Guide to the Records of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York, undated, 1879-1972, 1995
 
*I-43

Reprocessed by Dan Ma and Marvin Rusinek (April 2008)

American Jewish Historical Society

Center for Jewish History

15 West 16th Street

New York, N.Y. 10011

Phone: (212) 294-6160

Fax: (212) 294-6161

Email: reference@ajhs.org

URL: http://www.ajhs.org

© 2014, American Jewish Historical Society, Boston, MA and New York, NY. All Rights Reserved.
Finding aid was encoded by Marvin Rusinek on May 20, 2008. Material added December 2014 to Box 22, Folder 3 and appropriate dates changed. Description is in English.

Descriptive Summary

Creator: Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society (New York, N.Y.)
Title: Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society (New York, N.Y.) records
Dates:undated, 1879-1972, 1995
Abstract: Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society founded in 1879, merged into The Jewish Child Care Association of New York in 1940. The collection includes administrative records consisting of annual reports, Board of Directors' annual reports and meeting minutes, a limited amount of committee reports, financial records, donation books, and property records. The collection also includes children admission and discharge ledgers, which date from 1898 to 1942, with gaps. Please note that children records dated after 1925 are restricted for privacy reasons. Additional material regarding orphan life is available through student publications and programs, alumni newsletters and programs, and HSGS promotional material. Affiliated organizational records include material on Fellowship House, an after care service; Foster Home Bureau, including newsletters recruiting foster parents and records of its Baby Department; and alumni associations. Of additional interest are dedications and speeches held during the inauguration of Pleasantville, child care study papers, histories, and material concerning the New York Federation for the Support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies merger.
Languages: The collection is in English.
Quantity: 16.25 linear feet (18 manuscript boxes, 1 ½ manuscript box, 2 [18.5 x 13.5"] oversized boxes, 2 [20 x 24"] oversized boxes, 1 oversized folder, 1 MAP folder)
Identification: I-43
Repository: American Jewish Historical Society
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Historical Note

On July 1st, 1912, five hundred children in grey uniforms marched down Broadway from the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York (HSGS) to Grand Central Station and boarded a train to Pleasantville, New York. Little did they know how their move from Manhattan to Pleasantville would affect their lives and that they had embarked on a journey that would help change the course of the American child-care system.

The history of the Jewish orphanage in New York City begins with the merger of the Hebrew Benevolent Society and German Hebrew Benevolent Society in 1860. The merger, undertaken partly in response to a public outcry against a forced conversion of an Italian Jewish boy named Edward Mortara, served as the foundation for the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum. Later known as the Hebrew Orphan Asylum of the City of New York, HOA became the largest Jewish orphanage in the United States. The surge of immigration from Eastern Europe produced social hardships such as congestion, poverty, disease, and family desertion in the Lower East Side. By 1878, HOA was forced to decline admissions from Brooklyn, which was then a separate city, leading to an emergency meeting for Jewish Brooklynites, who quickly established a Hebrew Orphan Asylum of the City of Brooklyn. HOA followed its restriction with a refusal to take children referred to them from the courts.1

In 1879, Priscilla Joachimsen, who had previously helped found the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews and the Ladies' Deborah Nursery, undertook to care for any Jewish child, orphaned or not, referred by the courts. The possibility that Jewish children might be transferred to Christian institutions led Mrs. Joachimsen, together with an all female board of managers and an all male advisory committee (headed by Mrs. Joachimsen's husband, Judge Philip Joachimsen), to form the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York. As Mrs. Joachimsen opening address which was printed in its entirety in the New York Herald states: "...Unless we take care of our children, they become lost to our religion...Our Holy Writ instructs us that when King Pharoah's daughter saved the infant Moses, recognizing him as a Jewish child, she immediately sent for a Jewish woman to nurse him. This is a lesson to us to this day, and we have to take care of and nurse the neglected and abandoned Jewish children because we are Jewesses."2

Ladies in charge of societies were generally held in mistrust in the late 1800s. An editorial from The Jewish Messenger states: "It is always a delicate matter to criticize the work of societies managed or controlled by ladies. They are sure to have the sympathies of the public before and after the criticism, and they are hard to convince of any error or extravagance in statement and management." As a result of such social norms, Mrs. Joachimsen and her Board of Ladies Managers were timid in fundraising. Much of HSGS fundraising came from private donations and annual fund raising benefits.

Soon after its opening, unanticipated waves of immigrants began arriving, leading the HSGS to quickly expand its facilities. The HSGS's first location was in a former city councilman's home at 57th Street and First Avenue with an enrollment of 164 children. Quickly purchasing an annex on the same street the HSGS then leased a third building in 1882 a few doors away to house girls and two to six year olds. In 1884, the girls and young children were moved to a mansion previously owned by John Jacob Astor on East 87th Street and Avenue A. The distance between these four buildings; 315 and 237 East 57th Street, 1st Avenue and 57th Street, and East 87th Street and Avenue A, led the HSGS in 1886 to lease the former home of the "Union Home and School for Children of Our Soldiers and Sailors," located at Grand Drive, Western Boulevard, and 150th and 151st Streets, reducing the total HSGS buildings to two. In 1891, a wing was added for the girls, and in 1894, this building was purchased. Enrollment at this time was approximately 700 residents.3

The HSGS accepted children referred to by the N.Y. City Court system, between the ages of two and thirteen. The majority of these children were committed to the court by the Department of Public Welfare, Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, and other agencies. Many of these children were not orphans, but had parents that could not support them. Once a child was committed to the court system, the City paid for their upkeep. In 1888, the HSGS was chartered as an orphan asylum, making it eligible for educational bonds for boarded out children.4

Like many Jewish orphan asylums, the HSGS wished to Americanize its immigrant children through public school and vocational education, and by raising them on the tenets of Reform Judaism versus the Orthodoxy of their parents. The HSGS's early child-care managing method was modeled after the Hebrew Orphan Asylum (HOA), the largest and highly praised Jewish child-care institution at the time, which was noted for its rigid monitorial structure with a strong emphasis on religious education. According to Michael Sharlitt, who entered HSGS in 1887, "Institutional care of children in 1887 may not have been too much removed in standards and atmosphere from the picture presented by Dickens in the Charity School of his Oliver Twist, though, of course, time made some improvement....Food costs must have been close to a daring minimum; and there was a significant reflection of this in the weirdly small stature of the boys who left the institution at the legal working age of fourteen years." The staff had no special training for childcare, and a policeman would search the parents for candy and goodies; "...It is painful to recall the humiliation suffered by surviving relatives....on the occasion of visiting days officially scheduled once in two months...a policeman...was to intercept visitors, particularly checking on the possibility of hidden food....I have never forgotten the figure of the officer at the front door, intercepting or frightening the sobbing women who came, frequently under difficulty, to visit their children." The public was permitted open visitation.5

The monotony of institutional life was broken by the existence of public school and a military band. The band gave concerts one evening a week and played at public events. Sharlitt writes; "a rare, pleasant break in the long week, the long year, was the band...." Equally anticipated was the daily walk and break provided by public school; "School meant everything to me. I disliked, as others must have, the long vacation which meant the monotony of the daily institutional regime, and I must confess that part of my pleasure came from the fact that I generally rated high with my teachers..." Sharlitt was the first boy to receive a Samuel Lewisohn scholarship, offered by Leonard Lewisohn through HSGS, which paid for his education at City College. Education for older children included college or vocation trade schools such as the Hebrew Technical Trade School, Woodbine Agricultural Trade School, and a sewing class for the girls.6

Medical care at HSGS evolved from six physicians rotating visits once a day to an attending physician and nurse. Chronic eye ailments occurred frequently, and in 1886 an epidemic of opthalmia and conjunctivitis spread due to poor hygienic practices. When over half of the residents in 1895 suffered from a scalp ringworm epidemic and the institution was quarantined, the New York Board of Health recommended a reorganizing of the medical department, which led to the creation of a consulting Medical Board of eight prominent physicians and a new attending physician, Dr. Sheffield. In 1902, another scalp ringworm epidemic affecting 450 children led to the creation of an onsite bacteriological lab. By 1903, the epidemic had been "eradicated" and in 1905, the work of attending physician Milton A. Gershel resulted in preventing the spread of three cases of diphtheria, scarlet fever, and typhoid fever.7

In 1893, upon the death of Mrs. Joachimsen, Morris Goodheart became the HSGS President, residing over the asylum for only three years. His replacement, Samuel Levy, was a lawyer who had served for several years on the board of the United Hebrew Charities. He was intent from the beginning on "individualizing" his residents. His visit to a cottage plan outside London at Barkenside led him to remark; "...you could see the radical change in the home life of the waifs and stray children, and how splendidly trades are taught..."8

In 1902, the Ladies Board of Managers was officially relegated to Honorary Directresses. As Levy states in the 1904 annual report; "It was only after the Board of Directors had been decimated by the relentless hand of death so that but a bare quorum survived, that a change of management was suggested." In 1901 Levy recruited Leonard Lewisohn, a copper industrialist, to serve as Treasurer, who collected $110,000 towards the cottage plan building fund. Unfortunately, Lewisohn died the same year, and his half brother Albert took over his office. In 1903, Lewisohn's brother Adolph joined the Board, and in the following year, with Samuel Levy now as Vice-President, Adolph became President. Levy was confident that with Adolph Lewisohn's following, "....in a short time the whole fund will be made up..."9

The coincidental retirement of Superintendent Louis Fauerbach in 1903 resulted in the appointment of Dr. Ludwig Bernstein, a language teacher from De Witt Clinton High School. Bernstein allowed the children time for "healthy and unrestrained play." He encouraged communication between a child and his parents, and worked to "make the child feel that he need not be ashamed to speak Yiddish to his parents..." He also introduced social and literary clubs for children, allowing them freedom of social interaction and self government. He abolished the monitoring system, replacing it with self governing Boys' and Girls' Republics in 1906, which was based upon a Junior Republic in Ithaca, NY. As Michael Sharlitt writes; "The Republics were a dramatic development, not altogether understood and possibly not appreciated at first by the children themselves, and their establishment was doubtless on of the earliest, if not the earliest, move to recognize the elementary citizenship of children in the sense of partnership in the family. For dependent children, it was a kind of enfranchisement." The Republics helped govern the institution, managed a savings bank, a coop store, and the library.10

Due to the full capacity of the three major Jewish orphanages in New York City, 750 Jewish children in 1904 were admitted to non-Christian institutions. In response, a joint committee controlled by five New York orphanages and child welfare agencies (HSGS, Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum, Hebrew Infant Asylum, United Hebrew Charities, Jewish Protectory, and the Brooklyn Hebrew Orphan Asylum) formed the Bureau of Boarding and Placing-Out Jewish Dependent Children in 1904. After the cooperative effort collapsed after one year, the HSGS took over the sole maintenance and support of the bureau, placing 650 children in foster homes and finding adoption families for forty children within two years. With over five hundred Jewish infants not provided for by the Jewish community Dr. Bernstein recommended "for very young children the private family method is not only as good as the congregate institution plan, but much better." By 1910, President Lewisohn wrote; "We are firmly convinced that for children up to six or seven years the private family home method is efficient and productive of better results that the congregate institution, so much so that we no longer admit children under seven years to our Orphan Asylum." These views coincided with the First White House Conference on the Care of Dependent Children, sponsored by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1909. The conference overwhelmingly favored home care over institutional life, and urged that if a home could not be saved, foster care be the preferred alternative.11

Nine years after former President Samuel Levy visited Barkenside, London, and with an accumulated building fund of over $670,000, the President's and staff's dream came to fruition, and in July 1912, five hundred children moved to Pleasantville, NY. In order to prepare children for the tasks of maintaining their own cottages, three hundred children were transferred from Grammar School No. 46 to a new school formed within the HSGS walls. Both boys and girls were trained in kosher cooking and cleaning, as well as introducing them to a new curriculum that differed from that of the American public school system. The curriculum combined academic, religious, and vocational education into nine years, versus twelve. In order to offset the Cottage mothers, most of the teachers were men. The school's Principal was none other than former alumni Michael Sharlitt. In 1915, the New York State Board of Education approved the schools nine year curriculum, the first of its kind in the State. The success of the cottage system depended upon staff selection. Teachers required university degrees, and cottage mothers were selected from "the very best and ...the very highest type of Jewish women..." After an intensive five week training course for the Cottage mothers, they met daily with the Superintendent and his staff, and met weekly as a Council with study advisory committees.12

Once in Pleasantville, 25-30 children shared each of the twenty-five cottage homes. In addition to the former Girls and Boys Republics, each cottage created a self-governing republic of its own. The cottage plan also introduced a Big Brother and Sister system, in which senior children were assigned to assist younger children's daily activities. Intercottage competition for cleanliness, scholarship, and personal appearance added incentives.13

The success of Pleasantville caught the attention of child welfare specialists from Europe and across America. Dr. Hastings H. Hart, Director of the Russell Sage Foundation, wrote on October 23, 1912; "it is undoubtedly the best equipped Institution for children in the world..." In 1915, Harvard University's Department of Social Ethics included photographs and charts of HSGS in an exhibit relating to child care agencies. Within five years after Pleasantville opened, three new cottage plans, in New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania were established based upon the HSGS' model.14

In 1913 Fellowship House, an after care service with counseling, vocational training, and job referral services, was established. In the late 1800s, early 1900s, aftercare services were provided by special donated funds: the Simon Fox Orphans' Fund, an insufficient trust that was allowed to stay in the bank to earn interest; the Samuel Lewisohn Scholarship, created by his father Leonard Lewisohn, to provide an orphan with advance education; and the Discharged Children's Fund, also founded by Lewisohn, which incorporated the moneys from the Simon Fox Orphans' Fund. Alumni also supported each other through their alumni associations, such as the Young Folks Fraternal League, the Leonard Lewisohn Club, and the Ardentes, which were formed in the early 1900s. In 1909, the HSGS pioneered the creation of an Aftercare Department, which was headed by Louis J. Cohen. Cohen conducted follow up visits and employment assistance, until the necessity of expanding the department let to the construction of a headquarters located at 202 West 124th Street in 1913. Alice Seligsberg, former Director of Social Activities, became the Department's head. The organization was soon renamed the Fellowship House and moved to larger facilities at 32 West 115th Street. Incorporating the Big Brothers and Sisters system, called the "Guild of Friends" as well as a House Senate, Fellowship House provided social, emotional, and job related support.15

A two month study of Fellowship House led by past orphan resident and former Cottage Mother Mary Boretz, found that one follow up visit per year was grossly inefficient. Mary Boretz was also concerned about separating contented foster children from their placements without warning or consultation, which occurred when beds were made available in Pleasantville. In 1918, Ms. Boretz became the new head of the Boarding and Placing-Out Bureau in 1918, renaming it the Home Bureau, where she changed the policy of transferring foster children to institutions, improved the education and attitudes of Foster mothers, recruited quality foster families, found homes for chronically ill children, and published a newsletter called the Homefinder.16

In 1922, Alice Seligsberg, former head of Fellowship House, became Executive Director of the new Jewish Children's Clearing Bureau, an umbrella organization of ten New York City child care agencies that took over the placement of children into institutions and boarding homes. Bernard writes; "For the first time there was enough staff and a large enough budget to permit a thorough investigation of applications and a careful study of each child's home-when there was a home-before reaching a decision for or against placement." During its first 18 months, the Clearing Bureau found alternative solutions for over 75% of its applicants that did not involve long-term placements.17

The developments of child psychology and social work etched their influence on New York State law in 1914, when Governor William Sulzer commissioned a committee to explore a widows' pension system that had already been instituted in several states. In March 1915, New York State passed the law almost unanimously, providing pensions for widowed mothers through the creation of county and city welfare boards. Although the law did not help families with unemployed fathers or unmarried mothers, its existence and the foster home trend began lowering the amount of children placed in institutions. The effect on HSGS, however; was not apparent. The number of children cared for by HSGS increased slightly from 904 in 1914 to 922 in 1917.18

Several factors led HSGS to experience financial setbacks beginning in 1916. World War I, depressions before and after the war, the competition for charitable funds to help overseas Jews, plus a polio epidemic in 1918 resulted in growing deficits. In October, 1917, the children and staff were urged to "economize as much as possible in sugar until the present famine is over." The long sought establishment of the Federation for the Support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies in New York City in 1917, which included twenty-four New York City and Bronx agencies and of which HOA and HSGS were charter members, undertook fundraising, and established standards for allocating money. As a result of the Federation's influence, the prized school at Pleasantville was now considered a luxury. Fortunately, the school remained by annexing to P.S. 62 in Manhattan. In protest over this change, Dr. Bernstein resigned. His replacement, Dr. Leon Goldrich, a previous New York City High School Principal, would lead the HSGS through the next twelve years.19

Among Dr. Goldrich's recommendations was "to take out of the institution....the sub-normal children and put them in the Boarding-Out Bureau." In order to carry out his plan, the HSGS hired a part time psychiatrist in 1920. The overall preference given to boarding out children led to a decrease in population of Pleasantville; in 1921 there were 500 residents. Ironically, in efforts to fill up cottages, the Board discussed admitting "cardiac children" and "crippled or blind" children "who were mentally normal."20

The population of orphanage residents was changing. Restrictive immigration laws, the first passed in 1921 and a quota act passed in 1924 that restricted immigrants of non-Nordic stock sharply decreased Jewish immigration. Nor was poverty an impetus for committing children to institutions. Residents in the 1920s were often second generation Americans, grown up amidst social, economic, and family issues pertaining to their parents' immigrant hardships. The Board repeatedly resolved to board as many of the HSGS charges as possible. Despite the Board voting to take on "free cases" and to keep "mentally defective children at all times separate from normal types," by October 1925 there were only 270 children at Pleasantville, and discussion focused on easing the deficit by reducing staff. The Board introduced the idea of using part of Pleasantville for "mentally defective children," stating "The Board doubtless knows that there is no Jewish institution of any size which today makes provision for mentally defective children."21

To create the first child psychiatric clinic in the country, the HSGS hired one psychologist, three psychiatrists, and two social workers. The Board relied on consulting doctors from Mt. Sinai, who installed Julia Goldman, a psychiatric nurse to conduct evaluations. In 1931, Dr. Goldrich resigned to accept the position of Director a Child Behavior Clinic that was being organized by the New York City Board of Education and Ms. Julia Goldman assumed the Executive Directorship. Among the changes Ms. Goldman introduced was vocational training for girls in the form of millinery and dental assistant work and a floriculture and agriculture training program that served as both a therapeutic outlet and provided produce for the institution; a helpful addition to help offset the years of the Depression. As aftercare services struggled to help unemployed graduates of orphanages, the admission of emotionally disturbed children also grew. German Jewish refugee children also were added to the child care system.22

Since 1926, the possibility of combining child care services with the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and other child care agencies was approached. Although negotiations for a merger were sporadically brought up through the 1930s, in 1940 the merger was finally realized and the HSGS officially combined with the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, Fellowship House, and the Jewish Children's Clearing Bureau, creating the New York Association for Jewish Children (later titled the Jewish Child Care Association).23

A few years after the merger, the HOA was sold to the city government and eventually demolished to make way for a public park. Pleasantville did not suffer the same fate, continuing to be used by the JCCA to accommodate emotional disturbed children with intensive counseling services. In 1972, the Pleasantville site added a Diagnostic Center, and in 1975 HOA's Edenwald program was also moved to the campus.24

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Scope and Content Note

The records of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York (Orphan Asylum) (HSGS) consist of administrative records, child records, and material on affiliated organizations.

The records are valuable for genealogists and alumni and for researchers studying reforms in the child welfare and foster care systems in New York State, progressive schools, the cottage system, origins of child psychology and social work, and Americanization of immigrants.

The administrative records contain annual reports, Board of Directors' annual reports and meeting minutes, a limited amount of committee reports, financial records, donation books, and property records. Genealogists and alumni will be interested in the children admission and discharge ledgers, which date from 1898 to 1942, with gaps. Please note that children records dated after 1925 are restricted for privacy reasons. Additional material regarding orphan life is available through student publications and programs, alumni newsletters and programs, and HSGS promotional material.

Affiliated organizational records include material on Fellowship House, an after care service; Foster Home Bureau, including newsletters recruiting foster parents and records of its Baby Department; and alumni associations. Of additional interest are dedications and speeches held during the inauguration of Pleasantville, child care study papers, histories, and material concerning the New York Federation for the Support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies merger.

Researchers are urged to refer to related collections held at the American Jewish Historical Society, in order to fill in gaps held in the collection.

The collection is organized into the following series: Series I: Administrative Records; Series II: Affiliated Associations; Series III: Correspondence; Series IV: Dedications/Speeches; Series V: Histories and Studies; Series VI: Photographs, and Series VII: Miscellaneous Items and News Clippings.

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Arrangement

The collection has been arranged into seven series as follows:

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Access and Use

Access Restrictions

The collection is open to all researchers by permission of the Director of Library and Archives of the American Jewish Historical Society, except items that are restricted due to their fragility.

Use Restrictions

Information concerning the literary rights may be obtained from the Executive Director of the American Jewish Historical Society. Users must apply in writing for permission to quote, reproduce or otherwise publish manuscript materials found in this collection. For more information contact:
American Jewish Historical Society, Center for Jewish History, 15 West 16th Street, New York, NY, 10011
email: reference@ajhs.org

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Related Material

Additional materials related to the Records of Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York (Orphan Asylum) can be found in following records and collections:

Brooklyn Hebrew Orphan Asylum Records, I-230
Hebrew Benevolent Society Records, I-258
Hebrew Infant Asylum Records, I-166
Hebrew Orphan Asylum of the City of New York, I-42
Home for Hebrew Infants Records, I-232
Hyman Bogen Collection of Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Seligman Solomon Society Memorabilia, P-767
The Industrial Removal Office Records, I-91
Jewish Child Care Association of New York Records, I-235
Jewish Children's Clearing Bureau, I-81
New York Association for Jewish Children Records, I-236

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Preferred Citation

Published citations should take the following form:
Identification of item, date (if known); Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society (New York, N.Y.) records; I-43; box number; folder number; American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY, and Boston, MA.

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Acquisition Information

The collection was donated in 1985 by the Jewish Child Care Association.

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Access Points

Click on a subject to search that term in the Center's catalog. Return to the Top of Page

Container List

The following section contains a detailed listing of the materials in the collection.

 

Series I: Administrative Records, undated, 1879-1942

English.
Boxes 1-17, OS1 Folder 1, MAP2 Folder.
Arrangement:

Arranged into eight subseries.

Scope and Content:

Series I contains administrative records, documenting the transformation of a traditional orphan asylum into the renowned cottage system. There are eight subseries to reflect the diverse sources of the documents: A) Annual reports, constitutions and by-laws, B) Board of Directors' annual reports and meeting minutes, C) Various committees' meeting minutes and departmental reports, D) Children's records, E) Financial records, F) Property records, G) Donation and subscription records, and H) Publications, student scholarship, and programs. Subseries D is further sub-divided into two sub-subseries: i. Children's admission and discharge records, ii. Student publications and programs.

Subseries A: Annual reports, constitutions and by-laws, 1882, 1898-1914

English.
Boxes 1-2, Folder 5.
Arrangement:

Alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Subseries A consists of HSGS annual reports, dating from 1898 to 1914. The annual presidential address highlights the overall performance of the institution and lays out improvement plans for the future. Also included in this series are HSGS constitutions and by-laws, stating the mission and organizational structure of the institution.

BoxFolderTitleDate
1 1 Annual Reports 1898-1900
1 2 Annual Reports 1898-1903
1 3 Annual Reports 1904-1905
1 4 Annual Reports (bound) 1905-1909
1 5 Annual Reports 1906-1907
BoxFolderTitleDate
2 1 Annual Reports 1907-1909
2 2 Annual Reports 1909-1913
2 3 By-Laws 1914
2 4 Certificate of Incorporation 1882, 1906
2 5 Supplemental Certificate of Increment of Number of Directors 1906

Subseries B: Board of Directors' annual reports and meeting minutes, etc., undated, 1879-1940

English.
Box 2, Folder 6 - Box 8, Folder 2.
Arrangement:

Alphabetically and chronologically

Scope and Content:

Subseries B consists of Board of Directors' annual reports and meeting minutes. Unlike HSGS annual reports that stressed the institutional performance and achievements, the Board of Directors' reports, mostly biennial, described the procedures to be followed by executive officers and the superintendent. The Board of Directors' meeting minutes document the process in which these procedures were formulated.

BoxFolderTitleDate
2 6 (Board of Directors') Annual Reports 1922, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1930, 1932, 1934, 1936
2 7 (Board of Directors') Annual Reports 1926, 1928, 1930
2 8 (Board of Directors' Annual) Miscellaneous Reports and Programs 1932, 1934, 1936
2 9 (Board of Directors' Annual reports) Printed Materials 1932, 1936-1938
2 10 (Board of Directors') Annual reports Printed Materials undated, 1932-1939
BoxFolderTitleDate
3 1 (Board of Directors') Annual Reports 1936, 1938
3 2 Board of Directors' Meeting Minutes (bound) 1879-1883
3 3 Board of Directors' Meeting Minutes (bound) 1883-1888
BoxFolderTitleDate
4 1 Board of Directors' Meeting Minutes (bound) 1889-1896
BoxFolderTitleDate
5 1 Board of Directors' Meeting Minutes (bound) 1896-1901
BoxFolderTitleDate
6 1 Board of Directors' Meeting Minutes (bound) 1901-1907
BoxFolderTitleDate
7 1 Board of Directors' Meeting Minutes (bound) 1907-1917
BoxFolderTitleDate
8 1 Board of Directors' Meeting Minutes (bound) 1917-1940
8 2 Board of Directors' Meeting Minutes 1918

Subseries C: Various committees' meeting minutes and departmental reports, undated, 1920-1930, 1936, 1938-1939

English.
Box 8, Folder 3-6.
Arrangement:

Alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Subseries C holds committee meeting minutes and reports, reflecting daily operations. These include Child Guidance Department reports, that summarized psychological services; the Home Study Committee meeting minutes, that located suitable foster homes; the Intake Committee Report, which dealt with children admission procedures and referrals to other Jewish child-care agencies; and staff memoranda from the Executive Director.

BoxFolderTitleDate
8 3 Child Guidance Department 1926, 1936
8 4 Home Study Committee (minutes) undated, 1938-1939
8 5 Intake Committee Report undated
8 6 Staff Memos 1920-1930

Subseries D: Children's records, undated, 1898, 1902, 1907-1942

English.
Boxes 9-14.
Arrangement:

Arranged into two subsubseries.

Scope and Content:

Subseries D will be of most interest to genealogists and is arranged into two subsubseries: i. Children's admission and discharge records, ii. Student publications and programs.

Subsubseries i. Children's admission and discharge records, 1898, 1907-1942

English.
Box 9-Box 13, Folder 3.
Arrangement:

Alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Subsubseries i contains children's official information, including children's application and discharge records. This information consists of detailed background and parental information. Owing to the sensitive nature of these records, records created after 1925 are restricted for access due to privacy reasons.

BoxFolderTitleDate
9 1 Admissions and Discharges (bound) 1908-1915
BoxFolderTitleDate
10(OS2) 1 Admissions and Discharges circa 1913-1919
BoxFolderTitleDate
11(OS3) 1 Admissions and Discharges, Pleasantville (bound) [records dated after 1925 are restricted for privacy reasons] 1917-1932
BoxFolderTitleDate
12(OS2) 1 Admissions and Discharges, Pleasantville (bound) [records dated after 1925 are restricted for privacy reasons] 1917-1942
BoxFolderTitleDate
13 1 Discharge Records (bound) 1907-1908
13 2 Discharge Records (bound) 1908-1910
13 3 List of Accepted Orphans, Commissioner of Public Charities 1898

Subsubseries ii. Student publications and programs, undated, 1902

English.
Box 13, Folders 4-5.
Arrangement:

Alphabetically and chronologically

Scope and Content:

Subsubseries ii consists of two folders. The first folder holds an early student publication entitled "Our Magazine", that reflected the children's lives, and the other contains a student performing program for a ballet performance of Sleeping Beauty.

[See also: Series II, Subseries B: Foster Home Bureau, and Subseries C: HSGS Alumni Associations and their Publications]

BoxFolderTitleDate
13 4 Our Magazine December 1902
13 5 Student (performing program) Production undated

Subseries E: Financial records, 1907-1912, 1920

English.
Box 14, Folders 1-2.
Arrangement:

Alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Subseries E contains two folders pertaining to financial records. The first folder holds a legal documents concerning mortgage payments of HSGS's original Broadway site and HSGS financial balance statements; the other folder contains an audit report of Lewisohn Democracy, the children's thrift account.

BoxFolderTitleDate
14 1 Financial Records 1907-1912
14 2 Lewisohn Democracy Audit 1920

Subseries F: Property records, 1886, 1900, 1905-1924, 1932

English.
Box 14, Folder 3-Box 15, OS1 Folder 1, MAP2 Folder.
Arrangement:

Alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Subseries F contains property related documents, including correspondence, mortgage records, maps, and blueprints of the Pleasantville cottage plan. These records reflect various stages of expansion and the gradual relocation process of moving HSGS from its Broadway site to Pleasantville.

BoxFolderTitleDate
14 3 Papers re Broadway Property 1886, 1900, 1905-1911, 1915
14 4 Papers re Broadway Property (Sale of Property) 1911-1913
14 5 Papers re Pleasantville Property 1907-April 1910
14 6 Papers re Pleasantville Property May 1910-December 1910
BoxFolderTitleDate
15 1 Papers re Pleasantville Property 1911
15 2 Papers re Pleasantville Property (see also OS1F Folder 1, Item 1) January 1912-March 1912
15 3 Papers re Pleasantville Property (see also MAP2 Folder 1 for blueprints) April 1912-July 1912
15 4 Papers re Pleasantville Property (see also MAP2 Folder 1 for blueprints) August 1912-December 1912
15 5 Papers re Pleasantville Property (see also MAP2 Folder 1 for blueprints) 1913-1924
15 6 Rental of Property for Intake 1913, 1932

Subseries G: Donation / Subscription records, 1884-1918

English.
Box 16-Box 17, Folder 2.
Arrangement:

Alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Subseries G contains donation and subscription records; including a bound volume listing members' contributions with their names; and two subscription records, one a bound volume, and the other a record of building fund subscribers.

BoxFolderTitleDate
16(OS3) 1 Donations (bound) 1884-1918
BoxFolderTitleDate
17 1 Subscription Book 1901
17 2 (Subscription record) Building Fund Subscribers 1901, 1912

Subseries H: Publications, scholarship, programs, etc., undated, 1918, 1921, 1929, 1932-1934, 1937, 1940

English.
Box 17, Folders 3-10.
Arrangement:

Alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Subseries H relates to HSGS official and promotional publications; the rules and agreements for an educational scholarship fund sponsored by Mr. Sigmund Mendelsohn and program pamphlets for a number of HSGS celebrations and events.

BoxFolderTitleDate
17 3 Guardian Mothers' "Society Carnival" 1929, 1932
17 4 (HSGS booklets) Promotional Material undated, 1932-1934
17 5 HSGS School Bulletin 1918
17 6 Junior League for Problem Children of Pleasantville Orphanage undated
17 7 Mendelsohn Scholarship Fund Agreement 1921
17 8 Program in Celebration of 80th Birthday Celebration (of Lewisohn and Seligsberg) 1929
17 9 (Program) Music Festival in memory of Lewisohn 1940
17 10 Silver Jubilee (bound) 1937
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Series II: Affiliated Associations, undated, 1908, 1912-1940, 1942, 1944, 1950-1962, 1964-1968, 1970, 1995

English.
Box 17, Folder 11-Box 23, Folder 3, OS1 Folders 2 and 3.
Arrangement:

Arranged into three subseries.

Scope and Content:

Series II documents the coordinated efforts of the institution, the children, and child-care professionals in transitioning discharged children. The series is divided into three subseries: A) Fellowship House, B) Foster Home Bureau, C) Alumni Associations and their Publications.

Subseries A: Fellowship House, undated, 1912-1940, 1953, 1957

English.
Box 17, Folder 11-Box 19, Folder 14, OS1 Folders 2 and 3.
Arrangement:

Alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Subseries A contains administrative records and committee reports pertaining to after care services provided by Fellowship House. These services included counseling, vocational training, and job referrals. Since its inception in 1912, Fellowship House has functioned as a separate entity, although most of the board members also served on the HSGS Executive Board.

The administrative records include Fellowship House's by-laws and incorporation papers; Executive Board meetings' minutes and reports; and committee reports that describe the benefits of after care services. Committee reports include those for the Follow-Up Department, Sylvan Stix Workshop that provided agricultural training in upstate New York; and Vocational Guidance Department reports, that summarize the training workshops and job referral services. Additional material includes alumni event programs, histories, and a study on finding homes for alumni.

BoxFolderTitleDate
17 11 Aboard Fellowship (see also OS1F Folder 1, Item 2) 1921-1922, 1925-1926, 1929
17 12 Alumni Drama Group Program 1937
17 13 Annual Reports 1913-1921
17 14 "At Home Week" 1914, 1918
BoxFolderTitleDate
18 1 (Board of Directors') Meeting Minutes (bound) 1912-1923
18 2 Board of Directors' Meeting Minutes 1913-1916, 1918
18 3 (Board of Directors') Meeting Minutes (bound) 1924-1940
18 4 By-Laws undated
18 5 Camp Fellowship Rules undated
18 6 Certificate of Incorporation 1914
18 7 Conference Notes 1914
BoxFolderTitleDate
19 1 Correspondence 1913-1918, 1920-1921, 1923-1924, 1926
19 2 Federated Employment Bureau 1917
19 3 Follow-Up Department (see also OS1F Folder 1, Item 3) 1916-1918
19 4 Histories undated, 1924, 1937
19 5 (Letter for) Junior Federation 1927
19 6 Fellowship House (Meeting) Report 1921
19 7 (Papers and) Reports presented to Board of Directors undated, 1930, 1934, 1938
19 8 Report on Employees 1939
19 9 Senate Meeting Minutes 1918
19 10 Silver Jubilee Program 1937
19 11 "Study on Homefinding Service at Fellowship House" undated
19 12 Sylvan Stix Workshop 1938, 1953, 1957
19 13 Vocational Guidance Department undated
19 14 Workshop Camp 1933, 1936

Subseries B: Foster Home Bureau, undated, 1920-1939, 1942

English.
Box 19, Folder 15-Box 21.
Arrangement:

Alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Originally called the Boarding Bureau, the Foster Home Bureau opened in 1905. The Bureau later expanded its services to include fostering children under five years old. In addition, the Bureau recruited foster parents and conducted home visits.

Subseries B contains anonymous baby records and reports; interviews with prospective foster mothers; staff manuals; reports from the Department of Public Welfare and from staff; and a monthly booklet called Homefinder that publicized the need for more foster homes.

[See also Series I, Subseries D: Children's Records]

BoxFolderTitleDate
19 15 Baby Department - Baby Records 1926-1929
19 16 Baby Department - Manual 1936
19 17 Baby Department - Report 1929-1935
BoxFolderTitleDate
20 1 Department of Public Welfare Report on FHB 1928
20 2 Homefinder 1922-1924
20 3 Homefinder 1925-1927
20 4 Homefinder 1928-1930
20 5 Homefinder 1931, 1933-1934, 1937, 1942
20 6 Homefinder (2 bound) 1922-1931
20 7 Interviews with prospective foster mothers 1938
20 8 Manual circa 1930
BoxFolderTitleDate
21 1 Meeting Minutes 1937
21 2 Properties 1928
21 3 Reports presented by staff undated, 1920-1928
21 4 Reports presented by staff undated, 1930s
21 5 Report submitted during merger considerations 1939

Subseries C: Alumni Associations and their Publications, undated, 1908, 1927, 1932-1940, 1944, 1950-1952, 1954-1956, 1958-1962, 1964-1968, 1970, 1995

English.
Box 22-Box 23, Folder 3.
Arrangement:

Alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Subseries C relates to several alumni associations, some of which were short-lived. The earliest documented association, called the Young Folks Fraternal League dates from 1908; a later Sheltering Guardian Alumni Society dates from 1927. The majority of the subseries relates to "Crows and Ravens," which was organized by Fellowship House President, Mr. Sylvan L. Stix during the Great Depression. These records include Crows and Ravens' monthly newsletters, annual journals, annual fundraising dinner programs, memos and correspondence, and World War II alumni records.

[See also Series I, Subseries D: Children's records]

BoxFolderTitleDate
22 1 Alumni Association undated, 1927, 1967
22 2 "Crows and Ravens": Bulletin 1938-1939, 1951, 1956, 1959, 1961, 1965-1972
22 3 (Crows and Ravens Bulletin) Publications 1938, 1944, 1954, 1959-1962, 1965-1966, 1968, 1970, 1995
22 4 "Crows and Ravens": Dance Programs (2 bound) 1932-1940
22 5 "Crows and Ravens": Dance Programs 1950, 1954, 1958
22 6 "Crows and Ravens": Dance Programs 1962, 1966, 1970
BoxFolderTitleDate
23 1 "Crows and Ravens": Memos and Correspondence undated, 1952, 1955, 1958-1961
23 2 (Crows and Ravens: War Services Cavalcade) Alumni serving during World War II 1944, 1964
23 3 Young Folks Fraternal League Journal 1908
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Series III: Correspondence, 1920, 1926

English.
Box 23, Folder 4.
Arrangement:

Consists of one folder.

Scope and Content:

The folder in Series III contains correspondence regarding milk orders and a handwritten letter to the graduation class of 1920 by Abner Cassen, the head teacher.

BoxFolderTitleDate
23 4 Pleasantville Correspondence 1920, 1926
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Series IV: Dedications / Speeches, 1911-1912

English.
Box 23, Folders 5-9.
Arrangement:

Alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Series IV relates to the inaugural ceremony of the Pleasantville Cottage in Westchester County, New York. The series includes invitation letters to HSGS members, Jewish community leaders, noted politicians, and the President of the United States; meeting minutes of the special event committee; and speeches delivered by honored guests.

BoxFolderTitleDate
23 5 Pleasantville Dedication (invitations and correspondence) 1912
23 6 Pleasantville Dedication Clippings 1912
23 7 Pleasantville Dedication Minutes and Correspondence 1911-1912
23 8 Pleasantville Dedication Speeches 1912
23 9 Presidential Address circa 1911
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Series V: Histories and Studies, undated, 1925-1937, 1939, 1954

English.
Box 23, Folders 10-12.
Arrangement:

Alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Series V includes historical sketches and child-care studies. The studies, focusing on aftercare, were primarily presented by Sarah Sussman, Executive Secretary of Fellowship House, at child-care conferences around the country. Significant in this series are records and reports concerning the New York Federation for the Support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies merger.

BoxFolderTitleDate
23 10 Histories (see also Alumni and Anniversary Publications) undated, 1932, 1954
23 11 Merger with NYAJC undated, 1937, 1939
23 12 Studies and Papers undated, 1925-1937
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Series VI: Photographs, undated

Box 23, Folder 13.
Arrangement:

Consists of one folder.

Scope and Content:

Series VI contains one folder, a photograph of unidentified HSGS children in a vocational training workshop.

[See also Series I, Subseries A: HSGS annual reports, constitutions and by-laws]

BoxFolderTitleDate
23 13 Photograph undated
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Series VII: Miscellaneous items and News Clippings, 1908, 1914

English.
Box 23, Folders 14-15.
Arrangement:

Alphabetically and chronologically.

Scope and Content:

Series VII consists of two folders. The first relates to legal case for injury compensation filed by a domestic helper. The other folder contains a news clipping of the first graduation ceremony in 1924 after HSGS moved to Pleasantville.

BoxFolderTitleDate
23 14 Anna Mutka vs. H.S.G.S. 1908
23 15 First Pleasantville Graduation Clippings 1914
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Separated Oversized Materials, undated, 1912, 1916, 1921-1922

English.
OS1F Folder 1, MAP2 Folder 1.
BoxFolderTitleDate
OS1F 1 Blueprint: Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society, Pleasantville, NY (separated from Box 15, Folder 2) undated
OS1F 1 Aboard Fellowship (separated from Box 17, Folder 11) June 1921, July 1922
OS1F 1 Some Activities of the Follow Up Department - Fellowship House (separated from Box 19, Folder 3) 1916
BoxFolderTitleDate
MAP2 1 Pleasantville Property (blueprints) (separated from Box 15, Folders 3-5) 1912
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