

46 Kraft, Louis. A Century of the Jewish Community Center Movement. New York: Astoria Press, 1953

Series B: World Confederation of Jewish Community Centers (WCJCC), 1974-1979

English.
1 linear foot.
Arrangement:

Arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The WCJCC was founded in May 1977 in Jerusalem to succeed the World Federation of YM & YWHA and JCCs. The founding organizations include the JWB, Community Center Bureau of the Fonds Social Juif Unifie, European Association of Jewish Community Service, Argentine Federation of Maccabi Community Centers, Association for Jewish Youth of Great Britain, and Israel Federation of Community Centers. As indicated by their website, the objectives of the WCJCC are:

1. To encourage the development of Jewish Community Centers and enable them to enhance Jewish continuity, strengthen Jewish identification, further Jewish and Israel cultures and deepen Jewish knowledge and values in Jewish communities throughout the world.
2. To express and enrich the sense of unity between the Jewish people around the world and the people and State of Israel and to help build understanding and relationships among the Jewish people in the various lands.
3. To serve as a symbol of the common purposes shared by all Jewish Community Centers.
4. To serve as a council of national and continental federations of Jewish Community Centers and other interested bodies, committed to the work of Jewish Community Centers throughout the world.
5. To provide a forum and vehicle for exchange of information and to expedite communication among Jewish Community Centers in various lands.
6. To seek ways to aid directly the development and enrichment of Jewish Community Centers in Jewish communities not represented by a national or continental federation.47

The series consists of Morton Mandel and Herbert Millman's correspondence and subject files as Director and Executive Director of WCJCC. Of particular interest are the documents relating to WCJCC's conferences.

Types of documents include correspondence, memoranda, by-laws, and reports.

47 The World Confederation of Jewish Community Centers (WCJCC) - About Us, http://www.wcjcc.org/AboutUs.aspx

Series C: World Federation of YM & YWHAs and JCCs, 1927-1975 (bulk 1940-1970)

English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, and Italian.
46.5 linear feet.
Arrangement:

The series has been arranged into the following subseries: Alphabetical Files (1927-1966), Emanuel Berlatsky (1970-1973), Countries Overseas (1949-1960), Foreign Countries (1936-1966), Geographic Files (1946-1967), Jerusalem Y Building Fund (1948-1971), Jerusalem Y Maintenance Files (1948-1976, bulk 1950-1970), Jerusalem Y Contribution Correspondence (1952-1967), Jerusalem Y Subject Files (1949-1967, bulk 1955-1963), Meetings and Biennials (1952, 1956-1970, bulk 1949-1959), Bernard Resnikoff (1948-1974, bulk 1967-1970), Subject Files (1947-1973), and Asher Tarmon (1946-1975). Arranged alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The World Federation of YM & YWHA and JCCs was founded on January 1, 1947 by the JWB, National Council of YM & YWHA's of Canada, National YMHA's of Australia, and the Association for Jewish Youth of England. The Articles of Federation from 1961 state the objectives as:

1. Interchange of ideas and experiences and the provision of opportunities for effective cooperation between the national organizations.
2. The utilization of the machinery of the organization to foster the Jewish Center Movement in all countries where feasible and desirable.
3. Undertaking such other functions as may, from time to time, appear to the Federation likely to benefit its affiliated national member bodies.48

The World Fed was JWB's link to the JCCs and YMHAs around the world. The series contains the correspondence and reports exchanged by the affiliated organizations and JWB. It was also a critical player in the building and funding of the Jerusalem Y's new campus in 1967.

The Geographic Files document JWB's relationship with YMHAs, JCCS, and Jewish Youth Groups around the world and is similar to the Countries Overseas and Foreign Countries files. The documents of the Jerusalem Y follow its opening in 1950 to the dedication of the new building in 1967. Included are the blueprints of the new building, records of payments from fund raising efforts, and photographs of the plaques placed throughout the facility to recognize those who gave substantial amounts of money. The Meetings and Biennial material highlights the World Fed's part in JWB's Biennial Conventions and their own executive committee meetings. Asher Tarmon's files consist of reports and correspondence that mostly predate his directorship of World Fed and documents his role in Jewish educational programming and the building of the Jerusalem Y's new facility.

Of special interest are the materials relating to Louis Kraft, the dedication given by President Shazar at the opening of the new Jerusalem Y, addresses given by Ambassador Avraham Harman and his wife Zena in 1962 and 1963 on why the new Jerusalem Y building was needed, proposals by the government of Israel for the utilization of the funds accumulated under the informational media guaranty program, Association for Jewish Youth of England, and a 68 page report by Morris Levin on the Jerusalem Y found in the Countries Overseas files.

Types of material include correspondence, bulletins, reports, "Y's of the World", contribution information, biographical information, interview transcripts, contracts, maps (located in Oversized Materials Subgroup), a plaque, resumes, program materials, newspaper clippings, press releases, meeting minutes and agendas, memoranda, building plans (some are located in Oversized Subgroup), photographs (located in Audio/Visual Materials Subgroup), proceedings, prize ribbons, sound recordings (located in Audio/Visual Materials Subgroup), and a canvas apron from the Jerusalem Y.

48 Articles of Federation of "The World Federation of YMHA's and Jewish Community Centers." 1961, I-337 NJWB, American Jewish Historical Society.

Related Materials: Subgroup I: Governance/Series C: Central Records Center/Subseries 3: History Files; Subgroup I: Governance/Series D: Conventions and Committees/Subseries 1: Biennials; Subgroup II: JCC/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 3: Field Reports.

Restrictions: Several folders are restricted due to the fragility of their contents

Note: Miscellaneous box 16 is located at end of entire collection. The material relates to the Asher Tarmon Files.

Series D: YMHA, 1889-1968 (bulk 1930-1965)

English.
21 linear feet.
Arrangement:

This series is divided into the following subseries: Annual Meetings (1938-1944), Geographic Files (1935-1968) and YMHA Movement (1889-1944). Arranged chronologically and then alphabetically by state.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

The series highlights the planning and construction of new YMHAs and JCCs throughout the country and Canada and documents the growth of the JCC and YMHA movement throughout the country and Canada.

Of special interest is the story of the Grossman's family from Massachusetts who started the DIY home center with Grossman's (1956 Quincy, MA), The Associate a pamphlet from 1889-1890 devoted to the interests of the Philadelphia YMHA, and the bound minutes of the Pennsylvania Federation of YM & YWHA 1910-1940.

Types of material include annual meeting proceedings, correspondence, memoranda, newspaper clippings, building plans (located in Oversized Materials Subgroup) and reports.

Related Materials: Subgroup II: JCC/Series B: Field Services/Subseries 3: Field Reports and Subseries 6: Regional Area Files.

Restrictions: one folder is restricted due to the fragility of the contents.

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Subgroup V: Audio-Visual Materials, undated, 1913-1986 (bulk 1918-1982)

English, Hebrew and Yiddish.
28.5 linear feet (plus film cans and rolled photographs)
Arrangement:

Governance; Jewish Community Centers; Veterans' Affairs; Affiliated Organizations. See Photo Archivist for access to photographic materials. Audio-visual materials not yet available for research.

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This subgroup consists of photographs and other audio-visual materials removed from the earlier subgroups. In most cases, photographs were replaced with either photocopied images or separation sheets. However, in the processing of the Commission on Jewish Chaplaincy (CJC) files, in the Veterans' Affairs Subgroup a slightly different procedure was followed. (See note.) All photographs are notated to indicate their original locations; thus the researcher may examine any documents related to the image.

A wide variety of activities are captured here, ranging from conferences to religious services, from photographs of soldiers to photographs of swim meets. Photographs of the exteriors of JCCs, YM-YWHAs, and military bases from throughout the world can be found here, as can photographs of activities both in the United States and abroad. The wide range of activities which JCCs provided for members of all ages is well represented, as is JWB's involvement with prominent members of the public. Individuals pictured here include political figures such as Richard Nixon, Dwight David Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, Harry Truman, Eleanor Roosevelt and athletes such as the Harlem Globetrotters and Sid Gordon of the New York Giants. JWB's actions during the first and second world wars are strongly represented here by photographs of chaplains engaged in a wide range of activities, and by photographs of soldiers and veterans. Of particular note are some images of chaplains and soldiers with Concentration Camp survivors.

In addition to photographs, a variety of other audio-visual formats can be found here. These include VHS and BETA videotapes submitted by JCCs as contestants for JWB's Communications Awards, slides, negatives, filmstrips, and film reels.

Note on processing of CJC photographs: Photographs in the chaplains' and lay leaders' files were copied only when they were directly linked to documentation. However, in all cases when photographs were removed, a form was placed in the original folder, indicating that photographs have been removed and can be found at the end of the collection.

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Subgroup VI: Oversized Materials, undated, 1922-1985

English , Hebrew and Yiddish .
5 linear feet and 3 OS1 boxes.
Arrangement:

Governance (undated, 1939, 1951, 1958); Jewish Community Centers (undated, 1922-1957, 1961, 1963-1975, 1985); Veterans' Affairs (undated); Affiliated Organizations: World Federation of YM-YWHA and JCCs (undated, 1950) Miscellaneous (1950) (Arrangement mirrors layout of the first four subgroups.)

Scope and Content:

The complete folder list for the entire collection is found in this downloadable Excel file.

This subgroup consists of oversized materials removed from the other series. Materials of note include architectural plans and drawings for JCCs and YM-YWHAs throughout the U.S.A. and overseas. (These include plans for the Jerusalem Y.) Also located here are posters promoting events sponsored by the Lecture Bureau, several newspapers reporting on the 1972 flood of the Susquehanna River, and bound volumes of the JWB Circle. Other materials include maps, charts, blueprints, spreadsheets, certificates, and census tracts.

Related Materials: see Arrangement.

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